Suzan de Groot's research while affiliated with Rijksdienst voor Cultureel Erfgoed and other places

Publications (29)

Preprint
Vincent van Gogh’s painting Congregation Leaving the Reformed Church in Nuenen from the collection of the Van Gogh Museum in Amsterdam was executed in 1884 and partially repainted by the artist in 1885. The painting was restored in 1961, however the details of this treatment were not documented. After being stolen from the museum in 2002 and finall...
Article
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The most common method chosen by artists, designers, and craftsmen to realize artworks and objects with transparent poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) is to bond pieces from premanufactured sheets using solvents or adhesives. This method is considered relatively easy to use, however achieving bonds that are both transparent and strong can be difficul...
Article
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The Rijksmuseum holds four valuable albums with 187 photographs made by Eduard Isaac Asser (1809–1894), one of the first figures in photography in the Netherlands. Based on visual examination, most of these prints have been identified as salted paper prints with a coating, but they can be hard to distinguish from matte or glossy albumen prints, esp...
Article
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Johannes Vermeer (1632–1675) is known for his brilliant blue colours, and his frequent use of the costly natural ultramarine. This paper reveals new findings about ultramarine in the headscarf of Girl with a Pearl Earring (c. 1665, Mauritshuis). The painting was examined using a range of micro- and macroscale techniques as part of the Girl in the S...
Article
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The soft modelling of the skin tones in Vermeer's Girl with a Pearl Earring (Mauritshuis) has been remarked upon by art historians, and is their main argument to date this painting to c. 1665. This paper describes the materials and techniques Vermeer used to accomplish the smooth flesh tones and facial features of the Girl, which were investigated...
Conference Paper
The composition of plastic artefacts in museum collections is often not known due to absence of information, knowledge, in-house specialists or dedicated laboratories. Project Plastics, a two-year project conducted in collaboration with ten Dutch contemporary art collections, aims to develop an identification method, which will enable administrator...
Chapter
The early twentieth century oil painting Beach Scene had severe delamination problems. The painting consisted of an oak panel primed with three white, oil-based ground layers with several oil paint layers on top. The reverse of the panel was varnished. The delamination occurred at the interface between the first ground layer and the panel. A browni...
Article
This study evaluates two research projects and treatments performed ten and twenty years ago by the Cultural Heritage Agency of the Netherlands (RCE) on two artworks made of flexible polyurethane ether foam (PUR foam) by Piero Gilardi; Natura Morta (1967) of the collection of Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen, Rotterdam (NL) and Zuccaia (1991) of the c...
Article
The observation of disfiguring yellow oil-like material on the surface of paintings by the contemporary Dutch artist Erik Oldenhof led to an investigation of the material and environmental factors causing the migration and surface deposition of the exudate. A combination of material analysis, the examination of artificially aged reconstructions and...
Conference Paper
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This paper presents the results of analyses of binding media and organic additives in 25 portrait paintings from the Tudor and Jacobean periods. Results are discussed in the light of historical paint technology. The complementarity of micro-destructive detailed analysis of GC/MS and spatially resolved analytical information on the presence of media...
Conference Paper
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The combination of materials, technique, scale and intended mounting method of Richard Serra’s monumental ‘Installation Drawings’ – executed in paintstick on canvas mostly from the mid-1970s onwards – means that conservators responsible for their care are likely to encounter particular challenges when treating, mounting and storing them. The monoch...
Article
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Two large Viennese folding screens were found during reconstruction work in the attic of the Liechtenstein City Palace in Vienna, Austria. A key aspect was the investigation and analysis of embroidery materials and dyes, analyzed by either high-performance liquid chromatography or Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, with elemental analysis don...
Chapter
Full-text available
The preservation of woollen textiles in the prehistoric salt mines of Hallstatt is a lucky chance for the study of prehistoric textile dyeing. The Hallstatt textiles collection of the Department of Prehistory at the Natural History Museum Vienna shows the creativity of the prehistoric people. Already in the Bronze Age, the main materials for wool d...
Technical Report
The statue of the Madonna of Foy in the Rijksmuseum is a early copy made of a composite material, composed of quartz, clay, chalk and animal glue. The original statue in the church of Foy is cast of lime with fluorite and was probably made locally, since fluorite is abundant around Foy.

