Susan T. Ennett's research while affiliated with University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and other places

Publications (67)

Article
Objective: The relationship between smoking and adolescents' peer relationships is complex, with studies showing increased risk of smoking for adolescents of both very high and very low social position. A key question is whether the impact of social position on smoking depends on an adolescent's level of coping motives (i.e., their desire to use s...
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Sexual empowerment is a key strategy in HIV prevention intervention design, yet its measurement has been conceptualized as homogeneous. To date, no studies have examined whether young Black men who have sex with men (YBMSM) exhibit heterogeneity across sexual empowerment. Using baseline data from a randomized controlled trial (N = 275, HIV-negative...
Article
We aimed to characterize developmental patterns of involvement in alcohol use, delinquency, and interpersonal aggression in a normative sample of adolescents by applying multitrajectory group-based modeling. Using seven waves of data from a cohort sequential study spanning the 6th to 12th grades (n = 2,825; 50% girls), we identified four distinct t...
Article
Sexual empowerment represents an important HIV intervention strategy, yet limited attention has examined the multidimensional nature of sexual empowerment in prior studies. Using a sample (n = 465) of young Black men who have sex with men (MSM), we used confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to test a multifactorial operationalization of sexual empower...
Article
Objective Few parent-targeted interventions have examined the mechanisms of action by which the intervention changes child behavior. The purpose of this study was to test the theoretical and behavioral mediators of the Smart Moms intervention on changes in child sugar-sweetened beverage and juice (SSB/juice) consumption. Study design This is a sec...
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Introduction: Although previous research has suggested a positive association between child maltreatment and BMI over the life course, it is unclear when this develops. Methods: The authors used time-varying effect models and data from a nationally representative, longitudinal, cohort study (Add Health), to test how childhood physical, sexual, a...
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Background: Prior studies have suggested maltreatment is a strong predictor of later weight outcomes, such that maltreatment experiences in childhood increase the likelihood of being overweight or obese in adulthood. Estimates of this relationship may be biased due to: 1) inadequate selection of covariates; 2) improper operationalization of child...
Article
Introduction Young adulthood is a critical time for the emergence of risk behaviors including smoking. Psychological health is associated with smoking, but studies rarely track both over time. We used longitudinal data to assess whether average patterns of psychological health influenced average patterns of smoking and whether short-term fluctuatio...
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The current study examined whether social status and social integration, two related but distinct indicators of an adolescent's standing within a peer network, mediate the association between risky symptoms (depressive symptoms and deviant behavior) and substance use across adolescence. The sample of 6,776 adolescents participated in up to seven wa...
Article
Decreasing the number of adolescents who have never had sexual intercourse is one way to address sexual health disparities. We used intersectionality to explore the joint effects of religiosity and racial identity on Black adolescent sexual initiation. Data originated from the National Survey of American Life‐Adolescent (n = 1,170), a nationally re...
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Background: A single measure that distills complex body mass index (BMI) trajectories into one value could facilitate otherwise complicated analyses. This study creates and assesses the validity of such a measure: average excess BMI. Methods: We use data from Waves I-IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (n = 17,669...
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Objective: This study tests the intermediate biracial substance use hypothesis, which suggests that the prevalence of substance use among biracial individuals fall intermediate to their corresponding mononoracial counterparts. Using National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent and Adult Health (Add Health) data, we examine alcohol-use trajectories of...
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An unhealthy body mass index (BMI) trajectory can exacerbate the burdens associated with child maltreatment. However, we have yet to explain why the relationship between maltreatment and BMI trajectories exists and what allows individuals to attain healthy BMI trajectories despite adversity. Guided by the Transactional Model of Stress and Coping, w...
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In the study of adolescent health, it is useful to derive indices of social dynamics from sociometric data, and to use these indices as predictors of health risk behaviors. In this manuscript, we introduce a flexible latent variable model as a novel way of obtaining estimates of social integration and social status from school‐based sociometric dat...
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Similar to many sub-Saharan African countries, maternal mortality in Ghana ranks among the highest (39th) globally. Prior research has demonstrated the impact of social network characteristics on health facility delivery in sub-Saharan Africa. However, in-depth examination of the function of all members in a woman's network, in providing various ty...
