Susana Rubio-Jara's research while affiliated with Complutense University of Madrid and other places

Publications (47)

Article
Full-text available
In the upper basin of the Guadiana River, especially in the sectors drained by its right-bank tributaries, the Bullaque and Becea rivers, important concentrations of Acheulean and Mousterian industries can be found in a superficial position. These industries have provided series containing tens of thousands of pieces. Deposits in stratigraphic posi...
Poster
Full-text available
The valleys of the Manzanares and Jarama rivers preserve one of the largest concentrations of Pleistocene sites in Europe, and feature plenty of discoveries of lithic industry and faunal remains that have taken place since 1862. The sites Oxígeno and Santa Elena are located in what is known as the Complex Terrace of Butarque (CTB) downstream from M...
Poster
Full-text available
Stable isotopes and phytoliths analysis have been widely used in archaeological research, providing key information in the study of paleoclimate and paleoecology, and allowing to test hypotheses on adaptation and habitat changes in Africa during human evolution. Here, we report on both stable isotopes (13C, 18O) (14 fossil teeth samples) and phytol...
Article
Probably, one of the biggest questions about the Acheulean is focused on the functional aspects of its lithic industry and, more specifically, its link to subsistence activities developed by hominins during the Early Stone Age. Historically, tecno-functional research on ESA techno-complex has focused on the role played by flakes and LCT in the proc...
Article
The Olduvai Gorge is considered one of the most relevant archaeological complexes with regards to the study of our human evolution. This is especially evident when studying the emergence of hunting practices over the past 1.7 Ma. Butchery activities have been documented throughout Bed II, including the exploitation of megafauna in a larger number o...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper we present the experimental results obtained for the formation of use-wear traces on four types of basalt rocks from the Olduvai Gorge (Tanzania) and one from the Deba River (Spain). The objective of this study is to create a reference collection that will allow the posterior analysis and identification of archeological use-wear trace...
Article
This paper presents for the first time an experimental protocol for the assessment of use-wear produced when using Precambrian and metamorphic white Naibor Soit quartzite (NQ) flakes. NQ is the most recurrent raw material from the archaeological sites of the Olduvai Gorge during the Early Stone Age (ESA). The objective of this study is to provide a...
Article
To understand the identity of the early Acheulean, it is necessary to discriminate between the variables that influenced the selection of technological strategies. Functionality of the archaeological sites is crucial in assessing the manufacturing strategies of lithic tools. To achieve this goal, analysis of the post-depositional processes must be...
Article
Full-text available
In this work, three important Pleistocene sites of the Madrid basin located close to the junction of the Manzanares (PRERESA site) and the Jarama (Valdocarros site and Maresa quarry) rivers have been studied in order to improve the existing chronological framework of the basin and to clarify the geological evolution of these fluvial systems and the...
Article
The evolution of the landscape surrounding the rivers of the Madrid basin during the Middle Pleistocene is summarised in the present paper. Patterns of adaptation of human populations who settled on the riverbanks have been established in this area through geoarchaeological data recovered from associated deposits, mainly in the Manzanares and Jaram...
Chapter
This paper presents a detailed analysis of the bifacial shaping and the spatial distribution of 85 bifaces recorded in an area of 51.9 m2 on the Lower Floor of the TK site, located alongside the Trench I excavated by M. Leakey in 1963. The repeated use of shaping schemes and patterns demonstrates that the knappers who produced these tools had a goo...
Article
Since 1862, one of the largest accumulations of Palaeolithic sites of Europe has been found in the Manzanares valley (Madrid, Spain). Virtually all the fluvial deposits preserved from the Lower Pleistocene to the end of the Late Pleistocene contain remains of human occupation, that date to the Lower Palaeolithic ("core and flake assemblages" and Ac...
Article
Most Middle Palaeolithic sites with faunal remains processed by humans in the Iberian Peninsula are located in rock shelters or caves. PRERESA is one of the few open-air sites, dating to the end of the Middle or early Late Pleistocene, in which faunal remains associated with lithic industry has been recorded. At least one individual of Mammuthus/El...
Article
Owing to its geographical position relative to northwestern Europe, the Iberian Peninsula was a refuge for many species during periods of harsh environmental conditions in the Quaternary. Despite this, the Pleistocene history of non-marine molluscs in Spain has been scarcely addressed. In this study, we examine the malacofauna of Valdocarros II, a...