Citations

... Estas capas se detectaron layers on the Sunflowers by Van Gogh, both based on an alkyd resin. These layers were unexpectedly detected during a MOLAB diagnostic campaign and, according to archival research, were most likely applied in a treatment performed in 1961 (Hendriks et al., 2019). Since the glossy appearance of the varnish was in sharp contrast to some areas of the painting that had a matt aspect due to the presence of wax, the opportunity to proceed with a partial removal of the top alkyd layer was investigated, leaving the underlying layer, adherent to the paint surface, intact. ...
... 10 Insoluble salts of oxalic acid are largely detected in aged oil paintings, 68,69 also in association with UB paints. 70 The presence in the painting films of α-hydroxyl hexadecanoic and octadecanoic acids, strongly supports this hypothesis, as further oxidation of the hydroxyl moiety would lead to oxoacetic acid, and, ultimately, to oxalic acid. Oxidation of carboxylic acids in alpha to carboxylic moieties upon curing contradicts two common assumptions normally made in the molecular analysis of artists' oil painting layers. ...
... Biologists have studied how bees interact with those paintings [4], the genetic fabric of the sunflowers [5], doctors have attempted to associate his medical conditions and related treatments to his perception of colors [6][7][8]. Of direct relevance to the paintings themselves, scientists and museum curators have used a broad array of traditional and state-of-the-art techniques to look at and below the paint surface itself [9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17]. Of special interest, we advise the reader to consider the recent book, Van Gogh's Sunflowers Illuminated published by the Amsterdam van Gogh museum that summarizes the results of the research undertaken by an international team of scientists, curators, and art historians aimed at comparing the F454 Sunflower from the London National gallery with one of its repetitions, F458 from the van Gogh museum [18]. ...
... Given the fact that earth pigments are ubiquitous in archaeological contexts, as well as in works of art from ancient times up to the modern period, their precise characterization is of great importance for understanding the archeological and art historical record, such as: raw material selection and use, provenance (geological origin) and the technology of paint production. Important information, especially in terms of use, have been obtained via the numerous case studies performed over time on a large variety of artifacts: prehistoric rock art [6,15,16], ancient wall paintings [17][18][19][20], religious art [8,21,22], easel paintings [23][24][25][26] and so on. However, within these case studies, the analyses are often limited to the identification of the generic class of earth pigment used (e.g., red ocher), without any specific characterization of the mineralogical species present or of the geological sources. ...
... OCT, especially if used together with FTIR spectroscopy examination, is capable of accurate assessment of the cleaning process [33,34]. Some tests of this kind were also performed during the aforementioned examination campaign of van Gogh's "Sunflowers" [35]. Selected aspects of OCT data processing for this purpose will be addressed in Section 5. ...
... It was glue lined in the eighteenth century, and wax-resin lined in the 1960s. It demonstrates a dramatic darkening, which may have been caused by the combination of aging and past treatments (Froment and Van Eikema Hommes 2011). Extensive lead soap formation in the ground is thought to play a role, and impregnation of the paint with wax and resin from the lining adhesive likely also contributes to color change. ...
... However, since there is a strong concern about their potential damaging effects on surfaces, these materials have not yet been fully integrated into current practice. Only a few studies have focused on the use of dry cleaning materials in conservation (Wehlte, 1971;Schorbach, 2009), and most of them are related to textile (Estabrook, 1989) and paper conservation ( Brokerhof et al., 2002;Noehles, 2002). ...
... Research into the physico-mechanical factors arising from the display of aged synthetic textiles which puts them under tension, and the resulting consequences, like creep, has been initiated but also needs further attention. Contemporary art raise particularly interesting questions where conventional materials are used in unconventional ways [83], such as predictions for strength of nylon stocking displayed under tension [84]. This paper has taken a retrospective stance for the most prolific period of man-made textile fiber development of domestic textiles, but has not touched upon historical textiles for industrial or military applications, nor indeed the new developments in recent times of smart fabrics and nano-technology materials which are beginning to be collected. ...
... Investigations on contemporary artworks may be quite challenging as painters started using rather complex commercial paint formulations or experimenting by mixing even products that were not intended for artistic purposes [3][4][5][6][7][8][9]. In the last decade, several studies have underlined a possible correlation among paint compositions and degradation phenomena observed in oil paintings (such as binder separation, exudations, extensive craquelures, water, and solvent sensitivity, etc.) [9][10][11][12][13][14]. Thus, the importance of widening the knowledge of commercial painting materials and understanding the behaviour over time of the resulting painting systems is evident. ...
... 4371), both clearly rapidly executed and far less elaborate than the Salon version – are noticeably better preserved. 1 The rapid deterioration of the Salon version is not fully understood but attributed to the use of asphalt, abundant use of megilp-like medium, and the application of paint to a not fully dried priming layer (Boitelle et al., 2001; Van den Berg et al., 2002). Analytical studies into the darkening and transparency of the nineteenth-century paintings suggest that the many transparent layers rich in resin-oil medium and the yellowing/darkening of the resin-oil medium are main reasons for the darkening of the paint (Van den Berg et al., 2002). ...