Syun-Ichi Akasofu's research while affiliated with University of Alaska Fairbanks and other places

Publications (133)

Preprint
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Owing to the ever-present solar wind, our vast solar system is full of plasmas. The turbulent solar wind, together with sporadic solar eruptions, introduces various space plasma processes and phenomena in the solar atmosphere all the way to the Earth's ionosphere and atmosphere and outward to interact with the interstellar media to form the heliopa...
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All of us encounter our unique difficulties as scientists. Although the kind of difficulty varies by scientist, I describe my own in this program, and explain how I responded, together with a sort of moral. They are: (a) When theorists seemed to encounter a deadlock, (b) When a well-accepted theory is confronted with a seriously contradictory obser...
Article
Space physics is one of the rapidly developing scientific fields, covering space from the sun to a distance of about 100 times between the sun and the earth, the region called the heliosphere. It includes parts of solar physics, geomagnetism (a study of geomagnetic storms), ionospheric physics, auroral physics, cosmic ray physics and planetary phys...
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Difficulties of proposing a new idea against a standstill or stagnated paradigm are described. In order to achieve a breakthrough or paradigm change, one requires a creative data assembly, the sense of timing, confidence, courage, patience, endurance and even a wit. A few suggestions are made to overcome the difficulties.
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The cause of the solar wind is sought on a large‐scale (J × B) force resulting from the solar unipolar induction current, rather than coronal heating and small‐scale processes in the corona. In this paper, we consider the unipolar induction system considered by Alfven (1981, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-8374-8) the polar current (1.5 × 10⁹ A)...
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A paradigm transition or change is essential in the development of science. During the transition, there are intense debates and controversies among scientists. In this paper, we attempt to analyze controversies in four levels and also three types of researchers.
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A morphological examination of the Kitt Peak photospheric magnetic maps has been made over three sunspot cycles in order to study the morphology of unipolar magnetic regions and sunspots. Unipolar magnetic regions (positive and negative) are a series of weak, large-scale longitudinal bands, extending from 0°to 60° in latitude and alternatively alig...
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The progress of space physics is reviewed from my personal point of view, particularly how I have reached my present understanding of auroral substorms and geomagnetic storms from the time of the earliest days of space physics. This review is somewhat unique in two ways. First of all, instead of taking the magnetic field line approach (including ma...
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This paper describes a short story of how I learned in early days in space physics (1960–1970) that there are the direct and feed-back relationships between geomagnetic storms and auroral/magnetospheric substorms. In those days, both geomagnetic storms and auroral substorms were almost independent subjects. It is now understood that auroral substor...
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In any scientific field, there is always a possibility, in which a particular theory dominates for many years. In this paper, the theory of magnetic reconnection in solar physics and auroral physics is reviewed as an example. It has prevailed for more than a half century in both fields as the “only one” without a concrete progress in understanding...
Article
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Auroral substorms and solar flares are basically various manifestations of electromagnetic energy dissipation processes, so it is useful to consider both phenomena in terms of a chain of processes, consisting of power supply (dynamo), transmission (currents/circuits), and dissipation (auroral substorms, solar flares), the electric current approach....
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Both auroral substorms and solar flares have explosive nature. Since both are mostly various manifestations of electromagnetic energy dissipation processes, it is basic to consider both phenomena as a chain of electromagnetic processes, which consists of a dynamo process as the power supply, power transmission and manifestations of dissipative proc...
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The aurora shows explosive activities a few times in 24 h on a moderately active day. This specific phenomenon is called the auroral substorm, which consists of the growth, expansion, and recovery phases; the explosive activities occur during the expansion phase. As an introduction, the explosive activities of the aurora are morphologically describ...
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At the present time, there is no quantitative way to predict not only the onset time of solar flares, but also their intensity. In the past, most solar flare prediction studies have searched for various precursors of the onset of flares. In this paper, we consider a new and quantitative approach to predict the onset of the explosive process of sola...
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Auroral substorms are mostly manifestations of dissipative processes of electromagnetic energy. Thus, we consider a sequence of processes consisting of the power supply (dynamo), transmission (currents/circuits) and dissipations (auroral substorms-the end product), namely the electric current line approach. This work confirms quantitatively that af...
