Susan L. Miller's research while affiliated with University of Delaware and other places

Publications (55)

Article
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To assess COVID-19 information and services available to domestic violence service providers, survivors, and racially and culturally specific communities in the U.S., a content analysis of 80 national and state/territorial coalition websites was performed in June 2020. COVID-19 information was available on 84% of websites. National organizations pr...
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Civil protection orders are individualized orders that survivors of intimate partner abuse and violence can pursue in addition to or independently of criminal charges. The efficacy of protection orders is defined in various ways in existing literature. One way to understand the effectiveness of these orders is to determine the extent to which they...
Article
This exploratory study, the first attempt at capturing the experiences of victims of DV with the criminal justice system in Iran, explores their plight in the absence of legislation that defines and criminalizes DV. Drawing on 15 in-depth interviews with Iranian women who turned to police departments and courts, we demonstrate the flaws inherent in...
Article
Early adverse experiences have been identified as a salient risk factor for crime and delinquency. However, past empirical studies predominantly used youth and young adult samples; much less is known about this risk factor’s effect on adult offending. This study examines early adverse experiences and adult pro-social bonds simultaneously using a mi...
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This research explores the dissonance between feminist ideology and practice as it manifests in an activist group of intimate partner violence/aggression (IPV/A) survivors under a state coalition on domestic violence serving multiple stakeholders. A gendered organizations framework reveals the activist group resisting paternalism and colonization i...
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Restorative justice (RJ) as a supplement or alternative to the formal criminal justice system is establishing a foothold in institutional practice given its greater flexibility and ability to allow victims and offenders to play a more integral role in the justice process. Most RJ programs in the U.S. focus on minor crimes and juvenile offenders. Cu...
Article
Civil Protection Orders (CPOs) are among the most common legal tools that victims of intimate partner violence and abuse (IPV/A) use to protect themselves. The current study adds to the CPO research by using quantitative data to look at how female survivors' experiences with court personnel (attorneys, mediators, and hearing officers) shape their s...
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The concept of procedural justice has been examined in a plethora of studies that encompass topics from citizens’ trust in police to their wiliness to obey the law. However, extant research has not moved beyond “if” procedural justice matters to “why” procedural justice matters. What’s more, the concept of procedural justice, though received substa...
Article
Reproductive coercion is an understudied form of intimate partner abuse related to physical, sexual, and psychological abuse. Prior research suggests that women accurately predict whether their abuser will continue the abuse. Thus, understanding factors related to these perceptions is necessary to enhance safety. Using a diverse sample of women in...
Book
Civil Court Responses to Intimate Partner Violence and Abuse fills a void in existing literature by shifting the conversation about intimate partner violence and abuse away from research that emphasizes criminal system responses and focusing instead on civil court responses. The edited volume highlights innovative theory and research about civil le...
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Employing a feminist intersectional approach, the current study analyzes how the intersected social identities of homemaker extraordinaire Martha Stewart and Sam Waksal, the former CEO of ImClone, manifest in their gendered discursive strategies during the insider trading scandal. Findings indicate gendered performance could be better understood fr...
Article
Due to the enactment of mandatory and proarrest policies, there has been a sharp increase in the number of women arrested for use of force against an intimate partner. Many of these arrested women are also victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) and experience high levels of trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Our study explores ex...
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This article surveys an evolving understanding of women’s use of force in their intimate heterosexual relationships. It explores the common characteristics of women who use force and, using an intersectional lens, considers the experiences of women in marginalized communities. It also examines how the legal response to intimate partner violence has...
Article
Battered mothers often go to great lengths to protect their children from abuse. Most of these efforts play out in private settings such as the home. After their relationships end, women’s actions shift to the public sphere for judgment by the courts. Abusers’ strategies utilize the courts as another tool with which to call into question and challe...
Article
Mediation use has grown rapidly in the past few decades as an efficacious method of civil dispute resolution. However, early research suggests that civil mediation may cause further harm to victims of intimate partner abuse because, based on the inherent power dynamics of abusive relationships, they are not able to effectively advocate on their own...
Chapter
This book brings together researchers and practitioners from a range of fields to examine strategies and programs for preventing intimate partner violence (IPV). It provides paths to more efficacious prevention strategies and highlights ways that all stakeholders can work more effectively toward reducing violence.
Chapter
This chapter provides an overview of the research on and community-based programmatic responses to battered women’s use of force in their intimate heterosexual relationships. The chapter highlights emerging issues in this area with the goal of developing a more fully informed response to the complexity introduced by criminalizing women’s responses...
Article
Although researchers and practitioners have established that men and women use force in their intimate heterosexual relationships for very different reasons, there is a dearth of information regarding the events surrounds women’s arrests and subsequent court orders to anti-violence intervention programming. This information is fundamental to improv...
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Access to firearms increases the risk of a batterer killing his partner. Moreover, firearms may be more common in homes where intimate partner abuse has occurred. The Violence Against Women Act of 1994 banned possession of firearms by individuals subject to civil protection orders. Yet little research has focused on how this ban is communicated to...
