Sudha Ram's research while affiliated with The University of Arizona and other places

Publications (205)

Article
The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) provides a regulatory decision-making process that requires U.S. federal agencies to assess the purpose and socio-environmental impacts of a proposed action before deciding to move forward with that action. The multiplicity of NEPA objectives, the complex tradeoffs embedded in the Environmental Impact As...
Article
Wearables are an important source of big data as they provide real-time high-resolution data logs of health indicators of individuals. Higher-order associations between pairs of variables is common in wearables data. Representing higher-order association curves as piece-wise linear segments in a regression model makes them more interpretable. Howev...
Article
Conceptual modeling is important for developing databases that maintain the integrity and quality of stored information. However, classical conceptual models have often been assumed to work on well-maintained and high-quality data. With the advancement and expansion of data science, it is no longer the case. The need to model and store data has eme...
Preprint
Full-text available
We conducted a field study using multiple wearable devices on 231 federal office workers to assess the impact of the indoor environment on individual wellbeing. Past research has established that the workplace environment is closely tied to an individual’s wellbeing. Since sound is the most-reported environmental factor causing stress and discomfor...
Article
Timely and accurate prediction of human movement in urban areas offers instructive insights into transportation management, public safety, and location-based services, to name a few. Yet, modeling urban mobility is challenging and complex because of the spatiotemporal dynamics of movement behavior and the influence of exogenous factors such as weat...
Article
Full-text available
ABSTRACT The prediction of fracture risk in osteoporotic patients has been a topic of interest for decades, and models have been developed for the accurate prediction of fracture, including the fracture risk assessment tool (FRAX). As machine‐learning methodologies have recently emerged as a potential model for medical prediction tools, we aimed to...
Article
With rapid developments in big data technology and the prevalence of large-scale datasets from diverse sources, the healthcare predictive analytics (HPA) field is witnessing a dramatic surge in interest. In healthcare, it is not only important to provide accurate predictions, but also critical to provide reliable explanations to the underlying blac...
Article
Full-text available
This study offers a new perspective on the role of relative humidity in strategies to improve the health and wellbeing of office workers. A lack of studies of sufficient participant size and diversity relating relative humidity (RH) to measured health outcomes has been a driving factor in relaxing thermal comfort standards for RH and removing a low...
Article
The popularity of distributed computing platforms (e.g., Hadoop) is largely to their ability to address scalability issues that arise due to data storage and processing limitations of standard computing systems. However, the decision to dedicate organizational resources and capital for such systems needs a careful consideration of several factors i...
Article
The impact of multi-channel technology-enabled digital goods on the sales of the physical counterpart faces uncertainty in the electronic commerce domain. We address the issue empirically by identifying the effect of the availability of digitally-delivered movies on physical DVD movie sales. Unique to our study is our interest in not only purchased...
Article
Full-text available
Objective Office environments have been causally linked to workplace-related illnesses and stress, yet little is known about how office workstation type is linked to objective metrics of physical activity and stress. We aimed to explore these associations among office workers in US federal office buildings. Methods We conducted a wearable, sensor-...
Article
The research reported in this paper focuses on the question of why Wikipedia articles are different in quality. Since these articles are developed in an open and social environment, our work investigates if the social capital of contributors plays a role in determining the quality of the articles. We focus on three major types of social capital wit...
Method
Data mining models for high-cost patient encounter prediction at the point-of-admission (HPEPP) in inpatient wards are scarce in literature. This is due to lack of availability of relevant features at such an early stage of treatment. In this study, we create a disease co-occurrence network (DCN) using a subset of the State Inpatient database of Ar...
Article
Data mining models for high-cost patient encounter prediction at the point-of-admission (HPEPP) in inpatient wards are scarce in literature. This is due to lack of availability of relevant features at such an early stage of treatment. In this study, we create a disease co-occurrence network (DCN) using a subset of the State Inpatient database of Ar...
