Susannah Leaver's research while affiliated with University of London and other places

Publications (61)

Article
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Background Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) is a promising alternative to invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) with a particular importance amidst the shortage of intensive care unit (ICU) beds during the COVID-19 pandemic. We aimed to evaluate the use of NIV in Europe and factors associated with outcomes of patients treated with NIV. Methods This i...
Article
Purpose Prognostication for patients with critical conditions remains challenging, especially for very old individuals. Time-limited trials (TLT) are used to decrease prognostic uncertainty in the individual patient by monitoring the response to treatment over a pre-determined period of time. However, there are substantial difficulties with determi...
Article
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Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused a shortage of intensive care resources. Intensivists' opinion of triage and ventilator allocation during the COVID-19 pandemic is not well described. Methods: This was a survey concerning patient numbers, bed capacity, triage guidelines, and three virtual cases involving ventilator allocations. Physic...
Article
The role of immune responses to previously seen endemic coronavirus epitopes in severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and disease progression has not yet been determined. Here, we show that a key characteristic of fatal coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outcomes is that the immune response to the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein is enr...
Article
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Background: Previous studies reported regional differences in end-of-life care (EoLC) for critically ill patients in Europe. Objectives: The purpose of this post-hoc analysis of the prospective multi-centre COVIP study was to investigate variations in EoLC practices among older patients in intensive care units during the coronavirus disease 2019...
Article
Background Limited evidence suggests variation in mortality of older critically ill adults across Europe. We aimed to investigate regional differences in mortality among very old ICU patients. Methods Multilevel analysis of two international prospective cohort studies. We included patients ≥80 yr old from 322 ICUs located in 16 European countries....
Article
Importance: The efficacy of antiplatelet therapy in critically ill patients with COVID-19 is uncertain. Objective: To determine whether antiplatelet therapy improves outcomes for critically ill adults with COVID-19. Design, setting, and participants: In an ongoing adaptive platform trial (REMAP-CAP) testing multiple interventions within multip...
Article
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Aims: Chronic heart failure (CHF) is a major risk factor for mortality in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This prospective international multicentre study investigates the role of pre-existing CHF on clinical outcomes of critically ill old (≥70 years) intensive care patients with COVID-19. Methods and results: Patients with pre-existing CHF...
Article
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Purpose: Critically ill old intensive care unit (ICU) patients suffering from Sars-CoV-2 disease (COVID-19) are at increased risk for adverse outcomes. This post hoc analysis investigates the association of the Activities of Daily Living (ADL) with the outcome in this vulnerable patient group. Methods: The COVIP study is a prospective internatio...
Article
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Purpose: The number of patients ≥ 80 years admitted into critical care is increasing. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) added another challenge for clinical decisions for both admission and limitation of life-sustaining treatments (LLST). We aimed to compare the characteristics and mortality of very old critically ill patients with or without CO...
Article
Introduction The age of patients admitted into critical care in the UK is increasing. Clinical decisions for very-old patients, usually defined as over 80, can be challenging. Clinicians are frequently asked to predict outcomes as part of discussions around the pros and cons of an intensive care unit (ICU) admission. Measures of overall health in o...
Article
Background: health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is an important patient-centred outcome in patients surviving ICU admission for COVID-19. It is currently not clear which domains of the HRQoL are most affected. Objective: to quantify HRQoL in order to identify areas of interventions. Design: prospective observation study. Setting: admissio...
Article
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The combined impact of common and rare exonic variants in COVID-19 host genetics is currently insufficiently understood. Here, common and rare variants from whole-exome sequencing data of about 4000 SARS-CoV-2-positive individuals were used to define an interpretable machine-learning model for predicting COVID-19 severity. First, variants were conv...
Article
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Background: health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is an important patient-centred outcome in patients surviving ICU admission for COVID-19. It is currently not clear which domains of the HRQoL are most affected. Objective: to quantify HRQoL in order to identify areas of interventions. Design: prospective observation study. Setting: admissions to E...
Article
Background: The SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic is challenging health care systems globally. The disease disproportionately affects the elderly population, both in terms of disease severity and mortality risk. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate machine-learning based prognostication models for critically ill elderly COVID...
