T. Abe's research while affiliated with University of Mississippi and other places

Publications (84)

Article
Background: The association of physical activity (PA) intensities and duration spent in those activities with different walking tasks remains unclear. Objectives: To examine the association between the duration of PA intensities and three walking speeds (usual walking speed, maximal walking speed and zig-zag walking speed). Design: Multiple li...
Article
The purpose of this study was to compare the acute muscular response with resistance exercise between the following conditions [labeled (% one-repetition maximum/% arterial occlusion pressure)]: high-load (70/0), very low-load (15/0), very low-load with moderate (15/40), and high (15/80) blood flow restriction pressures. Twenty-three participants c...
Article
There may be some individuals who do not adapt favorably to an exercise stimulus. This is most commonly determined by assessing the error of the measurement across two separate testing sessions separated by a short period of time. It has been recommended that this error be assessed over the same time frame as the intervention. We examined the 24-h...
Article
The purpose of this study was to determine acute physiological and perceptual responses to two commonly implemented blood flow restriction protocols. Using a within-subject design, 15 participants (age ∼25) performed four sets of unilateral elbow flexion with each arm. One arm exercised using a 3-cm elastic cuff inflated to 160 mmHg, whereas the ot...
Article
Objectives To examine the associations between absolute and relative handgrip strength (HGS) and physical performance. Methods A total of 135 old men aged 70-89 years had muscle thickness (MT) measured by ultrasound at anterior forearm (MT-ulna). Maximum voluntary HGS was measured for the dominant hand. Relative HGS was calculated as ratios of HGS...
Article
The literature suggests that the estimate of lean mass may be overestimated in the obese using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), as ~15% of adipose tissue is composed of fat-free tissue. The purpose of this study was to investigate how the DXA-derived fat-free adipose influences appendicular lean mass and prevalence of sarcopenia across a ran...
Article
It is unknown whether age-related site-specific muscle loss is associated with areal bone mineral density (aBMD) in older adults. To examine the relationships between aBMD and whole-body muscle thickness distribution, 97 healthy adults (46 women and 51 men) aged 50-78 years volunteered. Total and appendicular lean soft tissue mass, aBMD of the lumb...
Article
The aim was to compare the acute effects of work matched high intensity (75% peak aerobic capacity) aerobic exercise to low intensity (40% peak aerobic capacity) aerobic exercise with different degrees of blood flow restriction (BFR) [40% estimated arterial occlusion (40 BFR) and 60% estimated arterial occlusion (60 BFR)] on variables previously hy...
Article
Cycle training is widely performed as a major part of any exercise program seeking to improve aerobic capacity and cardiovascular health. However, the effect of cycle training on muscle size and strength gain still requires further insight, even though it is known that professional cyclists display larger muscle size compared to controls. Therefore...
Article
Before and after a follow-up period of two-years, six male master cyclists (mean age was 59 years at the start of the study, cycle training; 5-6 hrs/wk) had dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measured body composition (i.e., areal bone mineral density [aBMD] and appendicular lean soft tissue mass [aLM]) taken. aBMD at the femoral neck and lumber spin...
Article
Discrepancies exist whether blood flow restriction (BFR) exacerbates exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD). This study compared low-intensity eccentric contractions of the elbow flexors with and without BFR for changes in indirect markers of muscle damage. Nine untrained young men (18-26 y) performed low-intensity (30% 1RM) eccentric contractions (...
Article
Blood flow restriction (BFR) combined with low load resistance training has been shown to result in muscle hypertrophy similar to that observed with higher loads. However, not all studies have found BFR efficacious, possibly due to methodological differences. It is presently unclear whether there are differences between cuffs of similar size (5 cm)...
Article
Blood flow restriction (BFR) alone or in combination with exercise has been shown to result in favorable effects on skeletal muscle form and function. The pressure applied should be high enough to occlude venous return from the muscle but low enough to maintain arterial inflow into the muscle. The optimal pressure for beneficial effects on skeletal...
Article
Blood flow restriction (BFR) alone or in combination with exercise has been shown to result in muscle hypertrophy and strength gain across a variety of populations. Although there are numerous studies in the literature showing beneficial muscular effects following the application of BFR, questions have been raised over whether BFR may lead to or ev...