Article
Since the 1994 Violence Against Women Act was signed into law, women seeking safety from intimate partner violence have increasingly sought civil protection orders. Each year, approximately 1 million civil protection orders are issued in the United States. Research suggests that protection orders can help to reduce intimate partner abuse. Moreover,...
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Following the fall of communism, Slovakia found itself in a challenging position: to openly acknowledge the existence of intimate partner violence (IPV) and its disproportionate effect on women and children without an infrastructure to address victim safety, and provide resources and legal help. With collaboration with non-governmental organization...
Article
The policing occupation, a bastion of hegemonic masculinity, is well known for its historical resistance to “difference,” whether among its own members or in society at large. Nowhere does this clash manifest as strongly as when LGBQ police officers join the force. LGBQ individuals have made great strides in breaking down some beliefs of the tradit...
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Universities and colleges across the country offer courses on domestic violence. A few programs have developed such academic opportunities even further, offering specializations, graduate certificates, and degrees concentrated on domestic violence. This paper introduces two innovative academic programs: the undergraduate Domestic Violence Preventio...
Article
Criticisms of restorative justice (RJ) for gendered violence conceptualize RJ as diversion. A case study of a therapeutic postconviction RJ model for a severe case of intimate partner violence (IPV) shows that benefits manifest postconviction primarily due to the lengthy amount of time between the crime and the RJ proceeding in that victims are rea...
Article
Sociolegal research indicates that when citizens perceive that legal processes and procedures are fair, both positive and negative legal outcomes will be viewed as acceptable. However, little is known about perceptions of fairness in informal contexts such as in restorative justice (RJ) practices and with victims (and offenders) who participate in...
Article
Teen dating violence is a prevalent problem that increases the risk of multiple negative consequences, particularly among girls. However, evidence also indicates that teen relationships in general tend to be unstable and characterized by conflict. This study uses data from the 2008 self-administered Delaware School Survey to examine gender differen...
Article
Many European Union (EU) policies encourage member countries to combat discrimination against Roma communities. This essay examines the issues related to intimate partner violence within Roma communities in Slovakia. Using interview data collected from representatives of governmental and non-governmental organizations who deal with issues of interp...
Article
We explore the paths related to college men’s involvement in all-male antirape prevention groups using in-depth interviews conducted with twenty-five male college students who are active members of such groups from eleven campuses located on the East Coast of the United States. Major themes deriving from analysis of the interviews were all related...
Article
This book presents a balanced and comprehensive summary of the most significant research on the victimizations, violence, and victim politics that disproportionately affect women. The chapters examine the history of violence against women, the surrounding debates, the legal reforms, the related media and social-service responses, and the current sc...
Article
Nearly 2 million women are assaulted by a partner or ex-partner each year in the United States (Tjaden and Thoennes 2000). Intimate partner violence is a complex social problem rooted in structural gender inequality, but that affects individual women in different ways (e.g. Crenshaw, 1991; Stark 2008). Battered women actively seek help in ending th...
Article
Using data from in-depth interviews with women who have exited violent relationships, attorneys, and practitioners/policy specialists, this research note explores the continuation of control as women encounter "paper abuse." The barrage of men's frivolous lawsuits, false reports of child abuse, and other system-related manipulations exerts power, f...
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This essay examines the complexities in understanding the issues related to intimate partner violence in Slovakia. It explores the cultural factors as well as the EU efforts that influence the quest to implement measures designed to document, eliminate, and prevent violence against women in pre- and post-Communist Slovakia. In addition, this articl...
Article
Although women outnumber men entering law school, women remain underrepresented in the judiciary. In 2007, women comprised approximately 23 percent of federal judges and 21 percent of state judges. This article examines if and how women's different experiences, attitudes, and values affect jurisprudence. Specifically, what can qualitative research...
Article
Releasing a sex offender from prison or placing the offender on community-based sanctions, only to have the offender commit a new sex crime, is a policy-maker’s worst nightmare. Fueled by misperceptions and public fear, sex offender laws have developed piecemeal and without rigorous empirical insight and testing. While policies and practices are we...
Article
Following changes in law enforcement policies that encourage or mandate arrest of domestic violence offenders, a concomitant increase in women arrested and mandated to batterer treatment programs has resulted. Most research findings, however, suggest that heterosexual intimate violence is gendered, with abuse, power, and control wielded by men over...
Article
As an unintended consequence of more strict arrest policies aimed at deterring domestic violence offenders, many battered women have been arrested and court mandated to a treatment program intended for male abusers. This practice raises numerous concerns regarding the impact on specific victims as well as the potential for undermining decades of wo...
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Despite attempts to expand social diversity, policing is still dominated by a white, masculine, heterosexual ethos. As a consequence, employment of lesbians and gay men as police officers may be especially threatening to members of this occupation. Within the context of potential hostility and homophobia, nontraditional officers must negotiate thei...