Article
Full-text available
Background The COVID-19 pandemic has led highly developed healthcare systems to the brink of collapse due to the large numbers of patients being admitted into hospitals. One of the potential prognostic indicators in patients with COVID-19 is frailty. The degree of frailty could be used to assist both the triage into intensive care, and decisions re...
Article
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Purpose Frailty is a valuable predictor for outcome in elderly ICU patients, and has been suggested to be used in various decision-making processes prior to and during an ICU admission. There are many instruments developed to assess frailty, but few of them can be used in emergency situations. In this setting the clinical frailty scale (CFS) is fre...
Article
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Background Intensive care unit (ICU) patients age 90 years or older represent a growing subgroup and place a huge financial burden on health care resources despite the benefit being unclear. This leads to ethical problems. The present investigation assessed the differences in outcome between nonagenarian and octogenarian ICU patients. Methods We i...
Article
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There is ongoing demographic ageing and increasing longevity of the population, with previously devastating and often-fatal diseases now transformed into chronic conditions. This is turning multi-morbidity into a major challenge in the world of critical care. After many years of research and innovation, mainly in geriatric care, the concept of mult...
Article
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Background Geoeconomic variations in epidemiology, the practice of ventilation, and outcome in invasively ventilated intensive care unit (ICU) patients without acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) remain unexplored. In this analysis we aim to address these gaps using individual patient data of four large observational studies. Methods In thi...
Article
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Background Tracheostomy is performed in patients expected to require prolonged mechanical ventilation, but to date optimal timing of tracheostomy has not been established. The evidence concerning tracheostomy in COVID-19 patients is particularly scarce. We aimed to describe the relationship between early tracheostomy (≤10 days since intubation) and...
Article
Importance: The evidence for benefit of convalescent plasma for critically ill patients with COVID-19 is inconclusive. Objective: To determine whether convalescent plasma would improve outcomes for critically ill adults with COVID-19. Design, setting, and participants: The ongoing Randomized, Embedded, Multifactorial, Adaptive Platform Trial f...
Article
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Background: The primary aim of this study was to assess the outcome of elderly intensive care unit (ICU) patients treated during the spring and autumn COVID-19 surges in Europe. Methods: This was a prospective European observational study (the COVIP study) in ICU patients aged 70 years and older admitted with COVID-19 disease from March to Decem...
Article
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Prior studies have demonstrated that immunologic dysfunction underpins severe illness in COVID-19 patients, but have lacked an in-depth analysis of the immunologic drivers of death in the most critically ill patients. We performed immunophenotyping of viral antigen-specific and unconventional T cell responses, neutralizing antibodies, and serum pro...
Article
PURPOSECritically ill elderly patients who suffer from Sars-CoV-2 disease are at high risk for organ failure. The modified MELD-XI score has not been evaluated for outcome prediction in these most vulnerable patients.METHODS The Corona Virus disease (COVID19) in Very Elderly Intensive Care Patients study (COVIP, NCT04321265) prospectively recruited...
Article
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Purpose: Lactate is an established prognosticator in critical care. However, there still is insufficient evidence about its role in predicting outcome in COVID-19. This is of particular concern in older patients who have been mostly affected during the initial surge in 2020. Methods: This prospective international observation study (The COVIP st...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Lactate is an established prognosticator in critical care. However, there still is insufficient evidence about its role in predicting outcome in COVID-19. This is of particular concern in older patients who have been mostly affected during the initial surge in 2020. Methods: This prospective international observation study (The COVIP study...
Preprint
BACKGROUND The COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 is challenging health care systems globally. The disease disproportionately affects the elderly population, both in terms of disease severity and mortality risk. OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to evaluate machine learning–based prognostication models for critically ill elderly COVID-19 pat...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Lactate is an established prognosticator in critical care. However, there still is insufficient evidence about its role in predicting outcome in COVID-19. This is of particular concern in older patients who have been mostly affected during the initial surge in 2020. Methods: This prospective international observation study (The COVIP study...
Article
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PurposeTo study the efficacy of lopinavir-ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine in critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).Methods Critically ill adults with COVID-19 were randomized to receive lopinavir-ritonavir, hydroxychloroquine, combination therapy of lopinavir-ritonavir and hydroxychloroquine or no antiviral therapy (cont...