Conference Paper
Recent development of wearable sensor technologies have made it possible to capture concurrent data streams for ambient environment and instantaneous physiological stress response at a fine granularity. Characterizing the delay in physiological stress response time to each environment stimulus is as important as capturing the magnitude of the effec...
Article
Provenance is becoming increasingly important as more and more people are using data that they themselves did not generate. In the last decade, significant efforts have been directed toward developing generic, shared data provenance ontologies that support the interoperability of provenance across systems. An issue that is impeding the use of such...
Conference Paper
With rapid development of sensor technologies and the internet of things, research in the area of connected health is increasing in importance and complexity with wide-reaching impacts for public health. As data sources such as mobile (wearable) sensors get cheaper, smaller, and smarter, important research questions can be answered by combining inf...
Conference Paper
A growing literature demonstrates the impact of the built environment on human health and wellbeing. A wide range of factors such as daylight exposure, ambient noise and air quality may alter an individual's instantaneous state of wellbeing. Instantaneous state of wellbeing has been associated with variability in the physiological stress response....
Conference Paper
Social media has emerged as a mechanism for online news propagation. This in turn has changed the competitive landscape of news providers, a landscape that was previously partitioned based on the traditional channels of news dispersion. The channels of news distribution refer to - television, newspaper, magazine, radio, news agency and online only....
Conference Paper
Asthma is a chronic disease that affects people of all ages, and is a serious health and economic concern worldwide. However, accurate and timely surveillance and predicting hospital visits could allow for targeted interventions and reduce the societal burden of asthma. Current national asthma disease surveillance systems can have data availability...
Conference Paper
Systematic evaluation is crucial to the management and development of smart urban transportation, as it allows transportation planners to better understand the impact of their decisions and design targeted interventions to improve efficiency. Implementation of smart and adaptable public transportation is an important challenge in developing cities...
Article
News agencies regularly use Twitter to publicize and increase readership of their articles. Although substantial research on the spread of news on Twitter exists, there hasn't been much focus on the study of the spread of news articles. In this study, we present an innovative methodology involving weighted ego networks to understand how news agenci...
Article
Location-based sequential event prediction is an interesting problem with many real-world applications. For example, knowing when and where people will use certain kinds of services could enable the development of robust anticipatory systems. A key to this problem is in understanding the nature of the process from which sequential data arises. Usua...
Article
Asthma is one of the most prevalent and costly chronic conditions in the United States which cannot be cured. However accurate and timely surveillance data could allow for timely and targeted interventions at the community or individual level. Current national asthma disease surveillance systems can have data availability lags of up to two weeks. R...
Article
This paper investigates characteristics of implicit brand networks extracted from a large dataset of user historical activities on a social media platform. To our knowledge, this is one of the first studies to comprehensively examine brands by incorporating user-generated social content and information about user interactions. This paper makes seve...
Article
Full-text available
Time provides context for all our experiences, cognition, and coordinated collective action. Prior research in linguistics, artificial intelligence, and temporal databases suggests the need to differentiate between temporal facts with goal-related semantics (i.e., telic) from those are intrinsically devoid of culmination (i.e., atelic). To differen...
Article
Conceptual data modeling is a critical but difficult part of database development. Little research has attempted to find the underlying causes of the cognitive challenges or errors made during this stage. This paper describes a Modeling Expertise Framework (MEF) that uses modeler expertise to predict errors based on the revised Bloom's taxonomy (RB...
Data
Two paradigms characterize much of the research in the Information Systems discipline: behavioral science and design science. The behavioral-science paradigm seeks to develop and verify theories that explain or predict human or organizational behavior. The design-science paradigm seeks to extend the boundaries of human and organizational capabiliti...
Conference Paper
Is it possible to effectively spread news articles to a large audience using 140 characters? How does the microblogging website Twitter get used as a platform for the news media agencies to create awareness about the articles they publish on a daily basis? Our study of the diffusion patterns of news articles from 12 popular news sources, including...