Article
The aim of this work is to study from a taphonomic view the small mammals assemblage located on the Pleistocene site known as PRERESA. The small mammal fossiliferous layer is a silt level located at a fluvial terrace. The samples studied included remains from rodents (Minimum Number of Elements: MNE = 373) and lagomorphs (MNE = 372). During the exc...
Article
The successive fossil amphibian and reptile assemblages from the Middle to Late Pleistocene sites from the Manzanares and Jarama River Valleys (Madrid, central Spain) permitted the reconstruction of part of the climate instability with high-amplitude and rapid shifts of the last 450 ka and their associated landscapes: Áridos-1 (MIS11b), Valdocarros...
Article
Evidence suggesting human occupation in the interior of the Iberian Peninsula during cold periods of the Middle Pleistocene is scarce. The Estanque de Tormentas (ETB-H02) site (Manzanares Valley, Madrid) matches with a MIS 6 or MIS 7 cold event, which allows us to tackle the study of the human occupation of the highlands of the Spanish Meseta durin...
Article
The successive fossil amphibian and reptile assemblages from the Middle to Late Pleistocene sites from the Manzanares and Jarama River Valleys (Madrid, central Spain) permitted the reconstruction of part of the climate instability with high-amplitude and rapid shifts of the last 450 ka and their associated landscapes: Áridos-1 (MIS11b), Valdocarros...
Article
Since the middle of the 19th Century, when the first elephant remains were excavated near Madrid (Spain), continuous discoveries of proboscideans have taken place on the riverbanks of the middle and lower courses of the Manzanares and Jarama rivers. The pioneering research carried out by Aguilera y Gamboa in Torralba and Ambrona (Soria, Spain) in t...
Article
The most recent excavations carried out at the Thiongo Korongo (TK) site, in the upper part of Olduvai Bed II and dating from about 1.353±0.035 Ma, have made it possible to identify a hitherto unknown Acheulean floor. Between 2010 and 2015, we excavated nearly 175 m2 in several areas immediately adjacent to M. Leakey's trenches. Our findings led us...
Article
Middle Pleistocene sites that document glacials are relatively rare in the Iberian Peninsula, and as such, the composition of cold small-vertebrate assemblages is almost unknown in southwestern Mediterranean Europe. The archaeological site Estanque de Tormentas de Butarque H-02 in Villaverde, Madrid, in central Spain, recently attributed to Marine...
Article
Ambrona is located in a karst landscape, and occupies a key geographic position, a transit area with natural routes connecting the three main drainage basins in the interior of the Iberian Peninsula. The site dates from the middle of MIS 11 and consists of fluvial-lacustrine deposits.Investigation of Ambrona, traditionally linked to that of Torralb...
Article
Full-text available
The highest concentration of Palaeolithic sites known in the Iberian Peninsula is located in the lower stretches of the Manzanares and Jarama rivers. This area, together with a number of zones in the Tagus valley, constitutes one of the most important archives for the knowledge of the European Pleistocene. The purpose of this paper is to establish...
Article
Full-text available
Two clearly differentiated techno-complexes can be recognised in the Iberian Peninsula during the second half of the Middle Pleistocene: the Acheulean and the Middle Palaeolithic. In this paper we present the current state of research on both technological entities, and propose that they represent two different industrial traditions. The Acheulean,...
Article
Ever since Mary Leakey's initial excavations in the 1960s, TK (Thiongo Korongo) has been recognized as one of Olduvai Gorge's most important Acheulean sites. The significant concentrations of lithics and fauna reported by Mary Leakey have been augmented in recent years by Santonja et al., who argue that human activities appear to be largely related...
Article
Full-text available
Due to the construction of the Stormwater Tank in Villaverde (Madrid), two new Pleistocene vertebrate bearing sites were discovered within the sediments of the Complex Terrace of Butarque (TCB, in Spanish), called H-02 and H-03. Termoluminiscence (TL) dates placed the first site at the Late Pleistocene, more precisely at the end of the MIS 5. An ol...
Article
The interglacial episodes of the Quaternary Period are currently the focus of a great deal of attention within the scientific community, primarily because they can help us to understand how the climate of the current interglacial may have evolved without human intervention and to assess the impact of these climate changes on ecological systems. In...