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Full-text available
Low-intensity resistance exercise with blood flow restriction (BFR) has been shown to induce a prominent increase in muscle activation in response to muscle fatigue. However, the magnitude of muscle fatigue between continuous (Con-BFR) and intermittent BFR (Int-BFR, BFR only during exercise) is currently unknown. We examined the effect of Con-BFR o...
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Aim: Aim of the study was to examine the relationship between whole body skeletal muscle mass (SMM) and powerlifting performance in elite powerlifters. Methods: Twenty elite male powerlifters, including 4 world champions, volunteered. Muscle thickness (MTH) and subcutaneous fat thickness (FTH) were measured by ultrasound at 9 sites on the anteri...
Article
The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential mechanisms behind the blood flow restriction (BFR) stimulus in the absence of exercise. Nine participants completed a 10 minute time control and then a BFR protocol. The protocol was five, 5-minute bouts of inflation with 3-minutes of deflation between each bout. The pressure was set relati...
Article
To remain independent and healthy, an important factor to consider is the maintenance of skeletal muscle mass. Inactivity leads to measurable changes in muscle and bone, reduces exercise capacity, impairs the immune system, and decreases the sensitivity to insulin. Therefore, maintaining physical activity is of great importance for skeletal muscle...
Article
Skeletal muscle hypertrophy and increases in muscular function have been observed following low intensity/load exercise with blood flow restriction (BFR). The mechanisms behind these effects are largely unknown, but have been hypothesized to include a metabolic accumulation induced increase in muscle activation, elevations in growth hormone, and im...
Article
The purpose of this study was to compare the peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) and lactate threshold / onset of blood lactate accumulation (LT/OBLA) during an incremental exercise test with and without blood flow restriction (BFR). Six male subjects performed a graded walking test on a treadmill with and without BFR in random order, and oxygen uptake (V...
Article
Venous blood flow restriction (VBFR) combined with low intensity resistance exercise (20-30% concentric 1-RM) has been observed to result in skeletal muscle hypertrophy, increased strength, and increased endurance. Knowledge of the mechanisms behind the benefits seen with VBFR is incomplete, but the benefits have traditionally been thought to occur...
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Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to investigate once-daily walk training with restricted leg blood flow (KAATSU) on thigh muscle size and strength. Twelve young men performed walk training: KAATSU-walk training (n=6) and control (no KAATSU-walk; n=6). Training was conducted once daily, 6 days per week, for 3 weeks. Treadmill walking (50 m/min) was per...
Article
The body composition of 36 professional Sumo wrestlers and 39 collegiate male students were assessed densitometrically. The means of body weight, BMI and %fat for Sumo wrestlers were 117.1 kg, 36.5 and 26.2%, extraordinarily large compared with untrained men (p < 0.001). Results of the analysis of variance of divisions of Sumo wrestlers revealed si...
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Full-text available
Traditional high-intensity resistance training performed 2-3 times per week induces muscle hypertrophy, at least, in 5 weeks (i.e. 10-15 training sessions). To examine the effect of a higher training frequency (12 sessions in 6 days), healthy young men performed low-intensity resistance training with (n=8, LIT-BFR) and without (n=8, LIT-CON) leg bl...
Article
The purpose of the present study was to examine the blood pressure and heart rate response to walking with and without blood flow restriction (KAATSU-walk) in the elderly. Seven active subjects (2 men, 5 women) aged between 64 to 78 years (mean age, 68.9 ± 6.3 years) performed walking test without (Control) and with KAATSU (cuff pressure 160 mmHg a...
Article
Low-intensity resistance exercise combined with blood flow restriction has been shown to elicit hormonal and neuromuscular responses similar to those with high-intensity resistance exercise. However, muscle fatigue characteristics during resistance exercise with restricted blood flow have not been clarified. Therefore, we measured maximal voluntary...
Article
The purpose of this study was to compare the characteristics of skeletal muscle (SM) mass and internal organ (liver and kidney) mass in resistance and/or high intensity trained collegiate athletes with nonathletes, and to examine the relationships between fat-free mass (FFM) and its major components of SM, liver mass, and kidney mass. Fifteen athle...
Article
Traditional high intensity resistance exercise programs have been shown to have positive effects on bone metabolism. KAATSU resistance training, which combines low intensity resistance exercise with vascular restriction, accelerates muscle hypertrophy, however, the benefits of this type of training on bone have not been established. PURPOSE: To inv...
