Suzanne C. Kobasa's research while affiliated with University of Chicago and other places

Publications (19)

Article
Full-text available
Some of the original studies of hardiness by Kobasa and Maddi and their colleagues in Chicago were characterized by a lack of explicit acknowledgment that samples were drawn from the same large population of business executives and by insufficient information on the number, varying nature, and timing of observations of these research participants....
Article
The effects of the resistance resources of personality hardiness, exercise, and social support, taken singly and in combination, on concurrent and prospective levels, and probability of illness were studied. In 1980, 85 male business executives identified as high in stressful events were tested for the three resistance resources. Predicting their i...
Chapter
Business executives, lawyers, and U.S. Army officers have at least three things in common: (a) they are subjected to significant numbers of stressful life events in their work, (b)many members of each occupational group remain mentally and physically healthy in the face of even high stress levels, and (c) their health is explained, in part, by thei...
Article
This study examined personality, social assets, and perceived social support as moderators of the effects of stressful life events on illness onset. In a group of 170 middle and upper level executives, personality hardiness and stressful life events consistently influenced illness scores, the former serving to lower symptomatology, the latter to in...
Article
The study examined the relationship between the Type A behavior pattern and personality hardiness and predicted an interaction between the two that would be influential for illness onset. Type A and hardiness were found to be conceptually different and empirically independent factors. Under high stressful life events, male executives who were high...
Article
This study examined exercise and personality-based hardiness as independent buffers of the stressful event-illness relationship. Self-report measures of exercise, hardiness, stressful events and illness were obtained from 137 male business executives. Hardiness and exercise each interact with stressful events in decreasing illness. Further, subject...
Article
Full-text available
Tested the hypothesis that attitudes of alienation inhibit intrinsically motivated exploration of an unfamiliar but ordinary environment. 29 university students completed measures including the Alienation Test and the Maudsley Personality Inventory, and their exploratory behavior was observed during a mock waiting period. Stepwise multiple regressi...
Article
Utilizing a prospective design, this study considers the mediating effects of personality-based hardiness (commitment, control, and challenge) and constitutional predisposition (parents' illness) on the stressful life events-illness relationship. The subjects are middle- and upper-level managers who filled out questionnaires covering a period of fi...
Article
Full-text available
Hypothesized that hardiness—commitment, control, and challenge—functions to decrease the effect of stressful life events to producing illness symptoms. 259 upper- and middle-level male managers (mean age 48 yrs) were administered a battery of tests (including Rotter's Internal–External Locus of Control Scale, the Schedule of Life Events, and the Se...
Article
Forty-five normal, young, adult volunteers participated in a nine-session experiment. During the first four sessions, they received alternately 5 mg d-amphetamine or placebo. During the next five sessions, they chose between amphetamine and placebo. On the basis of the choice results, subjects retrospectively were divided into the following three g...
Chapter
The concept of intrinsic motivation, championed by D. E. Berlyne, has by now taken root in psychology. Whether deprived of nutrients or not, both animals and humans will display considerable curiosity and play, and will actually work for no other reward than gaining information about the environment. Further, intrinsically motivated activities have...
Article
Personality was found significantly to mitigate the illness-provoking effects of stressful life events. Two groups of executives had comparably high degrees of stress over a 3-year interval, as measured by the Holmes and Rahe Schedule of Recent Life Events. One group (n = 86) suffered high stress without falling ill, while the other (n = 75) report...
Article
Personality was studied as a conditioner of the effects of stressful life events on illness onset. Two groups of middle and upper level executives had comparably high degrees of stressful life events in the previous 3 years, as measured by the Holmes and Rahe Schedule of Recent Life Events. One group (n = 86) suffered high stress without falling il...