Article
Abstract This paper presents the findings from four sites with proboscidean remains associated with Middle Palaeolithic stone tools from the Manzanares Valley Complex Terrace of Butarque (CTB), which has been dated to between the final Middle Pleistocene (MIS 6, 190–130 ka) and the early Late Pleistocene (MIS 5, 130-74-71 ka). We review the direct...
Article
At TK, 113 m2 were excavated in 2010–2012 in the two areas immediately adjacent to the trenches dug by M. Leakey in 1963. Extensive lithic and faunal assemblages were retrieved from several levels of the archaeological site. TK is located at the exposed top of Olduvai's Bed II, recently dated to 1.353 ± 0.035 Ma. From a geo-archaeological perspecti...
Article
a b s t r a c t Áridos 1 and Áridos 2 (Madrid, Spain) are two Middle Pleistocene sites belonging to the isotopic stages 9e11. Both places contain partial carcasses of Elephas (Paleoxodon) antiquus associated to Acheulian stone tools. In this work, the taphonomic study of the elephant remains of Áridos 2 is presented. This study has documented sever...
Article
a b s t r a c t The archaeological site at PRERESA (Madrid, Spain) has been dated to 84 AE 5.6 ka by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) (MIS 5a). An area 255 m 2 was excavated and 754 lithic pieces were recovered, as well as a large amount of micro and macro vertebrate remains, including proboscidean bones. The aim of this paper is to outline...
Article
The archeological sites of HAT and PRERESA are located in the valleys of the rivers Jarama and Manzanares respectively, at nearly 6 km one from the other, and 18 km southeast of Madrid. They correspond to floodplain deposits that preserved the remains of the punctual activities of Neanderthal groups in particular the cutting up of large mammals (in...
Article
The archeological sites of Hat and Preresa are located in the valleys of the rivers Jarama and Manzanares respectively, at nearly 6 km one from the other, and 18 km southeast of Madrid. They correspond to floodplain deposits that preserved the remains of the punctual activities of Neanderthal groups in particular the cutting up of large mammals (in...
Article
Full-text available
La Terraza Compleja de Arganda (TCA), situada en el tramo bajo del río Jarama (Madrid), está formada por sucesivos apilamientos de secuencias fluviales denominados de abajo a arriba Arganda I, II, III y IV, en los que se han encontrado importantes yacimientos arqueológicos y paleontológicos del Pleistoceno (Áridos 1 y 2, Valdocarros o HAT), y numer...
Article
Climate instability with high-amplitude and rapid shifts during the Middle Pleistocene is well known from pollen records and deep-ocean sediment cores. Although poorly correlatable with such long climate/environment records, the successive fossil amphibian and reptile assemblages from the Middle Pleistocene site of Valdocarros II (Autonomous Region...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract: PRERESA (Getafe, Madrid) is a site of the first third of the Late Pleistocene, at the end of MIS 5, of which 255 m2 have been excavated, and where 754 stone pieces and abundant remains of micro- and macrovertebrates have been recovered. This paper deals with the study of the following identified micromammals at the site: Erinaceomorpha: E...
Article
Full-text available
We study the micromammals from the sites of Valdocarros and HAT, located in the lithostratigraphic unit of Arganda II and IV respectively, within the Arganda Complex Terrace, in the Jarama Valley (Madrid, Spain). The micromammal associations of these sites consist of the following taxa: in Valdocarros: Erinaceomorpha: Erinaceus europaeus ; Soricomo...
Chapter
Full-text available
El desarrollo de la Arqueología se ha interpretado de diferentes maneras desde el análisis crítico de la teoría arqueológica que propició la Nueva Arqueología en los años sesenta. B. Trigger ha distinguido cuatro enfoques diferentes sobre la evolución de la Arqueología: los autores que consideran que se ha desarrollado a base de cambios revoluciona...
Chapter
Full-text available
Abstract: The potential value of the archaeological record in Manzanares valley, to the establishment of the Middle Palaeolithic beginning, is well known since decades. The find of lithic industry, fauna and pollen, in low energy facies, attributed to the first third of the Upper Pleistocene in HAT (a gravel pit in San Martín de la Vega, central Sp...
