Susan M. Bailey's research while affiliated with Colorado State University and other places

Publications (99)

Article
Full-text available
Kidney tissues from cats with naturally occurring chronic kidney disease (CKD) and adult and senior cats without CKD were assessed to determine whether telomere shortening and nitrosative stress are associated with senescence in feline CKD. The histopathologic assessment of percent global glomerulosclerosis, inflammatory infiltrate, and fibrosis wa...
Article
The health effects associated with chronic low-dose, low-dose rate (LD-LDR) exposures to environmental radiation are uncertain. All dose-effect studies conducted outside controlled laboratory conditions are challenged by inherent complexities of ecological systems and difficulties quantifying dose to free-ranging organisms in natural environments....
Data
Supplement to Cunningham et al. 2021. Evaluation of DNA damage and stress in wildlife chronically exposed to low dose, low dose rate radiation from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Provides additional dosimetry information, data and analyses to main paper (published in Environment International).
Article
For long-term survival and evolution, all organisms have depended on a delicate balance between processes involved in maintaining stability of their genomes and opposing processes that lead toward destabilization. At the level of mammalian somatic cells in renewal tissues, events or conditions that can tip this balance toward instability have attra...
Article
Purpose: My journey to the stars began as I - along with the whole world - stood still and watched Neil Armstrong take those first small steps on the Moon. Fast forward 50 years and NASA astronauts Scott Kelly and Christina Koch each spend nearly a year in space aboard the International Space Station (ISS), a remarkable multinational collaborative...
Article
Full-text available
Telomeres are regions of repetitive nucleotide sequences capping the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes that protect against deterioration, and whose lengths can be correlated with age and adverse health risk factors. Yet, given their length and repetitive nature, telomeric regions are not easily reconstructed from short-read sequencing, thus making te...
Article
Full-text available
Telomeres, repetitive nucleoprotein complexes that protect chromosomal termini and prevent them from activating inappropriate DNA damage responses (DDRs), shorten with cell division and thus with aging. Here, we characterized the human cellular response to targeted telomeric double-strand breaks (DSBs) in telomerase-positive and telomerase-independ...
Article
Full-text available
The ability to predict a cancer patient’s response to radiotherapy and risk of developing adverse late health effects would greatly improve personalized treatment regimens and individual outcomes. Telomeres represent a compelling biomarker of individual radiosensitivity and risk, as exposure can result in dysfunctional telomere pathologies that coi...
Article
Background: The landmark National Aeronautics and Space Administration Twins Study represented an integrated effort to launch human space life science research into the modern age of molecular- and "omics"-based studies. As part of the first One-Year Mission aboard the International Space Station, identical twin astronauts Scott and Mark Kelly wer...
Article
Full-text available
Telomeres, repetitive terminal features of chromosomes essential for maintaining genome integrity, shorten with cell division, lifestyle factors and stresses, and environmental exposures, and so they provide a robust biomarker of health, aging, and age-related diseases. We assessed telomere length dynamics (changes over time) in three unrelated ast...
Article
Full-text available
Clonal hematopoiesis (CH) occurs when blood cells harboring an advantageous mutation propagate faster than others. These mutations confer a risk for hematological cancers and cardiovascular disease. Here, we analyze CH in blood samples from a pair of twin astronauts over 4 years in bulk and fractionated cell populations using a targeted CH panel, l...
Article
Full-text available
Telomere length dynamics and DNA damage responses were assessed before, during, and after one-year or shorter duration missions aboard the International Space Station (ISS) in a comparatively large cohort of astronauts (n = 11). Although generally healthy individuals, astronauts tended to have significantly shorter telomeres and lower telomerase ac...
Article
Full-text available
Liquid biopsies based on cell-free DNA (cfDNA) or exosomes provide a noninvasive approach to monitor human health and disease but have not been utilized for astronauts. Here, we profile cfDNA characteristics, including fragment size, cellular deconvolution, and nucleosome positioning, in an astronaut during a year-long mission on the International...
Preprint
Full-text available
The health impact of prolonged space flight on the human body is not well understood. Liquid biopsies based on cell-free DNA (cfDNA) or exosome analysis provide a noninvasive approach to monitor the dynamics of genomic, epigenomic and proteomic biomarkers, and the occurrence of DNA damage, physiological stress, and immune responses. To study the mo...
Article
Research on astronaut health and model organisms have revealed six features of spaceflight biology that guide our current understanding of fundamental molecular changes that occur during space travel. The features include oxidative stress, DNA damage, mitochondrial dysregulation, epigenetic changes (including gene regulation), telomere length alter...
Preprint
Full-text available
The ability to predict the response of a cancer patient to radiotherapy and risk of developing adverse late health effects would greatly improve personalized treatment regimens and individual outcomes. Telomeres represent a compelling biomarker of individual radiosensitivity and risk, as exposure can result in dysfunctional telomere pathologies tha...
Preprint
Full-text available
Telomeres are regions of repetitive nucleotide sequences capping the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes that protect against deterioration, whose lengths can be correlated with age and disease risk factors. Given their length and repetitive nature, telomeric regions are not easily reconstructed from short read sequencing, making telomere sequence resol...