Article
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The sequence of phenomena consisting of solar flares, coronal mass ejections (CMEs), auroral substorms, and geomagnetic storms is mostly a manifestation of electromagnetic energy dissipation. Thus, first of all, it is natural to consider each of them in terms of a sequence of power supply (dynamo), power transmission (electric currents/circuits), a...
Article
It is suggested that the magnetosphere tries to stabilize itself by quickly unloading the magnetic energy accumulated within its main body, when the accumulated magnetic energy exceeds a limited amount, which can be identified as the energy for the expansion phase. It is this process which manifests as the impulsive expansion phase, during which au...
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During the last 50 years, we have made much progress in studying auroral substorms (consisting of the growth phase, the expansion phase, and the recovery phase). In particular, we have quantitatively learned about auroral substorms in terms of the global energy input–output relationship. (i) What powers auroral substorms? (ii) Why is there a long d...
Article
Sunspot pairs develop in connection with cell networks at or near the boundaries of positive and negative unipolar magnetic (UM) field regions [McIntosh, 1981]. In this paper, we confirm his findings by recent data. In this connection, Svalgaard and Wilocox [1976] found also that solar activities occur only at one side of UM boundaries, called the...
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The spectacular auroras that circle Earth's geomagnetic poles and burst with colorful displays during geomagnetic storms have mystified humanity for millennia. Now scientists are uncovering their secrets.
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Shifting the presently used baselines of temperature changes during the last 440,000 years to about the lowest recorded temperature (+5 °C) as the baseline, a somewhat different view of climate change during the four Ice Ages emerges. Unlike the presently used baselines, the lowest temperature baseline is sort of the “absolute” one, in the sense th...
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[1] Characteristics of the ionospheric current system (the directly driven (DD) / unloading (UL) currents) and the power ε during auroral substorms are examined semiquantitatively in terms of input-output relationship. The study confirms (a) The magnetic energy for the expansion phase is accumulated with the rate of a little more than 1018 erg/s du...
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The rise in global average temperature over the last century has halted since roughly the year 2000, despite the fact that the release of CO2 into the atmosphere is still increasing. It is suggested here that this interruption has been caused by the suspension of the near linear (+ 0.5 °C/100 years or 0.05 °C/10 years) temperature increase over the...
Article
The concept of geomagnetic storm-producing solar plasma flows has evolved and advanced considerably over the last 100 years or so. This particular field of study began in an effort to understand geomagnetic disturbances and the aurora. The purpose of this paper is try to follow the ways in which early concepts evolved to later ones, not to review e...
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Sydney Chapman (1888--1970) was arguably one of the greatest scientists of the twentieth century. His comprehensive work on the kinetic theory of gases and solar-terrestrial physics, as well as on the mechanisms behind the formation of Earth's ozone layer, has inspired a wide swath of research spanning several generations [Van Allen, 1970]. Chapman...
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Auroral features at about the onset time of substorms are revisited to emphasize their importance in considering substorm onset processes. This study is based on all-sky camera photographs and meridian scanning photometer records from a single station. First, in considering substorm onset processes, it is crucial to pay attention to the implication...
Article
The general-type solution of the equation [curl(curl H x H)] = 0 are studied in the cylindrical systems, according to Lundquist's and Chandrasekhar's methods. In general, the magnetic fields are of helicoidal type in the cylindrical systems. Several examples are studied in the cosmical fields.
Article
The study of scientific advancement is the study of evolving thought. Disciplines progress as old prevailing theoretical ideas are toppled by new ones, one after another. Provided that new ideas can be independently verified, scientists at any level can greatly contribute to their field. Though space weather is a young field, it has been riddled wi...
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A number of published papers and openly avail-able data on sea level changes, glacier retreat, freezing/break-up dates of rivers, sea ice retreat, tree-ring observations, ice cores and changes of the cosmic-ray intensity, from the year 1000 to the present, are studied to examine how the Earth has recovered from the Little Ice Age (LIA). We learn th...
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We present a common scenario of double magnetic reconnection for both substorms and flares based on previous interplanetary observations and substorm-triggering results. Central to the scenario is that the first magnetic reconnection process is the source of energy loading for possible substorms and flares. The energy placed in the magnetotail or m...
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There have been many popular books on the aurora that include beautiful photographs with lyrical descriptions. Aurora by Neil Bone is different from other popular books in that it describes not only the aurora but also various sky phenomena, including noctilucent clouds, halos, and meteors.