Article
Provenance is a term used to describe the lineage, history, or origin of an object. While provenance originated from the art world, it is now becoming increasingly important in the context of digital objects on the World Wide Web. Large scale scientific collaborations and social media platforms on the web have enabled production and sharing of a va...
Article
From a database perspective, business constraints provide an accurate picture of the real world being modeled and help enforce data integrity. Typically, rules are gathered during requirements analysis and embedded in code during the implementation phase. We propose that the rules be explicitly modeled during conceptual design, and develop a framew...
Chapter
Integrating real-time RFID data into autonomous and heterogeneous information systems across the business value chain presents a number of challenges. At an abstract architecture level, this paper identifies important requirements for RFID data provisioning and points of integration. A non-invasive architecture style is proposed to satisfy these re...
Article
Full-text available
In the past two decades, many branches of science have shifted from individually oriented research toward team-based scientific collaboration. 1-3 Teams of researchers representing different disciplines are often brought together to better solve large-scale and often urgent problems of scientific, societal, and environmental relevance. In addition...
Conference Paper
This panel examines potential opportunities for conceptual modeling research in new domains.
Article
This research focuses on the question of why Wikipedia articles are different in quality. Since Wikipedia articles are developed in an open and social environment, our work investigates if social capital of Wikipedia contributors plays a role in determining the quality of Wikipedia articles. In this study, we focus on three major factors of social...
Article
The quality of Wikipedia articles is debatable. On the one hand, existing research indicates that not only are people willing to contribute articles but the quality of these articles is close to that found in conventional encyclopedias. On the other hand, the public has never stopped criticizing the quality of Wikipedia articles, and critics never...
Article
Data quality in the Wikipedia is debatable. On the one hand, existing research indicates that not only are people willing to contribute articles but the quality of those articles is close to that found in conventional encyclopedias. On the other hand, the public has never stopped criticizing the quality of Wikipedia articles, and critics never have...
Article
Social bookmarking services allow a user to make her personal collection of favorite web resources accessible by the public. The content of this collection can attract users of “similar minds” and therefore has tremendous potential to enable networking and collaboration. In this research, we analyzed a large dataset collected from one of the most p...
Conference Paper
Data provenance is becoming increasingly important for biosciences with the advent of large-scale collaborative environments such as the iPlant collaborative, where scientists collaborate by using data that they themselves did not generate. To facilitate the widespread use and sharing of provenance, ontologies of provenance need to be developed to...
Conference Paper
Type-instantiation relationships (TIRs) appear in many application domains including RFID-based inventory tracking, securities markets, health care, incident-response management, travel, advertising, and academia. For example an emergency response (type) is instantiated in the actual incident, or an advertisement (type) serves impressions on a webs...
Article
Market segmentation is inherently a multicriterion problem even though it has often been modeled as a single-criterion problem in the traditional marketing literature and in practice. This paper discusses the multicriterion nature of market segmentation and develops a new mathematical model that addresses this issue. A new method for market segment...
Conference Paper
Social bookmarking tools are generating an enormous pool of metadata describing and categorizing web resources. The value of these metadata in the form of tags can be fully realized only when they are shared and reused for web search and retrieval. The research described in this paper proposes a facet classification mechanism, and a tag relationshi...
Article
The global adoption of RFID technology presents a number of challenges to IT architecture design. This paper identifies important requirements for RFID data provisioning at an abstract architecture level. A non-invasive architecture style is proposed to satisfy these requirements. Our proposed architecture style has the advantages of low entry barr...
Chapter
Cardinality captures necessary semantics in conceptual data modeling and determines how constructs are translated into relations. Business policies in a variety of domains like healthcare, education, supply chain management and geographic systems are often expressible in terms of cardinality. The knowledge about cardinality constraints is also usef...
Chapter
Recently, there has been increased interest in sharing digitized information between government agencies, with the goals of improving security, reducing costs, and offering better quality service to users of government services. The bulk of previous work in interagency information sharing has focused largely on the sharing of structured information...