Preprint
Full-text available
Telomeres are repetitive nucleoprotein complexes that protect chromosomal termini and prevent them from activating an inappropriate DNA damage response (DDR). Here, we characterized the human cellular response to targeted telomeric DSBs in telomerase positive and telomerase-independent alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) cells, specifically...
Chapter
Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH) techniques, including whole chromosome painting (WCP), spectral karyotyping (SKY), and multicolor FISH (mFISH), are used extensively to characterize and enumerate inter-chromosomal rearrangements (e.g., translocations). Directional genomic hybridization (dGH) is a relatively new cytogenomics-based methodolo...
Conference Paper
An overall intent of radiotherapy is to precisely target tumor cells, while minimizing exposures to surrounding normal tissue. Despite successes, there is growing concern that an unacceptably large volume of normal tissue is unavoidably exposed. Chromosome aberrations provide a direct measure of ionizing radiation (IR)-induced DNA damage, as well a...
Article
Full-text available
To understand the health impact of long-duration spaceflight, one identical twin astronaut was monitored before, during, and after a 1-year mission onboard the International Space Station; his twin served as a genetically matched ground control. Longitudinal assessments identified spaceflight-specific changes, including decreased body mass, telomer...
Article
Full-text available
INTRODUCTION Studies of past ionizing radiation exposures that were received under unexpected or difficult-to-reconstruct conditions are particularly valuable for the purposes of improving methods to retrospectively assess doses that may be received in future scenarios, as well as to improve our understanding of the limitations of the available dos...
Article
Full-text available
It has now been over 60 years since U.S. nuclear testing was conducted in the Pacific islands and Nevada, exposing military personnel to varying levels of ionizing radiation. Actual doses are not well-established, as film badges in the 1950s had many limitations. We sought a means of independently assessing dose for comparison with historical film...
Article
Full-text available
Metformin and exercise independently improve insulin sensitivity and decrease the risk of diabetes. Metformin was also recently proposed as a potential therapy to slow aging. However, recent evidence indicates that adding metformin to exercise antagonizes the exercise‐induced improvement in insulin sensitivity and cardiorespiratory fitness. The pur...
Article
Chromosome rearrangements are large-scale structural variants that are recognized drivers of oncogenic events in cancers of all types. Cytogenetics allows for their rapid, genome-wide detection, but does not provide gene-level resolution. Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) promises DNA sequence-level characterization of the specific breakpoints in...
Article
Full-text available
An overall intent of radiotherapy is to precisely target tumor cells, while minimizing exposures to surrounding normal tissue. Despite successes in this area, there is growing concern that an unacceptably large volume of normal tissue is unavoidably exposed. Chromosome aberrations provide a direct measure of ionizing radiation (IR)-induced DNA dama...
Chapter
The cytogenomics-based methodology of Directional Genomic Hybridization (dGH™) emerged from the concept of strand-specific hybridization, first made possible by Chromosome Orientation FISH (CO-FISH), the utility of which was demonstrated in a variety of early applications, often involving telomeres. Similar to standard whole chromosome painting (FI...
Article
Consumption of navy beans (NB) and rice bran (RB) have been shown to inhibit colon carcinogenesis. Given the overall poor diet quality in colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors and low reported intake of whole grains and legumes, practical strategies to increase consumption merit attention. This study determined feasibility of increasing NB or RB intake...
Data
Simulation reproducing population dynamics with sham irradiation or a 10 500 Gy single-dose IR for (A) MCF-10A cells and (B) MCF-7 cells (mean ± SD; n =10 simulations). Hyp 501 stands for hypothesis in the figure legends.
Data
Simulation reproducing the fraction of CD44+/CD24-/low cells in the control 494 condition (sham irradiation) for (A) MCF-10A cells and (B) MCF-7 cells (mean ± SD; n = 10 simulations).
Data
Unsuccessful fitting of cell population dynamics by applying reported 496 average cell cycle time in vitro for both (A) MCF-10A cells (fitting curve: average cell cycle time 20 497 hours (46); mean ± SD; n = 10 simulations) and (B) MCF-7 cells (fitting curve: average cell cycle time 498 26.8 hours (47); mean ± SD; n = 10 simulations).
Data
Clonogenic survival fraction of (A) MCF-10A cells and (B) MCF-7 cells 503 and fitted curve with linear quadratic equation.
Data
Diagram of the simulation process and decisions on the cell level.
Article
Full-text available
Telomeres are nucleoprotein complexes comprised of tandem arrays of repetitive DNA sequence that serve to protect chromosomal termini from inappropriate degradation, as well as to prevent these natural DNA ends from being recognized as broken DNA (double-strand breaks) and triggering of inappropriate DNA damage responses. Preservation of telomere l...
Research
Full-text available
Abstract The enrichment of putative CD44+/CD24−/low breast stem cell populations following exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) has been ascribed to their inherent radioresistance and an elevated frequency of symmetric division during repopulation. However, recent studies demonstrating radiation-induced phenotypic reprogramming (the transition of no...