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Typological theoretical perspectives suggest that the consequences of involvement in peer and dating violence may depend on the particular pattern of violent behaviors that youth experience and/or engage in. Yet few studies have examined whether distinct patterns of dating and peer violence involvement differentially predict developmental outcomes....
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Although the contributions of friend selection and friend influence to adolescent homophily on substance use behaviors has been of enduring research interest, moderators of these processes have received relatively little research attention. Identification of factors that dampen or amplify selection and influence on substance use behaviors is import...
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When generating scores to represent latent constructs, analysts have a choice between applying psychometric approaches that are principled but that can be complicated and time-intensive versus applying simple and fast, but less precise approaches, such as sum or mean scoring. We explain the reasons for preferring modern psychometric approaches: nam...
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This study determined the nature of the associations between religious socialization, religiosity, and adolescent sexual initiation. Data originated from the National Survey of American Life-Adolescent (n = 1170), a nationally representative study of black adolescents. Factor analysis, structural equation modeling, and logistic regression were used...
Article
Objective: The current study examined whether an adolescent's standing within a school-bounded social network moderated the association between depressive symptoms and substance use across adolescence as a function of developmental and demographic factors (gender, parental education, and race/ethnicity). Method: The sample of 6,776 adolescents p...
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Several school- and family-based preventive interventions target and effectively reduce adolescent alcohol misuse. However, whether demographic groups achieve equal success with these interventions is unclear. In particular, most interventions target younger adolescents, and program effectiveness tends to be measured with majority White samples; su...
Article
This study identified heterogeneous patterns of peer and dating aggression and victimization among boys and girls and examined their relation to risk and protective correlates. Girls (n = 1648) and boys (n = 1420) in grades 8–10 completed surveys assessing 14 indicators of violence involvement. Latent class analyses indicated a four-class solution,...
Article
Social ecological and developmental system perspectives suggest that interactions among factors within and across multiple contexts (e.g., neighborhood, peer, family) must be considered in explaining dating violence perpetration. Yet, to date, most extant research on dating violence has focused on individual, rather than contextual predictors, and...
Article
This study identified profiles of internalizing (anxiety and depression) and externalizing (delinquency and violence against peers) symptoms among bullying victims and examined associations between bullying victimization characteristics and profile membership. The sample consisted of 1196 bullying victims in grades 8-10 (Mage = 14.4, SD = 1.01) who...
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Background: Although numerous studies have examined parental influence on adolescent alcohol misuse, few have examined how adolescents impact parental behavior or the reciprocal nature of parent-adolescent behavior relative to alcohol misuse. Objectives: This study assessed bidirectional relationships between adolescent alcohol misuse and three...
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Background Health facility births contribute to the prevention of maternal deaths. Although theoretical and empirical evidence suggest that social network characteristics influence facility delivery, examination of this relationship in sub-Saharan Africa is limited. We determined whether network structural and functional characteristics were associ...
Article
Background: Sugar-sweetened beverages and maternal weight are strong drivers of child obesity, but few studies have targeted these risk factors as an obesity prevention strategy in children. Objective: The objective of this study was to test the efficacy of a smartphone-delivered intervention to reduce parent-provided sugar-sweetened beverage an...
Article
Self-rated health (SRH) is a robust measure of general health status and an indicator of where and when to target disease prevention efforts-especially in adolescent populations when clinical endpoints are rare. This study's purpose was to model SRH trajectories from ages 13 to 31 and identify whether and when differences between demographic groups...
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Theory and research suggest that there may be significant heterogeneity in the development, manifestation, and consequences of adolescent dating violence that is not yet well understood. The current study contributed to our understanding of this heterogeneity by identifying distinct patterns of involvement in psychological, physical, and sexual dat...
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This systematic review examines whether negative affect symptoms (i.e., anxiety, depression, and internalizing symptoms more broadly) predict subsequent adolescent substance use after controlling for co-occurring externalizing symptoms. Following PRISMA procedures, we identified 61 studies that tested the association of interest. Findings varied de...
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Purpose: Prior research has found that the protective effect of parental engagement on adolescent smoking behaviors may be weaker if parents smoke. We examine parental influence on adolescent smoking using a social learning theory framework. We hypothesize that adolescents are more likely to mimic parental smoking behavior if they perceive parents...
