Susan P. Douglas's research while affiliated with CUNY Graduate Center and other places

Publications (59)

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With the globalization of markets, attention to international branding strategies becomes an increasingly important issue. Firms must decide on the appropriate balance of global, regional and local brands, as well as who should have custody of these brands and their positioning in international markets.
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Purpose Rural consumers in emerging market countries are among the largest and fastest growing segments of the world's population. The purpose of this paper is to examine marketing's role in tapping potential in rural areas and suggest how firms can help potential consumers develop their purchasing power, thus creating a situation that benefits bot...
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In recent years, increasing interest has emerged in examining global consumer culture and its impact on consumer product preferences and choices, lifestyles, and exposure to mass media from other countries. In turn, this has sparked interest in concepts such as consumer world-mindedness and its impact on attitudes and behavior. The current research...
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Cross-cultural research (CCR) is extremely important for advancing understanding of the range and limits of theoretical constructs and frameworks across different cultural contexts. CCR also provides an important understanding of the differences between countries and cultures. This commentary essay examines the review conducted by Engelen and Brett...
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Purpose The choice of which country or countries to enter is a critical decision and needs to be made with considerable care and deliberation. Initial market entry decisions have typically focused on country evaluations based on macro‐economic data. While appropriate in providing an initial screening of countries, other factors, notably contextual...
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Many markets are converging, as communications and logistic networks become more integrated and firms from all parts of the world are expanding operations on a global scale. At the same time, other markets are becoming more diverse, and marketers are increasingly encountering economic and cultural heterogeneity. The authors examine the implications...
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Global marketing strategy involves formulating marketing strategy across a range of countries. A number of different approaches have been taken in studying global marketing strategy, including the transaction cost perspective, standardization/adaptation, configuration/coordination perspective, global integration perspective, and the evolutionary pe...
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In examining the issues relating to global marketing strategy, scholars have primarily focused on marketing opportunities in the developed world. Recently, rapid rates of growth in emerging market countries have resulted in a growing interest in the market potential of these countries. Developing a global marketing strategy to target these diverse...
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Full-text available
The present article examines the predictive ability of gender identity congruity in explaining women's responses to advertising appeals. The contributions of the article are twofold: (1) to demonstrate whether advertisements that are congruent with female consumers' gender identities elicit strong positive responses and (2) to identify the factors...
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Purpose American cultural influence is evident throughout the world to varying degrees. The purpose of this paper is to examine factors that influence the extent to which a particular country adopts elements of American culture. Factors related to information, ideas, technology, goods, and capital as well as cultural proximity are used to explain t...
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Culture has been studied extensively in diverse disciplines, each focusing on different elements and employing different research paradigms. Anthropology and sociolinguistics have focused on cultural content, examining, for example, a culture’s artifacts, rites and rituals, and modes of communication. Cross-cultural psychology, developmental psycho...
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As advances in communications technology shrink the impact of geographic distance, consumers are likely to become more aware of and familiar with products and services in other parts of the world, as well as global social and ethical issues. Retailers have responded to these trends (termed here "consumer world-mindedness" and "consumer social- mind...
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Rapid and dramatic changes in the global landscape have profound implications for marketing strategy. This chapter explores four key areas that impact global marketing strategy. The most fundamental change is a shift in emphasis from developed markets to those in emerging market economies. A related change is the increasing cultural diversity and h...
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Back translation is the technique most commonly used to check the accuracy of translation in survey research. Although it results in a direct or literal translation, it does not address issues of conceptual equivalence. Furthermore, if it is not combined with pretesting, it does not address issues of comprehension and meaning to the respondent. Thi...
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Many social roles are associated with and identified by product symbols. Yet, frequently, there is much ambiguity among consumers regarding which products denote a given role, and the specific products which communicate desired role attributes. The study examines factors influencing the diversity of clothing symbols associated with the female execu...
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The Financial Times recently reported that Nike is jumping on the real women bandwagon, using more ordinary women as opposed to flawless models in their advertising campaigns. Along with Nike, many companies have identified that some women experience negative effects by comparing themselves to highly attractive models in advertising, producing a ne...
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Purpose To develop a more thorough understanding of culture in a rapidly changing global environment. Design/methodology/approach The recent literature dealing with ways in which cultural dynamics are influencing the nature and meaning of culture are examined. Different perspectives of culture related to three key components of culture, intangible...
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International marketing research plays a vital role as firms expand globally. Yet limited attention has been paid to the conceptual underpinnings of research needed to guide expansion. This article focuses on these issues and specifically examines the conceptual framework that guides research, the geographic units of analysis, and the constructs. T...
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Culture matters for products with significant cultural content The current study examines the impact of cultural context on the box office performance of U.S. films in foreign markets. The results indicate that films perform better in countries that are culturally closer to the United States and those that have a greater degree of Americanization....
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Much research relating to consumer attitudes toward foreign products has been conducted in large industrialized countries, with big internal markets and a wide range of domestic brands. Little attention has been paid to the case of countries with high levels of foreign trade where, in some product markets, no domestic brands or alternatives are ava...