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Scientists and the general public alike encounter scientific terms such as climate change, global warming, greenhouse effect, and carbon dioxide a few times every day in newspapers, radio broadcasts, and television news, as well as in conversation. This is perhaps the first time in the history of science that a scientific issue has gotten so much a...
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One of the purposes of space weather research is to predict when and how the electromagnetic environment around the Earth will be disturbed after specific (solar storms,) which are defined here as various transient solar phenomena that occur at the time of solar flares [Akasofu and Chapman, 1972]. Accurate space weather predictions require an integ...
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This paper is not intended for firm believers of magnetic reconnection. It calls for attention of the young generation to the following facts: (1) there are a number of unsolved problems such as sunspots, solar flares, and magnetospheric substorms in spite of almost 50 years of effort; (2) one of the reasons for this failure to solve them may be be...
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In a scientific discipline, it is common to deal with a system that consists of many elements or subsystems. Most of us engage in the study of system components and their elements by dividing and subdividing them, leading to the trend of infinite specialization. However, at a certain point during the course of the development of a scientific discip...
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Climatic changes in the Northern Hemisphere have led to remarkable environmental changes in the Arctic Ocean, including significant shrinking of sea-ice cover in summer, increased time between sea-ice break-up and freeze-up, and Arctic surface water freshening and warming associated with melting sea-ice, thawing permafrost, and increased runoff [Ca...
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1] Auroral electrons are field-aligned current carriers and thus changes of their flux are related to the magnetospheric substorm current systems. Therefore a study of processes associated with substorms can provide insight into a source of auroral electrons. This paper attempts to identify basic processes associated with substorm onset by synthesi...
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My article was not intended to be a history of magnetospheric research and magnetic storm study; in fact, I do not wish to be a historian. The purpose of my article was to point out only the very root of the Chapman-Alfvén controversy at its outset. I concluded that it was a confrontation of a rigorous mathematical physicist versus an inspirational...
Article
The study of solar-terrestrial relationship has developed into four major disciplines: solar physics, interplanetary physics, magnetospheric physics, and ionospheric physics (aeronomy). Researchers have made considerable progress within each field of study during the twentieth century. It is pointed out, however, that many major problems in advanci...
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Prominent changes of the Arctic atmosphere-ice-ocean system observed in recent years have sparked intense discussions as to whether these changes represent episodic events or long-term shifts in the Arctic environment. In the past, the lack of long-term observations in the Arctic made it difficult to explore this issue. Although the length of avail...
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It is shown that solar flares and magnetospheric substorms must primarily be caused by a dynamo process, rather than magnetic reconnection – a spontaneous, explosive annihilation of magnetic energy stored prior to the onset. Magnetic energy in the vicinity of solar flares and in the magnetotail shows often an increase at their onset, not a decrease...
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One of the important purposes of the discipline of geomagnetism is to determine how the electric current systems that cause geomagnetic disturbances develop and understand their driving processes, in terms of the solar wind-magnetosphere interaction. Researchers in geomagnetism have made important progress by combining ground-based and satellite-ba...
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I very much appreciate the comments made by Frey on my article and agree with his point that emissions from molecular oxygen are better candidates for the detection of life on any extraterrestrial planet.Indeed, it would be great if auroral science could contribute to the science of searching for extraterrestrial life. I propose that researchers in...
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A critical review of past efforts in space physics underscores the importance of incorporating three important concepts in developing a strategy for progress during the next decade. These three approaches are suggested in an effort to study the magnetosphere and geospace environment generally as a vast three-dimensional system.The discipline of spa...
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There is little doubt that magnetograms recorded on the campus of the University of Alaska Fairbanks from the 1940s on are the most widely used magnetograms in the world. What made their wide use possible was the fact that any researcher who wanted these ``college magnetograms'' on any specific day or for any specific period could invariably get th...
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EUV images from emissions of O(superscript +) (83.4 nm) and He(superscript +) (30.4 nm) distributions in the plasmasphere and trough regions are constructed for a satellite at 9 R(subscript E). A diffusive equilibrium model is used to describe the density distribution along field lines for ions in the plasmasphere while a kinetic collisionless mode...
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EUV images from emissions of O+ (83.4 nm) and He+ (30.4 nm) distributions in the plasmasphere and trough regions are constructed for a satellite at 9 RE. A diffusive equilibrium model is used to describe the density distribution along field lines for ions in the plasmasphere while a kinetic collisionless model is assumed to calculate ion densities...