Article
Full-text available
Desde que la Gaceta de Madrid atribuyera en 1778 los restos de elefante exhumados en los alrededores del Puente de Toledo al ejército de Aníbal, los continuos hallazgos de estos proboscídeos en los valles de los ríos Manzanares y Jarama no han dejado de asombrar. La temprana identificación de útiles líticos en los altos de San Isidro, en 1862, conv...

Citations

... The exploitation of these raw materials seems to center on the acquisition of large flake blanks for the production of large cutting tools (LCTs) (for a techno-typological review, see Sharon , 2010. These LCTs are the types of artifacts that have been best described within the region, in contrast with flaking strategies and lithic reduction, which (though very rarely described) are crucial to our comprehension of local technical trajectories and Acheulean diversity in Africa (e.g., Bello-Alonso et al. 2021;Schick and Clark 2003;Semaw et al. 2020). Moreover, the scarcity of collections that include the whole series of objects used within a chain of production impedes our understanding of the techniques employed in the production of LCTs. ...
... In the PB, Pinus, Steppic, Xerophilous, and Poaceae showed an overwhelming presence along the whole record, while in certain periods did humidity and temperature increase significantly. During these times Mediterranean and Mesophilous taxa increased, but without any large expansion of the latter, like in central Spain (Gil-García et al. 2018). In contrast, in other European records, main states characterised by forest, wooded steppe and steppe are typically identified (Wijmstra 1969;Wijmstra et al. 1976;Woillard 1978;Follieri et al. 1988; Tzedakis Table 7 Tentative correlation between the palynozones established in the Padul record (3) and those identified in other European records: La Grande Pile (Woillard 1978;de Beaulieu and Reille 1992), Velay (de Beaulieu et al. 2001), Ioannina (Wijmstra 1969(Wijmstra , 1976Tzedakis 1994), Tenaghi Phillipon Pross et al. 2015), Lake Ohrid (Sadori et al. 2016, Sinopoli et al. 2018, Lake Van (Litt et al. 2014, Pickarski andLitt 2017), Valle di Castiglione (Follieri et al. 1988), Lago Grande di Monticchio (Allen et al. 2000), MD95-2042(Sánchez-Goñi et al. 1999, 2000, 2008, Allen et al. 2000;Sadori et al. 2016;Sinopoli et al. 2018). ...
... Toolkits may also have been essential to hominins for butchering carcasses, with cutting edges for processing soft tissue as well as percussion tools to extract marrow. With the onset of the Acheulean and the emergence of H. erectus sensu lato populations in Africa, between 1.9 and 1.7 Ma (Lepre et al., 2011;Hammond et al., 2021), we observe a dietary change with greater evidence of carnivorous and predatory behavior in faunal assemblages (Shipman and Walker, 1989;Echassoux, 2012;Pante, 2013;Domínguez-Rodrigo et al., 2014;Diez-Martín et al., 2015;Arriaza et al., 2017;Yravedra et al., 2020). However, although meat consumption occurred quite early in human evolution, common meat consumption, complex forms of cooperative hunting, entire butchery sequences and stone and carcass transport, which require advanced cognitive skills such as planning and more decision-making, seem to have developed later, after 1 Ma, throughout the African continent and the Levant in conjunction with early Middle Pleistocene environmental changes (Clark et al., 2006;Rabinovich et al., 2008;Forrest et al., 2018;Altamura et al., 2019;Daujeard et al., 2020). ...
... Recently, several experimental programs aimed to broaden our knowledge on the mechanical responses to stress caused by the use and wear formation process on non-flint rocks were created (e.g. Bello-Alonso et al., 2019;Bello-Alonso et al., 2020;. Concurrently, new analytical techniques, such as scanning electron microscope (SEM) and laser scanning confocal microscope, improved the detection and recognition of wear traces on these highly reflective and irregular rocks (e.g. ...
