Susan McKay's research while affiliated with University of Wyoming and other places

Publications (28)

Article
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The Participatory Action Research (PAR) study with Young Mothers in Liberia, Sierra Leone and northern Uganda which took place from 2006 to 2009 aimed to understand what ‘reintegration’ meant to young mothers formerly associated with armed groups. It also implemented social action initiatives designed by study participants to promote their wellbein...
Article
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A significant but insufficiently considered category of female former child soldiers is those that become mothers as a result of rape or through relationships with “bush husbands”. This article reflects on learning from a participatory action research (PAR) study which aimed to facilitate the social reintegration of formerly associated young mother...
Article
Young women and girls formerly associated with armed forces and armed groups face multiple challenges. Many become pregnant or have children while they are associated and face stigma and marginalization upon reintegration into civilian communities. This article describes a multi-year participatory action research study that took place in twenty com...
Article
It is with a mixture of deep sorrow and desire to celebrate a long, well-lived life that we announce the death of Professor Milton Schwebel, who died October 3 at the age of 99 in Tucson, Arizona with his family at his side. Milt was the Founding Editor of Peace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology, which published it first volume in 1995. As...
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Experience of traumatic stressors within armed groups can negatively impact social cognitions of mastery, self-efficacy, and control. This could be compounded by postreturn conditions of stigma, little access to education, and limited means of livelihood. We explore an intervention that placed girls’ participation as a central organizing principle....
Conference Paper
Participation is a word that has been used in child protection and development circles for many years. The term has come to mean everything from tokenistic consultation with beneficiary groups to programs where participants exercise full agency and decision-making in program development, implementation, and evaluation. In this presentation, we desc...
Article
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When young mothers, formerly associated with armed groups, return to communities, they are typically social isolated, stigmatised, and marginalised. This creates reintegration challenges for themselves, and their communities. Their children face child protection problems such as neglect, rejection and abuse. In this paper, the authors describe an i...
Article
The Pioneers in Peace Psychology series has explored the lives, contributions, and perspectives of eight early pioneers in peace psychology: Dorothy Ciarlo, Morton Deutsch, Herbert Kelman, Doris Miller, Milton Schwebel, Brewster Smith, Ethel Tobach, and Ralph White. Reflection on the interviews conducted with these pioneers between 1992 and 2010 re...
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This article describes a multi-year participatory action research (PAR) study with young women and girls who were formerly associated with armed groups in Sierra Leone, Liberia, and northern Uganda and had children of their own during the conflict and with young mothers considered by their community to be especially vulnerable. Following a review o...
Article
Dorothy Day Ciarlo, Ph.D., now retired, is a clinical psychologist. After graduating in 1955, she worked for one year before enrolling in graduate school at the University of Chicago. Dorothy received her Ph.D. in psychology in 1960. Given those times when women had made few inroads into academia, she chose a career in clinical psychology, which sh...
Article
This article includes autobiographical reflections from retrospectives on political psychology (Smith, 1999) and personality and social psychology (Smith, 2005b), a 'personological' self-description (Smith 2005a), commentaries from recent collected writings (Smith, 2003), the original interview transcript, and current direct personal communications...
Article
This article discusses Ethel Tobach and her contributions to the field of psychology. Throughout Tobach's career, she has been organizationally active and has held many offices in various groups such as the New York Academy of Sciences, the Eastern Psychological Association, the Association for the Advancement of Psychology, the American Psychologi...
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Offers a biographical account of the life of Morton Deutsch. Deutsch was born in 1920 in New York City into a Jewish middle-class family, the last of four sons. Mort was antiwar, but not a pacifist, so when the United States entered World War II (WWII) he enlisted in the Air Force. Assigned to a psychological research unit, he ultimately volunteere...
Article
This paper outlines the challenges to the successful community reintegration of girl mothers when they leave fighting forces, particularly in southern and western Africa. The paper grew out of an invited meeting on girl mothers, sponsored by the Rockefeller Foundation, and held in Bellagio, Italy (April, 2005). Following country- specific analyses,...