Article
The aurora is the luminous emission of atoms and molecules in the polar upper atmosphere that appears as permanent, ringshaped belts called the auroral oval around the north and south geomagnetic poles (see Figure 1). It is associated with a global electrical discharge process that requires about 1 million MW or more. In fact, electric currents of...
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The solar wind-magnetosphere coupling problem is investigated for the ten intense magnetic storms (Dst >-100 nT) that occurred during the 500 days (August 16, 1978 to December 28, 1979) studied by Gonzalez and Tsurutani (1987). This investigation concentrates on the ring current energization in terms of solar wind parameters, in order to explain th...
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The solar sources of interplanetary southward Bz events responsible for major magnetic storms observed in the August 1978-December 1979 period were studied using a full complement of solar wind plasma and field data from ISEE 3. It was found that, of the ten major storms observed, seven were initiated by active region flares, and three were associa...
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The origins of the interplanetary southward B/sub z/ which cause the 10 major (D/sub s//sub t/<-100 nT) magnetic storms detected during the 500 days of study (August 16, 1978, to December 28, 1979) of the Gonzalez and Tsurutani (1987) work are examined in detail. A full complement of ISEE 3 plasma and field data, an 11-station AE index and the near...
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The Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, Fairbanks (UAF), paused in its work on the afternoon of January 28, 1988, to honor the memory of Sydney Chapman on the 100th anniversary of his birth. Chapman served as advisory scientific director for the institute from 1953 to 1970 and was instrumental in establishing the research agenda of the ins...
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This book includes articles on the sun's spots and flares, solar wind and heliosphere, cosmic rays and energetic particles in the heliosphere, the earth as a magnet, and the magnetosphere. Consideration is also given to plasma populations in the magnetosphere, the ionosphere, the aurora, the role of magnetospheric substorms in magnetosphere-ionosph...
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The interaction between the IMF Bz and the magnetosphere is simulated by a laboratory method. The results show that the amount of solar-wind plasma which enters and is subsequently trapped in the magnetosphere depends on the IMF Bz. In this steady IMF study, no notable time-dependent instability was observed.
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Several evidences for the directly driven aspect of magnetospheric substorms are presented by reinterpreting what have been thought to be supporting evidences for the unloading process. Further, it is stressed that some of our confusions in substorm studies could be resolved by understanding that the magnetospheric substorm is primarily a directly...
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Observational data obtained during the last two decades show that the amplitude of daytime Pc 3-4 magnetic pulsations is controlled by the solar wind conditions. The high degree of correlation between the solar wind parameters and Pc 3-4 pulsations in the dayside magnetosphere suggests that the ultimate cause of the daytime Pc 3-4 pulsations must b...
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It is suggested that the magnetic network in the unipolar region of the photosphere can be interpreted as the field of loop currents along the boundary of the supergranulation cells. The currents are generated by the dynamo process associated with the supergranulation.
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In the past, both magnetospheric substorms and solar flares have almost exclusively been discussed in terms of explosive magnetic reconnection. Such a model may conceptually be illustrated by the so-called tippy-bucket model, which causes sudden unloading processes, namely a sudden (catastrophic, stochastic, and unpredictable) conversion of stored...
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It is pointed out that magnetospheric substorms are perhaps the most basic type of disturbances which occur throughout the magnetosphere. There is little doubt that the energy for magnetospheric substorms is delivered from the sun to the magnetosphere by the solar wind, and theoretical and observational studies have been conducted to uncover the pr...
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The relationships between the IMF magnitude and pulsation frequencies in the Pc 3-4 range simultaneously observed both at synchronous orbit and at low latitudes on the ground are statistically described. A theoretical discussion is given on how these observations can be interpreted in terms of the characteristic frequency of compressional Pc 3-4 ma...
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It is suggested that the formation of a pair of sunspots results from amplification of the weak, largescale fields in the photosphere, rather than from emergence of a hypothetical magnetic flux “tube” from beneath the photosphere.
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The paper suggests that if the solar wind-magnetosphere energy coupling increases above about 10 to the 18th erg/sec, the magnetosphere suddenly develops a more efficient energy dissipation process than that operating during periods of less than 10 to the 18th erg/sec. Discussion covers the appearance that the magnetosphere achieves this enhanced e...