Article
Skeletal muscle adapts to a progressive overload, but the response can vary between different modes and intensities of exercise. Generally, a minimal threshold intensity of 65% of the one repetition maximum (1-RM) is needed to elicit muscle hypertrophy; however, recent studies have challenged this hypothesis and have provided evidence that low-inte...
Article
Seven hundred and eleven women and men (aged 3-94 years, including normal individuals and highly trained bodybuilders) were tested for the thickness and pennation angles of their triceps brachii (TB), vastus lateralis (VL), and gastrocnemius medialis (GM) muscles. The variations of muscle thickness and pennation angles were largest in TB (6-66 mm a...
Article
The efficacy of KAATSU training has been demonstrated in human athletes, both as a therapeutic method as well as a training aid. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of slow walk training combined with restriction of muscle blood flow (KAATSU) on muscle and tendon size. Six healthy, unfit Standardbred mares performed walking (24...
Article
In order to produce significant muscle hypertrophy, a training intensity of greater than 65% of the 1-repetition maximum (1-RM) is generally believed to be required. However, this concept has been challenged recently by data from studies that have combined 20%-50% 1-RM with restriction of venous blood flow from the working muscle, referred to as KA...
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Full-text available
Generally, a threshold intensity of 65% 1-RM will induce muscle hypertrophy; however, recent studies using low-intensity (20% 1-RM) exercise combined with vascular restriction (KAATSU) have demonstrated increases in muscle size and strength. PURPOSE: To investigate the EMG and MMG responses, and percent voluntary activation (PVA) of the vastus late...
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The purpose of this study was to compare the EMG activity of blood flow restricted (limb) and nonrestricted (trunk) muscles during multi-joint exercise with and without KAATSU. Twelve (6 women and 6 men) healthy college students [means (SD) age: 24.1 (3.5) yrs] performed 4 sets (30, 15, 15, and 15 reps) of flat bench press exercise (30% of a predet...
Article
The application of an orthostatic stress such as lower body negative pressure (LBNP) during exercise has been proposed to minimize the effects of weightlessness on the cardiovascular system and subsequently to reduce the cardiovascular deconditioning. The KAATSU training is a novel method for strength training to induce muscle strength and hypertro...
Article
This study aimed to investigate the muscularity of strength-trained junior athletes. Muscle thickness (Mt) values at 10 sites (anterior forearm, anterior upper arm, posterior upper arm, chest, abdomen, back, anterior thigh, posterior thigh, anterior lower leg, and posterior lower leg) were determined in junior Olympic weight lifters (OWL, n=7, 15.1...
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Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of low-intensity (20% of 1-RM) resistance training (LIT) combined with restriction of muscular venous blood flow (KAATSU) on muscle fiber size using a biopsy sample. Three young men performed LIT-KAATSU (restriction pressure 160-240 mmHg), and two young men performed LIT alone. Training was conduc...
Article
The gold standard for assessing muscle size (cross-sectional area and volume) has been magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computerized tomography (CT), however, these processes are very expensive and generally require a medical facility, and in the case of CT, can involve exposure to high levels of radiation. The advent of B-mode ultrasound, in c...
Article
The purpose of this study was to examine the daily skeletal muscle hypertrophic and strength responses to one week of twice daily KAATSU training, and follow indicators of muscle damage and inflammation on a day-to-day basis, for one subject. KAATSU training resulted in a 3.1% increase in muscle-bone CSA after 7 days of training. Both MRI-measured...
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This study investigated the effects of twice daily sessions of low-intensity resistance training (LIT, 20% of 1-RM) with restriction of muscular venous blood flow (namely "LIT-Kaatsu" training) for two weeks on skeletal muscle size and circulating insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). Nine young men performed LIT-Kaatsu and seven men performed LIT...
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of short-term KAATSU-resistance training on skeletal muscle size and sprint/jump performance in college athletes. Fifteen male track and field college athletes were randomly divided into two groups: KAATSU (resistive exercise combined with blood flow restriction, n=9) and control (n=6) groups...
Article
The present study aims to investigate the growth trends of dynamic torque during adolescence through a 2-year follow-up survey. Concentric torque during elbow flexions and knee extensions at 3 constant velocities (1.05, 3.14, and 5.24 rad x sec(-1)) were determined year-by-year, i.e., 3 times (T1, T2, and T3), using an isokinetic dynamometer in 10...
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To examine the absolute and relative changes in skeletal muscle (SM) size using whole body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in response to heavy resistance training (RT). Three young men trained three days a week for 16 weeks. MRI measured total SM mass and fat free mass (FFM) had increased by 4.2 kg and 2.6 kg respectively after resistance trainin...