... In addition, these studies allow an evaluation of the degree of integrity and/or the intensity of the sedimentary modifications and, therefore, the capacity of the site to provide relevant information that explains the behaviour of human groups. Currently, there are many literary examples of the application of these type of methods in Lower or Middle Palaeolithic contexts regarding different ages and sedimentary environments (Schick, 1986, 1987, Dibble, et al., 1997, Shea, 1999, Grosman, et al., 2011, Müller and Pasda, 2011, Shipton, 2011, Bertran, et al., 2012, Domínguez-Rodrigo, et al., 2012, Walter and Trauth, 2013, Hovers, et al., 2014, Byers, et al., 2015, García-Moreno, et al., 2016, Giusti and Arzarello, 2016, Lotter, et al., 2016, Giusti, et al., 2018, Stahlschmidt, et al., 2018, Baena Preysler and Torres Navas, 2019, Bertran, et al., 2019, Giusti, et al., 2019, Panera, et al., 2019, Chu and Hosfield, 2020, Peters and van Kolfschoten, 2020, García-Moreno, et al., 2021, Saladié, et al., 2021. These studies conclude that sedimentary processes can affect the shape of the artefacts, the composition and the final distribution of the archaeological remains. ...
... Recently, several experimental programs aimed to broaden our knowledge on the mechanical responses to stress caused by the use and wear formation process on non-flint rocks were created (e.g. Bello-Alonso et al., 2019;Bello-Alonso et al., 2020;. Concurrently, new analytical techniques, such as scanning electron microscope (SEM) and laser scanning confocal microscope, improved the detection and recognition of wear traces on these highly reflective and irregular rocks (e.g. ...
... The known Acheulean sites on the Iberian Peninsula are almost exclusively located in Atlantic drainage basins, in fluvial formations of the Miño, Duero, Tagus, Guadiana and Guadalquivir basins (Raposo et al., 1985;Raposo et al., 1985;Cunha Ribeiro, 1999;Méndez-Quintas, 2007;Santonja and Villa 2006;Santonja and Pérez-González, 2010;Rubio-Jara et al., 2016;Panera et al., 2019;Méndez-Quintas et al., 2020). On the Cantabrian region, sites have also been reported (Arrizabalaga and Ríos, 2012), while in the Mediterranean drainage basin, only in the upper basin of the Ebro River some sites have been mentioned on terraces of this river close to Pamplona (Beguiristain, 1995). ...
... Our study of TK was based on controlled and extensive archeological excavations, with the objective to understand the local technological variability from an interactive standpoint that includes cultural, conceptual, technological, behavioral and economical aspects. The excavations we have been carrying out at TK since 2010 have made it possible to establish the Acheulean character of the TKLF's lithic industry (Santonja et al., 2014(Santonja et al., , 2018Rubio-Jara et al., 2017), reinterpret the stratigraphy of the site and verify that it is more complex than was thought up to now (Leakey, 1971). Besides, we have identified a new archeological floor situated between TKLF and TKUF, which we have called TK Sivatherium Floor (TKSF). ...
... The oldest Mode 1 remains dated in the Catalonian locus of Vallparadís, are set at 1-0.8 Ma Rodríguez, (2007-2008); García et al., 2013;Duval et al., 2015). The Jarama and Manzanares valleys (Madrid), contain evidence of human occupation without interruption from 0.8 Ma (Panera et al., 2010;Panera et al., 2019;Rubio-Jara and Panera, 2019;Moreno et al., 2019). This would be a chronological range consistent with the closer site of the El Provencio Complex (El Provencio, Cuenca), whose terminus ante quem for the Mode 1 lithic collection is set at 0.8 Ma (Domínguez-Solera et al., 2020). ...
... From a zooarchaeological and taphonomic standpoint, the Iberian Peninsula is home to many sites at which Neanderthals were the main agents of accumulation, but these sites have not often been examined with their functionality in mind Delgado Arcos, 2019;Díez et al., 2014;Fern andez-Laso et al., 2015;Huguet et al., 2010;Martínez-Moreno, 2005;Yravedra, 2010;Yravedra et al., 2013). At some sites, however, the functionality of their occupation has been determined, with sites of resource capture and of a long-and short-term residential nature identified (Baena et al., 2008;Blasco, 1995;Carbonell, 2012;Gabucio et al., 2014;Marín et al., 2019;Martínez-Moreno et al., 2004;P erez et al., 2020;Romero et al., 2019;Rosell et al., 2012a;Vallverdú et al., 2005;Yravedra et al., 2012Yravedra et al., , 2019Yravedra and L opez Cisneros, 2015). Some sites have also been identified at which the activity of Neanderthal people occurred during just a moment in time, for example at carnivore dens, without it being very clear what use was really made of them Caparr os et al., 2012;Huguet et al., 2010;Rodríguez-Hidalgo et al., 2010;Sala et al., 2012). ...