Article
Nature is the international weekly journal of science: a magazine style journal that publishes full-length research papers in all disciplines of science, as well as News and Views, reviews, news, features, commentaries, web focuses and more, covering all branches of science and how science impacts upon all aspects of society and life.
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For a proper understanding of astrophysical phenomena, theoretical work must be guided by empirical knowledge of how plasmas behave in nature. Laboratory experiments have an essential role to play in this context, but in situ observations of the magnetosphere extend empirical knowledge of plasma parameters by many powers of ten. Aspects of the magn...
Chapter
The purpose of this chapter is to review briefly recent morphological studies of the aurora: in particular, characteristics of auroras and of precipitating auroral particles as a function of local time and latitude.
Chapter
It is believed that the magnetospheric substorm results when the energy stored in the magnetotail is explosively released toward the inner magnetosphere and finally deposited as heat energy in the upper atmosphere (Dungey, 1961; Axford, 1969). We have learned in the last four chapters that the solar wind-magnetosphere interaction constitutes a magn...
Chapter
One of the most important aspects of the magnetospheric substorm is that during it there occurs a large-scale change of the distribution of electric currents in the magnetosphere and the ionosphere. In Sections 5.5 and 6.5, it was suggested that the main cause of this change is the disruption of the cross-tail current in a limited region in the mag...
Chapter
The concept of magnetosphere has evolved considerably during the last decade. It was first introduced by Chapman and Ferraro (1931), who proposed that the Earth and its magnetic field were confined temporarily in a cavity which was formed during the passage of a hot gas from the Sun (Figure 1). However, when the presence of a continuous flow of sol...
Chapter
The purpose of this chapter is to review briefly present knowledge on the distribution of plasmas in the magnetosphere and to attempt to find the link between magnetospheric plasmas and auroral particles. The distribution of auroral particles was discussed in the previous chapter. In this chapter, we shall examine, first, plasma characteristics in...
Chapter
The purpose of this chapter is to examine first of all whether satellite observations in the magnetotail can be interpreted in terms of the formation of a new magnetic neutral line and the subsequent enhancement of reconnection along the scheme outlined in Section 4.4.1. For this purpose it may be worthwhile to describe briefly the most widely conj...
Chapter
The impact of a unidirectionally streaming, unmagnetized plasma upon a dipole field was first studied by Chapman and Ferraro in a series of papers in 1931–33. The front of the stream was assumed to be an infinite plane or a cylindrical surface. Later, their study was extended by Zhigulev and Romishevskii (1960), Hurley (1961a, b) and Dungey (1961a)...
Chapter
Large-scale interplanetary disturbances, their origins and their effects on the magnetosphere, have been discussed in a number of reviews (cf. S.T.P., Chapter 7). In studying magnetospheric substorms, it is important, first of all, to identify characteristics of the response of the magnetosphere to various interplanetary disturbances, and to distin...
Chapter
In studying solar-terrestrial relationships, it is important to recognize first of all that there is the basic solar-interplanetary magnetic field structure which has been revealed by two important discoveries during the last two decades. The first is the sector structure of the magnetic field at the photospheric level and the second is the interpl...
Chapter
One of the most important processes which takes place in the magnetosphere during the magnetospheric substorm is the ‘injection’ of energized plasma particles from the plasma sheet into the Van Allen belt, the trapping region. It has generally been believed that the plasma ‘injection’ arises simply from an enhanced plasma flow caused by the southwa...
Article
All-sky camera and photometric data were obtained by airborne instrumentation as a function of latitude and time during the course of an auroral substorm. During the substorm recovery phase the Isis 2 satellite passed within 60 km of the aircraft zenith. The discrete and diffuse auroral regions were identified from the airborne all-sky camera data....
Article
Several topics are discussed in this review of the solar cycle. The basic solar-interplanetary magnetic structure is considered, and the high speed solar wind streams and their sunspot cycle variation are described, with attention to the sunspot cycle variation, the high speed solar wind streams and geomagnetic disturbances, and the causes of chang...

Citations

... This is a very important point in proposing a new idea against a well-accepted theory. For example, I can now conclude why single spots can exist [positive single spots are born in a positive unipolar region (vice versa)]; unipolar regions grow and decay with the sunspot cycle (not decaying old active regions) as generally considered (Akasofu, 2020a). Solar physicists who are specifically working on sunspots would perhaps agree with me that the formation of sunspots is not yet solved. ...