Article
Background: In 2004, Congress passed legislation mandating that all public school districts participating in federal school meal programs develop a school wellness policy (SWP) to direct efforts related to nutrition and physical activity. We examined the extent to which SWPs varied in comprehensiveness and strength in a representative sample of sc...
Article
Purpose: Both substance use and depression are common in adolescence and often comorbid. Past research has produced conflicting results on whether there is a temporal relationship, and if so, in which direction it operates and how it may vary by sex. We examined the longitudinal associations between substance use frequency and depressive symptoms...
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Despite theoretical and empirical evidence suggesting that the family environment plays a central role in Latino youth development, relatively little is known about how family processes influence dating violence victimization among Latino adolescents. To address this gap in the literature, we used data from 210 Latino parents and their 13- to 15-ye...
Article
Background: Few studies have comprehensively evaluated the effectiveness of multi-faceted interventions intended to improve pedestrian safety. "Watch for Me NC" is a multi-faceted, community-based pedestrian safety program that includes widespread media and public engagement in combination with enhanced law enforcement activities (i.e., police out...
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This 4-year efficacy trial tested whether a home-based, self-administered parenting program could have a long-term effect on children’s cognitive susceptibility to alcohol use, and it tested hypothesized moderators and mediators of any such program effect. Using a two-group randomized controlled design, 1076 children (540 treatment; 536 control; me...
Article
Purpose: The negative impact on adolescents of being a victim of violence is well documented, but the impact of being a perpetrator of violence is less well known. Knowing the negative outcomes of being a perpetrator could inform clinical interactions with adolescents, development of violence prevention strategies, and estimates of the societal bu...
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The high risk of perpetrating physical dating violence, bullying, and sexual harassment by adolescents exposed to domestic violence points to the need for programs to prevent these types of aggression among this group. This study of adolescents exposed to domestic violence examined whether these forms of aggression share risk factors that could be...
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Objective: This study reports effects of a parenting program to increase parents' readiness to socialize their children against early alcohol use. Method: A two-group randomized controlled trial was conducted with a nonprobability sample of 816 mothers. Participants were recruited from school districts located primarily in North Carolina and com...
Article
Moms and Teens for Safe Dates (MTSD) is a dating abuse (DA) prevention program for teens exposed to domestic violence. In a randomized controlled trial (RCT), MTSD prevented certain types of DA victimization (psychological and physical) and perpetration (psychological and cyber) among teens with higher, but not lower, exposure to domestic violence....
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We assessed a multidimensional model of parent alcohol socialization in which key socialization factors were considered simultaneously to identify combinations of factors that increase or decrease risk for development of adolescent alcohol misuse. Of interest was the interplay between putative risk and protective factors, such as whether the typica...
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Background: The objectives of this study were to document retailer opinions about tobacco control policy at the point of sale (POS) and link these opinions with store level compliance with sales and marketing provisions of the Tobacco Control Act. Methods: This study conducted interviews of 252 tobacco retailers in three counties in North Caroli...
Article
Theoretic models suggest that associations between substance use and dating violence perpetration may vary in different social contexts, but few studies have examined this proposition. The current study examined whether social control and violence in the neighborhood, peer, and family contexts moderate the associations between substance use (heavy...
Article
Rural adolescents are at high risk for dating violence victimization (DVV), which has serious negative consequences. Understanding more about the conditions that increase DVV risk for rural adolescents is needed to inform prevention efforts. In response to calls for examining the influence of upper levels of the social ecology on adolescent dating...
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This short-term longitudinal study examined whether the association between bullying perpetration and later physical dating violence perpetration and mediators of that association (via anger, depression, anxiety, and social status), varied depending on level of bullying victimization. Differences have been noted between those who bully but are not...
Article
We assessed public and smoker support for enacted and potential point-of-sale (POS) tobacco-control policies under the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act. We surveyed a US nationally representative sample of 17 507 respondents (6595 smokers) in January through February 2013, and used linear regression to calculate weighted point esti...
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Peer support among adolescents has been positively associated with heath behaviors; however, enhancing peer support for weight loss has rarely been studied among adolescents. This study examined whether a peer support training component delivered to enhance a standard weight loss program led to improved outcomes. Forty-one overweight adolescent fem...