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Presents a biography of Doris K. Miller. As a pioneer in peace psychology, she has lived her values through her championing of social justice while bringing inspiration to those who know her. With residents in her community and like-minded nonresidents, she has participated in a weekly peace vigil for almost 3 years. Her seniors group has made comm...
Article
Girls—both willingly and unwillingly—participate in terrorist acts within the context of contemporary wars. These acts range from targeting civilians for torture and killing to destroying community infrastructures so that people's physical and psychological health and survival are affected. Girls witness or participate in acts such as mutilation, h...
Article
Ralph K. White was born in 1907, making him a near-centenarian peace psychologist. Reared as a Quaker, he earned his bachelor of arts degree in 1929 from Wesleyan University, where his passion for studying about peace originated. This article is based on an interview conducted by Michael Wessells at Ralph's home, December 16,1992. Characteristicall...
Article
This paper presents an overview of the life and works of Milton Schwebel. He is a visionary, a critical social analyst, a teacher and scholar, the consummate activist, and a warm and gracious person. He has had significant influence in the birth and development of APA Division 48: the Society for the Study of Peace, Conflict, and Violence, and is t...
Article
Full-text available
The question "Where are the girls?" is seldom raised in discussions about children or adolescents who are members of fighting forces and groups. This is due in large part to the near exclusive focus on boy soldiers. Consequently, scant attention has been given to girls' active involvement and distinct experiences in these forces and groups, whether...
Article
Full-text available
Given that the natural birth ratio is 106 males to 100 females, and that females tend to have longer life expectancies, it is shocking to learn that "more than 100 million girls and women are missing" (Sen, 1990, p. 61). Birth ratios of males and females would predict that there should be more women living today, particularly in Asia (Bunch, 1995)....

Citations

... Next is the evaluation process, which generates information from previous experiences (Worthen & Luiselli, 2017;Worthen et al., 2019). The evaluation process is not just measuring the extent to which goals are achieved but is used to make decisions (Cronbach & Stufflebeam, as cited in Arikunto, 2016). ...
... child soldiers) what reintegration meant to them and to implement social actions within the context of their communities that would help them achieve reintegration. We have written extensively about this study, including a general report of the study procedure and findings (McKay, Veale, Worthen, & Wessells, 2011); a discussion of the role of relationships within the study (Veale, Worthen, & McKay, 2017a, 2017b; how participation was viewed and used as both a principle and a tool of social reintegration within the study (Veale, McKay, Worthen, & Wessells, 2013) and our observations about empowerment and rights of young war-affected mothers as a facet of their experience of reintegration . The present article focuses specifically on the evaluation of the study, which occurred throughout the study, used multiple methods, and which we conceptualized as part of the transformative and emancipatory work of the overall participatory action research study. ...
... Although the Liberian Civil War has been over for many years, reintegration remains a challenge for many former child soldiers who are in their prime ages in Liberia today. Many of them remain stigmatized and psychologically burdened because of their past (McMullin, 2021;Veale et al., 2017). As thousands of child soldiers have been recruited in the wars in Liberia and other countries (US Department of State, 2021;Wessells, 2006), rehabilitation and reintegration issues associated with this vulnerable group are imminent policy challenges for the government in many post-conflict societies. ...