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Cross-national studies may be flawed through “borrowing” scales used in domestic studies, without examining their relevance and equivalence in other countries and contexts. Examining construct equivalence is an essential first step in the design of cross-national and multi-country studies. An important aspect is examining the equivalence in meaning...
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The Internet provides consumers around the world with a new mechanism for expanding and enhancing the information used to evaluate products and a new channel for making purchases. The purpose of this paper is to explore the implications of this new information environment for global markets. The critical role that information access plays in shapin...
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Brands play a critical role in establishing a firm's visibility and position in international markets. Building a coherent international brand architecture is a key component of the firm's overall international marketing strategy because it provides a structure to leverage strong brands into other markets, assimilate acquired brands, and integrate...
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As businesses expand further and further in international markets, the role of timely and accurate marketing research to guide decision making becomes increasingly critical. Research to support international marketing decisions has evolved over the past four decades and must change even more to support firms in the twenty-first century. There are f...
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Achieving a sustainable competitive advantage in global markets depends on the geographic scope and diversity of the firm's operations and their interlinkage, as well as on the extent of market integration and interdependence. The spatial configuration of the firm's assets, capabilities, and resources and the ability to manage and use these resourc...
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Three of the dimensions of the multidimensional construct called assimilation were measured in a sample drawn from the Chinese American population. These 3 dimensions were cultural assimilation, identificational assimilation, and structural assimilation. Each dimension was measured by a separate subscale, resulting in a tripartite measure. This mea...
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Examines the nature of the search process used by international firms in identifying trading partners in emerging markets, and to what extent systematic information collection on potential partners is likely to enhance the choice of satisfactory partners. The results, based on 46 Dutch companies, suggest that only a few companies have formal proced...
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Consumer researchers are increasingly exploring and comparing behavior and cognitions in diverse national environments. However, research in this area is fraught with conceptual and methodological pitfalls. This paper examines the critical issue of defining the appropriate unit of analysis in cross-cultural research and proposes a new definition. T...
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To compete successfully in world markets, firms from emerging market and newly industrialized economies need to develop strategies to participate more broadly in the transnational value chain. More specifically, they need to move beyond cost-oriented commodity approaches that rely on low-cost labor and other resources to value-creating strategies t...
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In developing global marketing strategy to compete in world markets, managers must address the challenges of constant change, increased complexity and intense competition, while, at the same time, responding to calls of conscience. However, the appropriate response to these challenges depends on the stage of involvement in international markets, i....
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Previous approaches to portfolio analysis in international markets focused on the country as the basic portfolio unit and relied on an assessment of market attractiveness and competitive strength to determine how to allocate resources. This article proposes an approach to international portfolio analysis based on an examination of the interconnecte...
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As the global landscape becomes populated by an increasingly diverse array of companies of different sizes, from different industries and of varied national origins, developing a strategy to compete effectively in global markets becomes ever more complex. How can companies of all kinds compete effectively in an increasingly diverse global landscape...
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Cross-national consumer research is one of the most challenging and exciting areas of consumer inquiry. As a clearly defined stream of research, it first emerged in the US in the early 1970s. The initial impetus for this research came from a growing recognition of the importance of understanding consumer behavior as a basis for developing effective...
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The growing expansion of the overseas activities of many companies throughout the world has stimulated an increased interest in examining and comparing marketing strategies of companies in different countries. Frequently attention has been focused on making generalisations about typical national practices, emphasising differences rather than simila...
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Increased communication, trade and travel between countries act to bring them together in many respects. The present study examines similarities in macro-environmental characteristics of eighteen industrialized nations over a twenty-eight-year period. Contrary to the initial research proposition, countries were found to be diverging, especially in...
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The prevailing belief is that Japan's markets are protected from the entry of foreign competition by a host of complex barriers. These range from conventional trade barriers such as tariffs and quotas on the import of certain items to more subtle barriers such as the morass of product regulation and the labyrinthian distribution channels. Nonethele...
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Identification of generic competitive strategy types has recently attracted considerable attention. Most of this research has, however, focused on competitive strategy of U.S. businesses in their domestic market. The present study extends these findings to markets outside the United States, and more specifically Europe, based on a sample of industr...
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The objective of this paper is to expand the concept of global marketing strategy beyond its current myopic focus on product positioning and branding. Emphasis on these issues lends to lead to the conclusion that standardisation is the most desirable global strategy. However a successful global marketing strategy needs to be developed and evaluated...
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A new methodological approach for examining the impact of country of origin on product evaluations is proposed. It takes the form of a multiattribute attitudinal model analyzed by means of a system of simultaneous equations. This approach makes possible examination of the impact of other attributes as well as country of origin on evaluations, and t...
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A new methodological approach for examining the impact of country of origin on product evaluations is proposed. It takes the form of a multiattribute attitudinal model analyzed by means of a system of simultaneous equations. This approach makes possible examination of the impact of other attributes as well as country of origin on evaluations, and t...