Article
Adolescents exposed to domestic violence are at high risk for dating abuse. This randomized controlled trial evaluated a dating abuse prevention program designed specifically for this risk group. Moms and Teens for Safe Dates consisted of six mailed booklets of dating abuse prevention information and interactive activities. Mothers who had been vic...
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Limited research exists on the process, partners, and resources needed to develop and implement programs addressing pedestrian and bicycle safety. Before communities can evaluate program effectiveness, they first need more guidance on what efforts could theoretically lead to fewer crashes, the extent of program delivery needed before changes in beh...
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Adolescents exposed to domestic violence are at increased risk of dating abuse, yet no evaluated dating abuse prevention programs have been designed specifically for this high-risk population. This article describes the process of adapting Families for Safe Dates (FSD), an evidenced-based universal dating abuse prevention program, to this high-risk...
Article
Purpose: Peers and dates are common targets of adolescent violence. Prevention programs typically address either peer violence (PV) or dating violence (DV) but not both. However, if PV and DV share predictors, prevention strategies could target both behaviors, yielding economic and time efficiencies. Longitudinal data were examined to determine th...
Article
Neighborhood context plays a role in the development of adolescent health risk behaviors, but few studies have investigated the influence of neighborhoods on the perpetration of dating violence. This longitudinal study examined the direct effects of risky neighborhood structural and physical characteristics on trajectories of the perpetration of da...
Article
Background: Previous cross-sectional research has shown that adolescents' cigarette use is interactively associated with that of their school peers and their 5HTTLPR genotype, such that the cigarette use of persons with more copies of the 5HTTLPR*S' allele is more dependent on school peers' cigarette use behaviors than their counterparts. This ana...
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Studies report that alcohol use is related to partner violence, but for many, alcohol use does not culminate in violence against partners. Guided by a self-regulatory failure framework, we predicted that alcohol use would be more strongly associated with dating violence perpetration among adolescents with genotypes linked to impulsivity and emotion...
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Objectives: To describe the development of a peer support intervention and test an enhanced version compared to a standard protocol. Methods: Participants (N = 36 females) were assigned to an Enhanced Peer Support (PS) vs Standard weight loss group for 4 months. The PS component consisted of skills training and practice between sessions using socia...
Article
This study had two objectives: first, to determine the degree to which experiences of victimization by peers during adolescence led to a subsequent rise in depressive symptoms, and second, to identify genetic markers that predict depressive reactivity to victimization. We used a cohort sequential design to obtain a longitudinal sample of 1,475 adol...
Article
One suggested approach to preventing adolescent dating violence is to prevent behavioral precursors to dating violence, such as bullying. However, no longitudinal study has examined bullying as a behavioral precursor to dating violence. In this study, longitudinal data were used to examine (1) whether direct and indirect bullying perpetration in th...
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Although numerous studies have established a link between substance use and adult partner violence, little research has examined the relationship during adolescence and most extant research has not examined multiple substance use types. The current study used hierarchical growth modeling to simultaneously examine proximal (between-person) and time-...
Article
Few alcohol prevention programs focus on elementary school-aged youth, yet children develop expectancies and norms about alcohol use during the elementary school years, and many elementary school children are allowed to have sips or tastes of alcohol at home. Research on consequences of early alcohol use indicates that it can put children at increa...
Article
Objective To examine the impact of a weight loss intervention that focused on daily self‐weighing for self‐monitoring as compared to a delayed control group among 91 overweight adults. Design and Methods The 6‐month intervention included a cellular‐connected “smart” scale for daily weighing, web‐based weight loss graph, and weekly e‐mails with tail...
Conference Paper
Background. Pubertal timing, a measure of how developed an adolescent is in relation to peers, has been linked to adolescent risk behavior. One measurement challenge is that pubertal development is ongoing, so self-perception of development in relation to peers could vary. The purpose of this study is to examine the stability of self-reported puber...
Conference Paper
Social aggression damages interpersonal relationships through behaviors such as gossiping and social alienation. Despite its serious consequences for both perpetrators and victims, little is known about how this form of non-physical aggression develops during adolescence or what factors impact the perpetration of social aggression. Because this inf...