... Badacze odnoszą się w nich zarówno do zagadnień udziału dzieci żołnierzy w walkach przy zastosowaniu kryterium geograficznego (studia przypadków odnoszące się do konkretnych państw i regionów), jak i kryterium przyczyn, konsekwencji i skutków (studia przeglądowe i porównawcze) oraz analiz zorientowanych na konkretne przypadki, czynniki ryzyka rekrutacji, złożonej dziecięcej mobilizacji, procesu zabijania oraz prób demobilizacji, reintegracji i inkluzji społecznej dzieci w okresie powojennym, z uwzględnieniem zmian społecznych i politycznych. Analiza tekstów naukowych i popularnonaukowych z lat 2000-2015 wykazała, że w literaturze anglo-i niemieckojęzycznej dominują publikacje poświęcone dzieciom-żołnierzom jako kategorii dualnej: ofiarom i sprawcom (dzieci-żołnierze jako ofiary-sprawcy i sprawcy-ofiary) [Govier 2015;Wessells 2006;Tiefenbrun 2007, Ryan 2012, ścieżkom mobilizacji i roli dzieci w wojnach i konfliktach długiego trwania [Cohn, Goodwin-Gill 1994;Dahlmann 2000;Wessells 2006;Mazurana, McKay 2001;Russmann 2004;Pittwald 2004;Brett, Specht 2004;Singer 2006;Honwana 2011;Özerdem, Podder 2016] oraz prawnym aspektom 7 angażowania "zwykłych" nieletnich w zorganizowane praktyki torturowania i zabijania "zwykłych ludzi" [Drumbl 2012a;Sloth-Nielsen 2016;Francis 2007;Grover 2012]. Z uwagi na nowe konflikty i nowe metody werbunku dzieci i młodzieży do grup zbrojnych, m.in. ...
... PAR has been studied and implemented in several sectors of reality. Among the many examples that could be presented, the following are highlighted: in the monitoring of social reintegration of young mothers associated with armed groups (Worthen, Onyango, Wessells, Veale, & McKay, 2013); in the education of young people at risk (Iwasaki, Hopper, & Whelan, 2017); in teachers' professional development (Yigit & Bagceci, 2017); in the engagement of nurses and local leaders in the formation of the research network (Asuquo & Etowa, 2016); in the participation of stakeholders, including disabled people, in disability and community issues (Higashida, Kumara, & Illangasingha, 2015); in the development of prospective teachers' professional independence during their pedagogical practice (Strode, 2013); in environmental education projects (Lewis, 2004); or also in the development of a course module on education for sustainable development in pre-service chemistry teacher education (Burmeister & Eilks, 2013). ...
... It further draws on studies that view children (including children of survivors of conflict-related sexual violence) as "crucial protective resources for those around them" (Clark, 2021, p. 4), to re-focus attention on CBOW as co-creators of resilience within the social ecology. As the literature notes, until recently, most of the information about these children was embedded within narratives and discourses that explained the resilience of their mothers (e.g., Smith, 2005;Veale et al., 2013). This may be due to dominant approaches that consider protection and understanding of children as being linked to the protection and understanding of their mothers. ...
... This approach respects local resilience and puts the local community at the centre of the whole cycle of MHPSS. For example, Participatory Action Research (PAR) in Sierra Leone, Liberia and Northern Uganda is a pioneering project based on this approach [26,27]. Researchers included participants in the project cycle from the planning stage and let them define the problems they faced, plan and implement activities to address their problems, and evaluate their achievements themselves. ...
... Consequently, although all members of a community experience effects when the public health infrastructure is damaged or destroyed , girls may particularly be at risk. Their heightened risk comes as a result of their lower status compared to boys, and the higher likelihood that their lives will be characterized by inequalities such as having less food to eat, receiving poorer health care, undertaking heavier work loads, and experiencing decreased choices and freedoms when compared with boys in their communities (Mazurana & McKay, 2001b). Sexual and reproductive health effects. ...
... 51 In Sierra Leone, the commanders would raise their status by marrying the highest number of child brides. 52 Some technological advancements in military weapons contributed to the widespread use of children in conflicts. Rosen links the phenomenon of child recruitment to the trade of small, lightweight arms. ...
... A robust body of literature on women's involvement in terrorism and political violence exists, some of which predates the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 and the subsequent explosion in terrorism studies. Particularly notable are the works by Sjoberg & Gentry, [7] Cunningham, [8] Alison, [9] Nacos, [10] and McKay [11] (the most-cited works on the subject). The subfield of women in terrorism has also been studied by Jacques and Taylor. ...