Article
Full-text available
Research links psychosocial stress to premature telomere shortening and accelerated human aging; however, this association has only been demonstrated in so-called “WEIRD” societies (Western, educated, industrialized, rich, and democratic), where stress is typically lower and life expectancies longer. By contrast, we examine stress and telomere shor...
Article
An interesting problem associated with studying the effects of low doses of high atomic number and energy (HZE) particles, as found in space, is that not all cells will necessarily be similarly traversed during exposure, a scenario that greatly complicates the measurement of end points that require time to develop, gene-locus mutation being a perfe...
Article
Full-text available
Chromosome aberrations in blood lymphocytes provide a useful measure of past exposure to ionizing radiation. Despite the widespread and successful use of the dicentric assay for retrospective biodosimetry, the approach suffers substantial drawbacks, including the fact that dicentrics in circulating blood have a rather short half-life (roughly 1-2 y...
Article
Full-text available
There is accumulating evidence that an individual's inability to accurately repair DNA damage in a timely fashion may in part dictate a predisposition to cancer. Dogs spontaneously develop lymphoproliferative diseases such as lymphoma, with the golden retriever (GR) breed being at especially high risk. Mechanisms underlying such breed susceptibilit...
Article
Full-text available
Telomeres are protective structures at the ends of chromosomes that have important implications for aging. To address the question of whether telomeres contribute to feline chronic kidney disease (CKD), we evaluated kidney, liver and skin samples from 12 cats with naturally occurring CKD, 12 young normal cats and 6 old normal cats. Telomere length...
Article
Full-text available
Maintenance of telomeres, repetitive elements at eukaryotic chromosomal termini, and the end-capping structure and function they provide, are imperative for preserving genome integrity and stability. The discovery that telomeres are transcribed into telomere repeat containing RNA (TERRA) has revolutionized our view of this repetitive, rather unappr...
Article
Full-text available
Chromosomal rearrangements are a source of structural variation within the genome that figure prominently in human disease, where the importance of translocations and deletions is well recognized. In principle, inversions - reversals in the orientation of DNA sequences within a chromosome - should have similar detrimental potential. However, the st...
Article
We irradiated normal human lymphocytes and fibroblasts with (137)Cs γ rays, 3.5 MeV α particles and 1 GeV/amu (56)Fe ions and measured the subsequent formation of chromosome-type aberrations by mFISH at the first mitosis following irradiation. This was done for the purposes of characterizing the shape of dose-response relationships and determining...
Article
Full-text available
Exposure to sparsely ionising gamma- or X-ray irradiation is known to increase the risk of leukaemia in humans. However, heavy ion radiotherapy and extended space exploration will expose humans to densely ionising high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation for which there is currently no understanding of leukaemia risk. Murine models have implicat...
Article
The tumor suppressor protein p53 is a cellular stress sensor and transcription factor classically accepted to target the transcription of genes that induce senescence and apoptosis. Diverse stressors including genomic or telomeric DNA damage, telomere uncapping, hypoxia, oxidative stress, and mechanical stress increase stable cellular p53. In model...
Article
Full-text available
Mammalian Bre1 complexes (BRE1A/B (RNF20/40) in humans and Bre1a/b (Rnf20/40) in mice) function similarly to their yeast homolog Bre1 as ubiquitin ligases in monoubiquitination of histone H2B. This ubiquitination facilitates methylation of histone H3 at K4 and K79, and accounts for the roles of Bre1 and its homologs in transcriptional regulation. R...
Article
Full-text available
Polymorphic variants of DNA repair genes can increase the carcinogenic potential of exposure to ionizing radiation. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Prkdc, the gene encoding the DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs), have been identified in BALB/c mice and linked to reduced DNA-PKcs activity and mammary cancer susce...
Article
Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has become a powerful tool for exploring genomes at the level of chromosomes. The procedure can be used to identify individual chromosomes, rearrangements between chromosomes, and the location within a chromosome of specific DNA sequences such as centromeres, telomeres, and even individual genes. Chromosome...
Article
Full-text available
Intrigued by the dynamics of the seemingly contradictory yet integrated cellular responses to the requisites of preserving telomere integrity while also efficiently repairing damaged DNA, we investigated roles of the telomere associated poly(adenosine diphosphate [ADP]-ribose) polymerase (PARP) tankyrase 1 in both telomere function and the DNA dama...
Article
Full-text available
Werner syndrome and Bloom syndrome result from defects in the RecQ helicases Werner (WRN) and Bloom (BLM), respectively, and display premature aging phenotypes. Similarly, XFE progeroid syndrome results from defects in the ERCC1-XPF DNA repair endonuclease. To gain insight into the origin of cellular senescence and human aging, we analyzed the depe...
Article
Full-text available
Telomeres are a hotspot for sister chromatid exchange (T-SCE). Any biological consequence of this form of instability remained obscure until quantitative modeling revealed a link between elevated T-SCE rates and accelerated cellular replicative senescence. This work strongly suggests that progressive telomere erosion is not the only determinant of...