Article
Policing is an occupation that is gendered and sexualized. Ideals of heterosexual masculinity inform practices and social interactions within policing. This study explores how police officers manage a homosexual orientation within this organizational environment. Using qualitative survey responses from a sample of “out” and “closeted” gay and lesbi...
Article
Increasingly, women are being arrested for domestic violence charges as part of dual arrests (when their partner is also arrested) or as a result of their own actions. Could this phenomenon be explained by women's greater willingness to use violence against their abusive partners, or by a strict adherence by police and prosecutors to follow mandato...

Citations

... After reviewing evidence on white collar crime from the perspective of SCT, Freidrichs and Schwartz (2008) concluded: "Rather than accepting Gottfredson and Hirschi's argument that we can explain criminality by means of a single factor, we should recognize that accounting for crime entails a multitude of factors, that we are highly unlikely to realize a comprehensive explanation of crime, and that the complex of factors explaining different forms of white collar crime is not the same complex of factors that can be invoked to explain the different forms of conventional crime" (p.158). Similar critiques have been leveled at SCT's explanation of violence (Felson & Osgood 2008), sexual assaults and violence against women (Iovanni & Miller 2008;Miller & Burack 1993), property crime (Swatt & Meier 2008), and substance use (Goode 2008). In sum, this work suggests that while levels of self-control may contribute to these different types of behaviors, again they are not the only individual level factor that contributes, and its influence may depend on the type of crime in question. ...
... Self-reported verbal and physical abuse, neglect, family member substance abuse, chaotic and disorganized home, witnessed violence, verbal conflict and lack of love, support and physical affection between ages 5-15. Liu et al. (2021) and van der Vegt et al. (2008) Family Income The cumulative amount of money from all sources for all family members. ...
... It makes students feel pessimistic and misanthropic and develops bad characteristics such as arrogance, self-will, and impulsiveness. As for the students themselves, they are prone to give up on themselves, become depressed, and are easily influenced by the criminal subculture and embark on the road of illegality [26] (2) Weak awareness of the rule of law among juveniles: through the investigation of the social environment of juvenile delinquency, it is found that such people will do anything to resolve conflicts and lack the concept of the rule of law [27]. It is mainly affected by its growing environment, resulting in a weak legal concept. ...
... This data is part of a larger, longitudinal, mixed-methods study of women's experiences with the protection order process (Carcirieri et al., 2019;Hefner et al., 2021). All participants were women who were at least 18 years old and filed for a PO against a current or former abusive male partner through Delaware Family Courts. ...
... Negative emotions put a victim under a lot of pressure to take action (Yıldız & Solakoglu, 2019). Crime is a form of escapism that involves seeking retribution or changing negative personal perspectives related with sentiments (e.g., stealing money for your desire) (e.g., through illicit drug use), (Liu & Miller, 2019). According to (McKenna and Golladay, 2020), "GST strengthens by comparing with previous theories by identifying several new categories of strain, including the loss of positive emotion (e.g., loss of a romantic partner, death of a friend), the presentation of negative stimuli (e.g., physical assaults and verbal insults) and new categories of goal blockage (e.g., the failure to achieve justice goals)" (p.8). ...
... The chivalry thesis posits that gendered stereotypes about both women and men influence their respective sentencing. This perspective suggests that women are awarded leniency in sentencing as a result of stereotypes about their inherent biological weaknesses and consequently, their need to be protected and coddled both as offenders and as victims (Bishop & Frazier, 1984;Curry et al., 2004;Farnsworth & Teske, 1995;Liu & Miller, 2019). Chivalry asserts that women are stereotyped as maternal, passive, weak, fickle, childlike, and dependent on men for protection. ...
... Race may have also played a significant role in the decision to pursue criminal charges against Alexander. Black women who use force against their partners are more likely to be arrested, become court involved, and receive harsh penalties than white women (Kajstura, 2019;Miller & Becker, 2021). In their 2021 study, Miller and Becker found that 27% of women arrested and charged with intimate partner violence were Black; Black women make up approximately 14% of the general population. ...
... Only a few studies have explored the context and experiences of women's arrest from their perspectives (Grace, 2019;Leisenring, 2011;Li et al., 2014;Rajah et al., 2006;West, 2007). Even fewer examine the experiences of Black women (i.e., Bundy, 2019;Dichter, 2013;Larance et al., 2019;Potter, 2008;Richie, 2012;West, 2007). ...
... Many women, especially those in higher decisional conflict, found none of the current safety options to be helpful. We also now understand that the court may order continuing contact between children and the abusive partner so that their relationship with the abusive partner may have to continue to implement court orders and can be difficult to manage (Miller & Manzer, 2021). Given that couples that divorce, following IPV, have high rates of postdivorce contact with the courts (Davidson & Beck, 2017), participating in relationship strengthening interventions, even when co-habitation has ended, can be a benefit to all family members. ...
... The research on protective orders and various aspects of court responses to Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is expansive, and many projects have helped the academic and practitioner community understand how victims move through the court process and understand their orders (Fleury-Steiner et al. 2016;Hefner et al. 2018;Logan and Walker 2010). ...