Susan L. Jack's research while affiliated with University of Kansas and other places

Publications (16)

Article
Treatment for aberrant behavior in persons diagnosed with developmental disabilities typically involves either behavioral interventions or medication. Often, the treatment is a combination of the two. Schroeder and coworkers (Schroeder et al. [1983] Adv Learn Behav Disabil 2:179–225) outlined criteria for the evaluation of the combination of behavi...
Article
Treatment for aberrant behavior in persons diagnosed with developmental disabilities typically involves either behavioral interventions or medication. Often, the treatment is a combination of the two. Schroeder and coworkers (Schroeder et al. [1983] Adv Learn Behav Disabil 2:179–225) outlined criteria for the evaluation of the combination of behavi...
Article
This introduction to the special issue on research needs and issues in education for students with emotional and behavioral disorders explains how the special issue originated, and identifies major topics of papers included in the issue, such as the importance of classroom structure, the role of setting events, social skills training, and measureme...
Article
It has been proposed that academic materials presented to students with emotional and behavioral disorders may serve in some situations as aversive stimuli that increase escape and/or avoidance responses. The results from two single subject studies using ABAB designs that were conducted to examine the effects of the difficulty level of academic tas...
Article
The results of an investigation to determine teachers' reported use of classroom management strategies and their relationship to teacher and student interactions are presented. We interviewed 20 teachers to determine how they developed and used classroom management strategies, and then observed the interactions of these teachers with children with...
Article
Proposes that the manner in which academic information is delivered to students with severe behavior disorders may present a source of aversive stimuli. Aversive stimuli can result in escape and avoidance behavior that may be exhibited as disruptive behavior in classroom settings. A single case study was conducted of a 12-yr-old male with severe be...
Article
We develop hypothese based on the research literature regarding behavioral responses to aversive stimuli. Specifically, escape, avoidance, and countercontrol responses are presented as teacher behaviors which may occur in the presence of disruptive and aggressive behaviors (aversive stimuli) which, in part, characterize many students with severe be...
Article
This manuscript presents a review of the growing body of research concerning the influence of negative reinforcement on student and teacher behaviors. Negative reinforcement strengthens behaviors that result in escape from, or avoidance of, aversive stimuli. It is argued that negative reinforcement is a variable in the academic interactions of stud...
Article
Lag sequential analysis of individual interactions was explored as a tool to generate hypotheses regarding the social control of inappropriate classroom behavior of students with severe behavior disorders. Four single subject experiments with two students who displayed high rates of disruptive behavior in special education classrooms were completed...
Article
The purpose of this investigation was to explore the Patterson and Reid (1970) reciprocal/coercive interaction hypothesis as related to the classroom social interactions between teachers and students identified with severe behavior disorders. Additionally, four classroom behavior management strategies are identified as potential setting events for...
Article
The purpose of this study was to identify significant social stimuli that were associated with prosocial and inappropriate behavior of children classified as severe behavior disordered (SBD). Two children from each of 19 classrooms–10 from integrated and 9 from segregated special classrooms (for children with SBD)–were observed. One student in each...