Article
Purpose: Old (>64 years) and very old (>79 years) intensive care patients with sepsis have a high mortality. In the very old, the value of critical care has been questioned. We aimed to compare the mortality, rates of organ support, and the length of stay in old vs. very old patients with sepsis and septic shock in intensive care. Methods: This ana...
Article
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Background: The Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS) is frequently used to measure frailty in critically ill adults. There is wide variation in the approach to analysing the relationship between the CFS score and mortality after admission to the ICU. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of modelling approach on the association between the CFS score...
Article
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Objectives In Europe, there is a distinction between two different healthcare organisation systems, the tax-based healthcare system (THS) and the social health insurance system (SHI). Our aim was to investigate whether the characteristics, treatment and mortality of older, critically ill patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) differed between TH...
Article
Background Respiratory complications are an important cause of postoperative morbidity. We aimed to investigate whether continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) administered immediately after major abdominal surgery could prevent postoperative morbidity. Methods PRISM was an open-label, randomised, phase 3 trial done at 70 hospitals across six c...
Preprint
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It is unclear whether prior endemic coronavirus infections affect COVID-19 severity. Here, we show that in cases of fatal COVID-19, antibody responses to the SARS-COV-2 spike are directed against epitopes shared with endemic beta-coronaviruses in the S2 subunit of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. This immune response is associated with the compromised...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has led highly developed healthcare systems to the brink of collapse due to the large numbers of patients being admitted into hospitals. One of the potential prognostic indicators in patients with COVID-19 is frailty. The degree of frailty could be used to assist both the triage into intensive care, and decisions r...
Article
Full-text available
Background Sepsis is one of the most frequent reasons for acute intensive care unit (ICU) admission of very old patients and mortality rates are high. However, the impact of pre-existing physical and cognitive function on long-term outcome of ICU patients ≥ 80 years old (very old intensive care patients (VIPs)) with sepsis is unclear. Objective To...
Article
Background The efficacy of interleukin-6 receptor antagonists in critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) is unclear. Methods We evaluated tocilizumab and sarilumab in an ongoing international, multifactorial, adaptive platform trial. Adult patients with Covid-19, within 24 hours after starting organ support in the intensiv...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background The COVID-19 pandemic has led highly developed healthcare systems to the brink of collapse due to the large numbers of patients being admitted into hospitals. One of the potential prognostic indicators in patients with COVID-19 is frailty. The degree of frailty could be used to assist both the triage into intensive care, and decisions re...
Article
Predicting the future course of critical conditions involves personal experience, heuristics and statistical models. Although these methods may perform well for some cases and population averages, they suffer from substantial shortcomings when applied to individual patients. The reasons include methodological problems of statistical modeling as wel...
Article
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In Europe there are increasing numbers of old (more than 65 years old) and very old (more than 80 years old) patients (very old intensive care patients - VIPs) (Figure 1). In addition to combinations of chronic conditions (multi-morbidity), there are geriatric disabilities and functional limitations, with a profound impact on management in the ICU...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Lactate is an established prognosticator in critical care. However, there still is insufficient evidence about its role in predicting outcome in COVID-19. This is of particular concern in older patients who have been mostly affected during the initial surge in 2020. Methods: This prospective international observation study (The COVIP study...
Conference Paper
INTRODUCTION: Immunosuppressed Covid-19 patients were predicted to have poorer outcomes (1-3), however what contributes to these worse outcomes remain unknown. OBJECTIVES: To assess whether immunosuppression on presentation is a predictor of poor outcomes in critically ill patients admitted with Covid-19 infection in an intensive care unit (ICU) a...
Conference Paper
Introduction: A novel coronavirus (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, SARS-CoV-2) emerged in early December 2019 and has subsequently spread globally causing a pandemic. There remains clinical equipoise on whether the incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) is higher in those patients with acute respiratory failure caused by SARSCoV-2...
Article
Full-text available
Female and male very elderly intensive patients (VIPs) might differ in characteristics and outcomes. We aimed to compare female versus male VIPs in a large, multinational collective of VIPs with regards to outcome and predictors of mortality. In total, 7555 patients were included in this analysis, 3973 (53%) male and 3582 (47%) female patients. The...
Article
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In this analysis we discuss the change in criteria for triage of patients during three different phases of a pandemic like COVID-19, seen from the critical care point of view. Availability of critical care beds has become a hot topic, and in many countries, we have seen a huge increase in the provision of temporary intensive care bed capacity. Howe...