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In the U.S., a basic tenet of business philosophy is that profitability is related to market share. The generality of this finding in markets outside of the U.S. is examined based on a sample of product businesses drawn from the PIMS (Profit Impact of Marketing Strategy) data base. All businesses belong to firms whose corporate headquarters are loc...
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Comparative consumer research is one of the neglected areas of marketing and consumer behaviour. This article advocates the importance and contribution of comparative consumer research to the field of consumer behaviour. Following a brief discussion of the “emic”, “etic”, and hybrid approaches to comparative consumer behaviour, the article focuses...
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Full-text available
This paper suggests an operational approach to strategic planning for international marketing using a portfolio perspective. The need for such a perspective is discussed, followed by an examination of current approaches to international business portfolio analysis and strategic planning. A new approach to international portfolios, based on a combin...
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Contenido: 1) Investigación de mercado en un ambiente global; 2) Diseño de investigación en mercadotecnia internacional; 3) Fuentes de datos secundarios; 4) Utilización de los datos secundarios; 5) Estructura principal la recopilación de datos; 6) Determinación de la comparabilidad de los datos plurinacionales; 7) Técnicas de estudio de recolección...

Citations

... Consumers often form their own product beliefs based on a halo or an overall image of a product's country-of-origin (Diamantopoulos, Arslanagic-Kalajdzic, & Moschik, 2020; Roth & Diamantopoulos, 2009). Studies by Erickson, Johansson, and Chao (1984) and Johansson, Douglas, and Nonaka (1985) found that the image of a country, as a halo, directly and indirectly affects the overall evaluation of products from the country. By the same token, a country works as a mental knowledge trait to form and guide tourists' evaluation of places within the country (Kotler & Gertner, 2002). ...
... In terms of emerging markets, when following the plan set out for them by headquarters, traditional companies usually focus their internationalization efforts on the individual characteristics of the target markets or host country (Douglas and Craig, 1994). Importantly, because of the existence of both formal and informal institutions and economies within them, the majority of the world's markets can be categorized as emerging markets. ...
... " (Campbell and Moyers, 1991, p. 197). If culturally plural consumer behaviour cannot be entirely explained by arguments of purpose or deliberateness, neither can traits and characteristics explain it totally either (Douglas and Craig, 2009). Those who treat traits as formative of consumer behaviour inherently consider it as deterministic. ...
... The researchers believe that the ability to build conceptual bridges between cultures will remain a key competence for cross-cultural leadership, not only in Europe but also worldwide (Brodbeck et al. 2000, p. 26). 6 Cultural Competence in Coaching Rosinski ( 2003) advocates understanding different cultures as necessary for a coach to broaden their understanding and be better equipped to assist the client. He talks about professional or organizational culture versus national culture, and indicates various groupings of diversity such as geography and nationality (including region, religion and ethnicity), discipline, profession and education, organization (including industry, corporation, union and function), social life (including family, friends, social class and clubs), and gender and sexual orientation. ...
... Companies in emerging economies mostly compete on price (Craig and Douglas, 1997;Li and Kozhikode, 2009;Nchake et al., 2018) because their average income is relatively low (Batra, 1999). In addition, most companies in emerging economies are either imitators or adapters of technologies developed in advanced countries. ...
... In the long turn, a brand can represent a distinctive personality of the product or the service and even develop its own business culture. It is important for the future development of a kind of product or service because it provides a structure to use strong brands into other markets and combine strategy across several markets [1]. Branding strategy usually relates to the highest value of a corporation, which means the highest value of a company is created by the branding strategy [2]. ...
... Increasing internationalization brings along coordination cost (Hitt, Hoskisson, & Kim, 1997). Since strategic options are created via coordination of flexible resources (Sanchez, 1995), an international country portfolio requires balanced expansion, extension, and withdrawal decisions (Douglas & Craig 1996;Pauwels & Matthyssens, 1999). Therefore, we additionally investigate a firm's internationalization speed, as foreign market exit or entry decisions are often subject to the internationalization patterns of the firm. ...
... To form a research framework for the study of online purchasing behavior we used previous research that provide us a rich foundation. As suggested by Douglas et al. (1994), strong conceptual frameworks can be developed by integrating Implications from different research traditions and disciplines [9]. In the current study, we review the prior literature of online purchasing behavior and make a new framework to better relate factors that have major influence in this context. ...
... Following Verhoef and Bijmolt (2019), Perren and Kozinets (2018) aimed to provide to customers an added value, convenience, and higher quality at a lower cost level without major technological changes in the actual product. 'The rapid internationalization of companies is conditioned by the acceleration of the globalization of the business environment' (Douglas and Craig 1992). ...
... Two bilingual researchers translated the questionnaires from English into Spanish. We used the double-back translation suggested by Craig and Douglas (2005). We ran a pilot experiment with 55 MBA students from a Latin American university to validate the translation of the items and the experimental scripts into Spanish. ...