... Such explosive events can lead to magnetic reconnection as the magnetic energy is converted locally into particle heat and kinetic energy via, the mechanism of effective magnetic dissipation that allows for a change of magnetic field line connectivity. More generally, magnetic reconnection is also the heart of well-know studies for, solar flares 2 , geomagnetic sub-storms 3 and electron dynamics in tokamaks 4 . ...
... The processes which regulate the electron populations within the outer belts during storm conditions are complicated and interdependent (Reeves and Daglis, 2016;Baker, 2019). An aspect not yet discussed is the fundamental role that aurora/magnetospheric substorms play in the dynamics of the magnetosphere (Akasofu, 1964;McPherron, 1979;Rostoker et al., 1980;Spence, 1996;Akasofu, 2020) and, germane to the topic at hand, the impacts on the mid-latitude D region (Guerrero et al., 2017). A substorm is described as a "transient process initiated on the night side of the Earth in which a significant amount of energy derived from the solar wind-magnetosphere interaction is deposited in the auroral ionosphere and magnetosphere" (McPherron, 1979). ...
... I believe that this is the standard approach to study electromagnetic phenomena in nature. Even if one wants to devote on one part of the series of this electromagnetic process, it is important to keep in mind the whole current system (Akasofu, 2020b). ...
... Fundamentally these are driven by enhanced dayside magnetic reconnection due to prolonged periods of southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), increasing the amount of open flux in the magnetosphere (Dungey, 1961;Siscoe and Huang, 1985). The advection of open field lines into the nightside eventually triggers tail reconnection, which energises the plasma sheet and injects high-energy particles into the inner magnetosphere, providing a source for ring current and radiation belt populations (Gabrielse et al., 2014;Akasofu, 2018;Sandhu et al., 2018). Tail reconnection during storms is associated with strong substorm activity which is responsible for intense space weather impacts, posing a significant societal risk . ...
... Global warming has accelerated during the last three decades as a result of the dramatic rise in the environment produced due to fossil fuels [1]. The change in the environment triggered by global warming is a potential cause for events, such as high temperatures, unexpected thunderstorms, cyclones and flooding [2,3]. The reduction of greenhouse gases and changing climatic behaviour has emerged as a key impetus for renewable fuel research [4]. ...
... Since a solar flare is a short-lived phenomenon (about 30 min), the stored energy would have to be "explosively" converted into solar flare energy. Magnetic reconnections in the solar corona, solar wind and cosmic plasmas have been extensively studied (Svestka 1976;Zirin 1988;Yokoyama and Shibata 1995;Choe and Lee 1996a;Choe and Lee 1996b;Shibata 1998;Sturrock et al. 2001;Stix 2002;Phan et al. 2006;Fletcher and Hudson 2008;Milligan et al. 2010;Schuck 2010;Zharkova et al. 2011;Hudson 2011;Steward et al. 2011;Hoshino and Lyubarsky 2012;Su et al. 2013;Kerr and Fletch 2014;Aschwanden 2015;Li et al. 2016;Janvier et al. 2016;Melrose 2017;Polito et al. 2012;Ni and Lukin 2018;Akasofu and Lee 2019). ...
... The loop current is also such a possibility among many other possible others under the electric current approach. (d) Akasofu (2018) suggested that if we could monitor the power P and W (=P × t), it may be possible to predict the occurrence of flares and their intensity in the future. If W reaches 10 30 ergs (the minimum energy) before flare onset, a flare may be expected, and if W exceeds more than 10 32 ergs before flare onset, a major flare may be imminent. ...
... This is partly because there has been no study to predict the power of flare-producing dynamo. Since solar flares must be powered by a photospheric dynamo [34], it is important to monitor the power or at least VB 2 and Hα emission together (where V is the plasma speed B is the magnetic field intensity where flares are expected to occur; note that the power equation is the same for auroral substorms and solar flares), enabling us to infer the accumulated energy for the explosive process-in predicting the intensity of flares (the minimum energy is about 10 30 ergs). So far, there has been no quantitative efforts (other than finding an anti-parallel magnetic field). ...
... Actually, it is not difficult to show how untenable the theory is by demonstrating that the magnetotail does not have enough magnetic energy for an auroral substorm to begin with (Akasofu, 2017), although there have been enough data (the intensity of magnetic field in the magnetotail even in as early as 1964, but the theorists did not try to make such a simple (5 min.) estimate. ...