Citations

... For example, social psychology is relevant when we want to explain how an entrepreneur moves him or herself in this working environment, how he or she deals with the in and out group, and how becoming an entrepreneur can be a conscientious choice (Krueger 2007). I/O psychology and business psychology come also into play with topics such as work-life bal-ance (e.g., Parasuraman et al. 1996), stress (Lazarus and Folkman 1984), hardiness (Maddi and Kobasa 1991), and leadership (Renko et al. 2015;Cogliser and Brigham 2004) that are particularly important for entrepreneurs. Cognitive psychology focuses on the intelligence, logical reasoning, problemsolving, coping strategies (e.g., Politis 2005), decision-making, and categorization processes which have been largely integrated in entrepreneurship (Baron 2004;Dimov 2011). ...
... Mental resilience also means recovering and regaining balance after painful experiences, and getting through difficult situations without serious negative psychological consequences. Various elements are emphasized in the theory of resilience, e.g., self-efficacy (Bandura, 1993), commitment, a sense of control and treating difficult situations as challenges (Kobasa, 1985), and a sense of coherence and hardiness (Antonovsky, 1987;Almedom, 2005). ...
... According to self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985), which focuses primarily on internal sources of motivation, people are motivated by their need to grow and change in order to pursue what interests them. Intrinsic motivations in the business setting include factors related to the work environment such as putting skills into practice (Ambrose, 1996;Dalton & Thompson, 1986;Naffziger et al., 1994;Schein, 1978), collaborating with others (Van Herpen, Van Praag & Cools, 2005), leading a group of people (Rubio et al., 1999), selfactualisation (Deci & Ryan, 1985;Maddi & Kobasa, 1981;Merchant, Van der Stede & Zheng, 2003), achieving personal goals (Naffziger et al., 1994), and power and prestige (Fisher & Govindarajan, 1992;McClelland, 1995), or principles (Besley & Ghatak, 2005). It can be considered that the intrinsic motivations of potential entrepreneurs for creating a company are more related to factors such as personal growth (European Union, 2012), passion (Shane et al., 2003), the desire to excel (Martínez & Rubina, 1998), creativity (Fernández & García, 2004), autonomy (Martín, Martín & Trevilla, 2009;Robichaud, McGraw & Roger, 2001), independence (European Union, 2012;Martínez & Rubina, 1998;Robichaud et al, 2001;Rubio et al., 1999;Shane et al., 2003;Veciana, 1989), self-employment (European Union, 2012;Fernández & García, 2004;Rubio et al., 1999), or achieving status or social notoriety (Observatorio del Emprendimiento de España, 2021). ...
... In the present study, the stories were treated as samples of creative writing. Although this is not a common use of the TAT, there are precedents for so doing (e.g., Dollinger et al., 2004; Maddi, Hoover, & Kobasa, 1983). No test of general intelligence was included in the protocol. ...
... He assessed each of them on a scale that can be combined to obtain a cumulative assessment of alienation. According to the approach of S. R. Maddi, S.C. Kobasa, and M. Hoover [5], alienation should be viewed in conjunction with the loss of meaning and manifests itself in four primary forms: vegetativeness, impotence, nihilism, adventurism. The questionnaire developed by them assesses the severity of each of the forms concerning various spheres of an individual's life -work, social life, interaction with other people and family, and himself. ...
... De tal forma, como una evidencia en investigación se ha encontrado que los estilos de enfrentamiento a los problemas de salud cuando es de tipo directo, permite a los niños evaluados mostrar comportamiento resiliente . A esto, las aportaciones de Kobasa, Maddi y Kahn (1993), consideran el enfrentamiento como una variable mediadora con la salud, en la conformación de la personalidad resistente, y explican que las personas que se caracterizaban por ser resistentes, tenían una menor predisposición a desarrollar enfermedades bajo circunstancias de estrés. En este mismo sentido la investigación clásica de Lipowski (1970, en Lazarus y Folkman, 1986, explica que las estrategias de enfrentamiento están relacionadas directamente con las actitudes y con los significados que la enfermedad, la lesión o la incapacidad tienen para el sujeto. ...
... Therefore, this study can be useful in clarifying the association between hardiness and suicidal ideation and the variable influencing the association. Based on the hardiness theory [31], it is conceivable that poor hardiness prevents individuals from engaging in coping responses to stress and resistance to stressful situations during times of stress [28,29], and may lead to lower levels of problem-solving skills and higher levels of suicidal ideation. ...
... Hence, hardiness or also known as Hardy personality is a multidimensional psychological variable that protects those who have it from stress effects (Eschleman et al., 2010;Matthews, Lin & Wohleber, 2017). In this research, the hardiness model suggested by Kobasa, Maddi & Kahn (1982) has been followed. This model is divided into three factors: control, commitment and challenge, adding an overall factor of hardiness. ...
... Furthermore, most of these approaches remain utilitarian in nature, meaning the rewards of the exploration correlate primarily with the value of the outcomes and less with the experience of exploration itself. In light of how naturally people engage in intrinsically motivated exploratory behavior [10][11][12][13], we believe that additional value can be found in promoting the intrinsic rewards of the experience offered by data exploration tools, making them more enjoyable, playful and fulfilling of users' needs in a more comprehensive manner [13]. ...
... The process of operationalizing the concept to be able to test the model leads Antonovsky to become aware of its inadequacies. He narrates that he also at the time had become aware of the works of Moos (Moos, 1984(Moos, , 1985, Kobasa (1979Kobasa ( , 1982, and Victor Frankl (Frankl, 1975), which he believed, in his terms, were working on the salutogenic problem (Antonovsky, 1990). In the 1979 version of the SOC definition, he was clearly influenced by systems theory and ideas of order and disorder, and he gave much room to outlining the first component comprehensibility. ...