Citations

... Furthermore, in the late twentieth century, several studies started to examine the learning space by incorporating additional data modalities. For example, teachers' movement strategies (positioning throughout the classroom) to balance interaction with students were analysed using observations and video recordings as data sources (Gunter et al., 1995). The impact of physical proximity between teachers and students (with a disability) on the student's sense of agency was analyzed by measuring interpersonal distances measurement and conducting interviews with students (Giangreco et al., 1997). ...
... In 1983, Schroeder et al. reported that they were only able to find 1 adequately designed drugbehavior interaction study with people with intellectual and developmental disabilities in peer-reviewed journals. Napolitano et al. (1999) published a review of drug-behavior interaction studies 16 years later and reported that there were only 8 articles, involving 13 participants with intellectual and developmental disabilities, published in peer-reviewed journals that fit the criteria of a true drug-behavior interaction study. ...
... Further, peer attention has been shown to increase student off-task behavior (Lewis & Sugai, 1996). Additionally, problem behaviors can be maintained through avoiding adult and peer interactions (Shores, Gunter, Denny, & Jack, 1993). Behavioral interventions based on functional assessment are more effective at reducing problem behaviors of students with EBD compared to traditional intervention approaches (Newcomer & Lewis, 2004). ...
... He wanted to check that the students were on task. The teachers need to take into account that they have to use their power positively in interacting with the students in classrooms (Denny, Epstein, & Rose, 1992;Gunter, Denny, Jack, Shores, & Nelson, 1993;White, 1975). Positive interactions between teachers and students can make the classroom enjoyable to learn and the students become active, motivated, and engaged during the learning process. ...
... In education, teachers and students demonstrate this competency in the form of spatial behaviours: the ways they make use of and behave in physical learning spaces [46]. Observational studies have investigated how teachers' spatial behaviours, in relation to the classroom architectural design and their physical proximity to students, can strongly influence learning (see review in [60]) For example, researchers have explored the role of proximity between teachers and students in improving students' written work [73]; reducing misbehaviour [32]; and increasing the effectiveness of student-teacher interactions [84], motivation [25] and engagement [22]. The excessive presence of teachers by students can negatively affect their self-efficacy and sense of ownership of their own work [27], while studies of student seating arrangements all report inconsistent results [29,35]. ...
... Katsiyannis, Zhang, & Conroy (2003 analyzed data on special education teacher shortages over a 10-year period and reported a disproportionate national shortage of teachers of students with EBD. Many factors contribute to this critical shortage, such as stress teachers experience due to students' (a) academic and social skill deficits; (b) unmet psychological needs; (c) lack of insight and self-awareness; (d) emotional and behavioral deficits; (e) lack of problem-solving skills; (f) poor coping strategies; and (g) inability to take responsibility for their actions (Dedrick & Raschke, 1990; Shores, Gunter, Denny, & Jack, 1993; Zabel & Zabel, 2001). Research investigating the longevity of teachers of students with EBD is not a recent area of study. ...
... For example, if a child uses the phrase Bshe went^with the intention of communicating the phrase Bshe said,^a prescriptive approach would consider Bshe went^to be incorrect, while a descriptive approach would consider it effective communication. The higher linguistic demands of the classroom and the discrepancy between prescriptive and descriptive grammar may be particularly relevant to teachers of students who engage in problem behavior, as an association between teacher instruction and student disruptive behavior has been demonstrated (Gunter et al. 1994). ...
... To manage children's behavior in the classroom, teachers provide children with positive feedback (i.e., providing approval or praise for desired behavior, such as compliments) and corrective feedback (i.e., disapproving undesired behavior, such as reprimands) (Sprouls et al., 2015). There is no empirically based cut-off for ratios of positive to corrective feedback for teachers to achieve appropriate classroom behavior (e.g., engagement); the literature ranges from 3:1 (Shores et al., 1993) to 5:1 (Flora, 2000) for positive versus corrective feedback for typically developing children. For children with emotional and/ or behavioral problems, an even higher rate of approximately nine praises to one reprimand is recommended (Caldarella et al., 2019). ...
... Lag Sequential Analysis (LSA) can individually check out the sequential relationship between each behavior and make the feature sequence significant (Hou et al., 2010). GSEQ 5.1 was used to carry out Lag Sequential Analysis (LSA) to extract characteristic sequences of teacher-student interaction (Gunter et al., 1993). ...
... In one study, Gunter et al. (1994) used an ABAB withdrawal design to evaluate the effects of a teacher using a SP strategy (talk/mand) procedure on a 12-year-old student with EBD in a self-contained classroom. The researchers observed student behavior during baseline or "typical" classroom conditions (i.e., the "A" in the ABAB design), then observed the same behavior when the SP intervention was implemented (B). ...