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To determine sex differences in the distribution of regional and total skeletal muscle (SM) using contiguous whole body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data, and to examine the relations between fat free mass (FFM) and total and regional SM masses. A total of 20 Japanese college students (10 women and 10 men) volunteered for the study. FFM was mea...
Article
Locomotion requires skeletal muscle to sustain and generate force. A muscle's force potential is proportional to its weight. Since the larger the muscle the larger its potential power output, a better understanding of the proportion of skeletal muscle a horse possesses may lead to a better understanding of horse performance. Several techniques exis...
Article
It has long been known that body mass and, more specifically, lean body mass are strongly correlated with maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) in man and animals. However, there are no data to date describing this phenomenon in the horse. The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between body composition and VO2max in the horse. Twenty-thr...
Article
The purpose of the present study was to investigate race differences in viscoelastic characteristics of triceps surae muscle group. Black and white college sprint type athletes (n=44) participated in this study. Viscoelastic properties were assessed using the free vibration technique: subjects sat with their forefeet on the edge of a force-plate (K...
Article
This study examined whether body composition was predictive of competitive success in elite standardbreds (STB). Rump fat and muscle thickness (MTH) (vastus lateralis/intermedius [VL], extensor carpi radialis [ECR]) were measured in vivo in male n=6; female n=8 by B-mode ultrasound. Percentage body fat (%fat) was calculated from rump fat. There wer...
Article
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether architectural characteristics of skeletal muscle differ by race. Methods: Skeletal muscle architectural characteristics and body composition were studied in 13 black and 31 white male college football players. Fat-free mass (FFM) and percentage body fat (% fat) were determined by hydrostat...
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Full-text available
Using ultrasound, muscle thickness and fascicle angles from aponeurosis were evaluated before, during and after 20 days bed rest (BR). Subjects were healthy adults (4 women and 4 men). Measurements were carried out before and after BR and after 10 weeks of recovery, respectively. Muscle measurements were taken at nine sites in trunk and upper and l...
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Full-text available
To examine the effects of aging and physical activity on distribution patterns in subcutaneous and visceral fat. Distributions of subcutaneous rat mass at six segments (face and neck, forearm, upper arm, trunk, thigh, and lower leg) were determined by adipose tissue thickness measurements by B mode ultrasonogram and body surface areas. Visceral fat...
Article
The ac losses are investigated on the Ag‐sheathed (Bi,Pb)2Sr2Ca2Cu3Ox superconducting wires in the rod and tape forms through an ac transport method and an ac magnetic method at 77 K. Experimental results show that the ac losses at 50 Hz for both rod and tape samples are mainly dominated by the hysteresis loss independent of the measuring method. H...
Article
The alternating‐current (ac) losses in the Ag‐sheathed (Bi,Pb)2Sr2Ca2Cu3Ox multifilamentary tapes with the filament number equal to 7, 19, 37, and 61 are investigated through an inductive method at 77 K under ac magnetic fields with the frequency 50 Hz≤f ≤700 Hz and the field amplitude 2 mT≤B0≤50 mT, and the results are compared with those for a mo...
Chapter
The AC losses of the Ag-sheathed (Bi,Pb)2Sr2Ca2Cu3Ox superconducting wires in the tape or rod forms are evaluated under AC transport current or AC magnetic field at 77K. The losses for the rod measured by two different methods agree with each other and the magnetic field dependence is explained by the Bean model. However, in case of the tape, the l...
Chapter
Multi-filamentary tape is expected to improve bending strain tolerance and decrease AC loss as compared to mono-core tape. We evaluated the above mentioned properties for mono-, 7, 19, 37 and 61-filamentary tapes. Both measurements were carried out at liquid nitrogen temperature. For the tapes with a filament number of over 19, the critical current...
Article
The AC losses of the Ag-sheathed (Bi,Pb)2Sr2Ca2Cu3Ox superconducting wires in the tape or rod forms are evaluated at 77K. The AC losses for the tape are dominated by the hysteresis loss and those for the rod are expressed as a sum of the hysteresis loss and the eddy current loss.
Article
The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of dietary administration and aerobic exercise on visceral fat mass and subcutaneous fat distributions. Nineteen moderate obese young women participated and carried out aerobic exercise training for 13 weeks. During the training period, participants controlled their diet for themselve...