Conference Paper
Background: As in urban settings, social determinants of mental health, such as neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage and social disorganization, may adversely impact young women living in rural communities. Based on theories of chronic stress and strain, we hypothesized that the developmental trajectories of depression of rural girls would show...

Citations

... Additionally, there is evidence that aspects of an adolescent's social context moderate the effects of internalizing symptoms on substance use both at a stable and timevarying level (Hussong et al., 2018(Hussong et al., , 2020. Low levels of social integration and high levels of coping motives may strengthen the tie between negative affect and substance use behavior (Cole et al., 2022). Affective and contextual moderators of this pathway need to be elucidated, in order to further understand which environments may be more conducive to this connection. ...
... As early adolescents begin to rely more on peers for critical sources of identity, selfevaluation, and personal worth, they become more responsive to peer influence [19]. A large body of research has examined the role of negative peer influence, such as associations with peers who engage in delinquent or aggressive behavior, on adolescent problem behaviors [20][21][22][23][24][25]. For instance, a study conducted by Zhu J et al. revealed that deviant peer affiliation was positively correlated with problem behaviors (r = 0.42, p < 0.01) [25]. ...
... Empowerment is a psychosocial process that helps individuals make decisions. Also, sexual empowerment encompasses emotional support (Choi et al., 2021a(Choi et al., , 2021bChoi et al., 2021aChoi et al., , 2021b. Therefore, it is essential to connect sexual and gender minorities to each other for social support. ...
... Empowerment is a psychosocial process that helps individuals make decisions. Also, sexual empowerment encompasses emotional support (Choi et al., 2021a(Choi et al., , 2021bChoi et al., 2021aChoi et al., , 2021b. Therefore, it is essential to connect sexual and gender minorities to each other for social support. ...
... At the individual level, interventions that provide or encourage water consumption, such as providing water filters to clean tap water [40], or education programs on SSBs and healthy lifestyle choices [41,42] have reduced SSB consumption. Other studies have used behavior change theories to decrease SSB consumption [43][44][45][46]. For example, the Smart Moms intervention [43,44] used social cognitive theory, a type of behavior change theory, to design a phone-based program to decrease SSB and juice intake in mother-child (3-5 years of age) dyads. ...
... Some evidence suggests that these numbers have even increased since the pandemic (Loiseau et al., 2021;Pereda & Díaz-Faes, 2020;Swedo et al., 2020). Maltreated children are at risk of a host of negative consequences, including increased risk of depression and anxiety disorders (Gardner et al., 2019;Humphreys et al., 2020;Kisely et al., 2018), sleep disorders (Turner et al., 2020), eating disorders (Sokol et al., 2019;Sokol et al., 2018), cardiovascular risks (Ho et al., 2020), and adverse economic outcomes in adulthood (Bunting et al., 2018) to cite but a few. ...
... Whitaker et al. [31] found psychological aggression and physical punishment unrelated to obesity in preschool children, whereas, neglect was associated with obesity independently of parental education in the same sample. The results of Sokol et al. [32] suggested maltreatment in adolescence, but not in childhood, was related to excess BMI. In contrast to these studies, our results showed a significant association of experiencing violence with both underweight and obesity. ...
... Taylor et al. [10] investigated the relationship between smoking, quitting smoking, and mental health. Schmidt et al. [16] examined the relationship between average patterns of psychological health and average patterns of smoking using longitudinal data. ...
... It follows that identifying protective factors against social alienation related drinking is particularly important. However, the nonsignificant effect of social involvement on alcohol use was not in line with previous research indicating a link between sociometric popularity and substance use culminating in socially motivated drinking behaviors (Ali et al., 2014;Allen et al., 2005;Hussong et al., 2020). The discrepancy between the previous and the current findings may be due to the nature of the social involvement measure used in the current study that mainly captured involvement in groups as well as number of friends and frequency of contacts with friends. ...
... LCA was seen as useful in that it was a data-driven exploratory approach [35], and that it did not require a priori specification of groups [36]. The groups were noted to be potentially both more homogenous [37] and substantively meaningful [35,38], especially useful when groups are then used as categorizations to predict outcomes. For example, one study stated, "Using an LCA approach allowed us to define more cohesive social groups and subsequently the reference group in the regression analyses was also likely to be a more homogenous group, which increases the validity of the analyses." ...