Preprint
Background: Since the COVID-19 pandemic began in December 2019 no specific therapy for managing severe complications of infection has emerged, although this is under intensive investigation. Progressive pneumonia and multi-organ complications are managed with supportive care and COVID-19 has a mortality of >50% when ventilatory support is needed.Me...
Article
Purpose Premorbid conditions affect prognosis of acutely-ill aged patients. Several lines of evidence suggest geriatric syndromes need to be assessed but little is known on their relative effect on the 30-day survival after ICU admission. The primary aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of frailty, cognition decline and activity of dail...

Citations

... Reduced mortality had reached even higher probability by day 90, but this benefit was accompanied by increased risk of bleeding. 50 These findings are supported by results from a registry on patients post-COVID-19 hospital discharge early on in the pandemic. 55 Therefore, in patients with persistent risk factors for VTE that may include an IMPROVE score of ≥4 or 2-3 with a D-dimer above the upper limit of normal, and without contraindication (e.g., high risk of bleeding, pregnancy, lactation), postdischarge treatment with 10 mg of rivaroxaban daily may be cohort study with more than 300 000 patients. ...
... The COVID-19 pandemic exposed all HCPs to the new situations. Physicians had to perform rationing and triage patients without enough information about this new diagnosis with a poor prognosis [42][43][44]. The hospitals were overloaded, and the nursing staff had less time for patient care, which could lead to poor quality of care. ...
... 5 At individual level, several genetic variants have been identified in association with severe COVID-19. [6][7][8][9][10] In particular, we have shown with the GEN-COVID consortium, 11 that individuals carrying single pathogenic variants of the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) gene -i.e. CF carriers -are more likely to undergo the severe form of COVID-19 and have higher risk of 14-day mortality. ...
... However, there remain many more doubts than certainties whether COVID-19 MVPs should apt to early tracheostomy (before day 10) instead of PI. A recent prospective study in 152 hospitals across 16 European countries (n = 1740) did not find the difference in 3-month mortality in MVPs aged ≥ 70 years after early vs. late tracheostomy (with PI) [17]. The results of a meta-narrative review, nonetheless, repudiated the benefit of early tracheostomy in COVID-19 MVPs (i.e. ...
... The COVID-19 pandemic exposed all HCPs to the new situations. Physicians had to perform rationing and triage patients without enough information about this new diagnosis with a poor prognosis [42][43][44]. The hospitals were overloaded, and the nursing staff had less time for patient care, which could lead to poor quality of care. ...
... Old patients make up the subgroup of intensive care unit patients with the highest mortality [3]. However, the chronological age is a worse parameter for the outcome prediction of critically ill older patients [4,5]. This is particularly true for SARS-CoV-2 and its disease COVID-19, which challenge intensive care units worldwide [6]. ...
... The REMAP-CAP trial primary analysis included 1075 critically ill COVID-19 patients who received CCP, 11 patients who received delayed CCP and 904 patients who did not receive CCP. There was no statistically significant difference in in-hospital mortality between the groups [25]. In the RECOVERY trial, 11,558 hospitalized patients were randomized either to receive CCP (5,795) or the standard care (5,763), the conclusion was that high-dose CCP did not improve survival. ...
... We have combined data from two prospective international studies including patients over 80 years [12]. The first, VIP2 included patients prior to the pandemic (non-COVID patients) [12], while the COVIP study included COVID-19 patients exclusively (COVID group) [13]. ...
... The highest mortality rates (40%e80%) are reported in elderly patients admitted to the ICU [14,15,31]. Because of this finding, some intensivists were initially discouraged from admitting elderly patients to the ICU and used age as an exclusion criterion for ICU care [33]. ...
... Furthermore, patients ≥70 years old have six times more likely to die than patients < 70 years old [6]. Even in short time followup, the mortality rate of geriatric patients with COVID-19 in ICU is relatively high, reaching up to 80% in several studies [24][25][26]. A comparison using Indonesian Task Force big data showed that although the most common age group admitted to the hospital in the COVID-19 pandemic was 31-45 years old, the elderly population experienced the most mortality rate (> 60 years old) with roughly 18% [27]. ...