Chapter
Recently, there has been increased interest in sharing digitized information between government agencies, with the goals of improving security, reducing costs, and offering better quality service to users of government services. The bulk of previous work in interagency information sharing has focused largely on the sharing of structured information...
Article
GIS, logistics, CAD/CAM, robotics, and medical imaging systems uses spatial data, while systems for financial services, inventory management, professional sports, consumer research, and payroll uses historical or temporal data. A Customer Relationship Management (CRM) application can track and keep information about customers and promotions. Some o...
Conference Paper
Many important life sciences questions are aimed at studying the relationships and interactions between biological functions/processes and biological entities such as genes. The answers may be found by examining diverse types of biological/genomic databases. Finding these answers, however, requires accessing, and retrieving data, from diverse biolo...
Article
Data provenance is the background knowledge that enables a piece of data to be interpreted and used correctly within context. The importance of tracking provenance is widely recognized, as witnessed by significant research in various areas including e-science, homeland security, and data warehousing and business intelligence. In order to further ad...
Article
To integrate or link the data stored in heterogeneous data sources, a critical problem is entity matching, i.e., matching records representing semantically corresponding entities in the real world, across the sources. While decision tree techniques have been used to learn entity matching rules, most decision tree learners have an inherent represent...
Article
Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology is finding widespread utility, particularly in the area of supply chain management. RFID tags may be attached to individual items or object collections such as containers and pallets, with the latter practice being more common at this time. A pallet can be viewed as a collection of items, or a groupi...
Chapter
Recently, there has been increased interest in information sharing among government agencies, with a view toward improving security, reducing costs and offering better quality service to users of government services. In this work, the authors complement earlier work by proposing a comprehensive methodology called IAIS (Inter Agency Information Shar...
Chapter
Recently, there has been increased interest in sharing digitized information between government agencies, with the goals of improving security, reducing costs, and offering better quality service to users of government services. The bulk of previous work in interagency information sharing has focused largely on the sharing of structured information...
Conference Paper
Classification is a frequently encountered data mining problem. While symbolic classifiers have high comprehensibility, their language bias may hamper their classification performance. Incorporating new features constructed based on the original features may relax such language bias and lead to performance improvement. Among others, principal compo...
Chapter
Recently, there has been increased interest in sharing digitized information between government agencies, with the goals of improving security, reducing costs, and offering better quality service to users of government services. The bulk of previous work in interagency information sharing has focused largely on the sharing of structured information...
Article
Fuzzy semantic model (FSM) is a data model that uses basic concepts of semantic modeling and supports handling fuzziness, uncertainty and imprecision of real-world at the attribute, entity and class levels. The paper presents the principles and constructs of the FSM. It proposes ways to define the membership functions within all the constructs of t...
Article
Determining the correspondences among heterogeneous data sources, which is critical to integration of the data sources, is a complex and resource-consuming task that demands automated support. We propose an iterative procedure for detecting both schema-level and instance-level correspondences from heterogeneous data sources. Cluster analysis techni...
Article
Full-text available
Recently, there has been increased interest in sharing digitized information between government agencies, with the goals of improving security, reducing costs, and offering better quality service to users of government services. The bulk of previous work in interagency information sharing has focused largely on the sharing of structured information...
Chapter
In recent years, business-rule management has become an important component of enterprise information systems. Business rules are guidelines for how an enterprise should conduct its business and provide better service to customers. Business rules are being widely deployed in supply chains to support real-time decision-making. The research reported...
Article
RFID-based technology for identification and tracking has potential to cut costs and provide strategic information for real-time decision support. To be useful, the generated data must be linked and distributed through the enterprise and the supply chain. We cannot achieve this kind of integration without effectively modeling the semantics of the d...
Article
Full-text available
Business process modeling is an essential prerequisite to business process reengineering (BPR), and workflow management (WFM). Process models have been traditionally used to model software processes, and many business process models are adaptations of these process models. Using these process models to represent business processes results in two pr...
Article
Cardinality constraints have been a useful and integral part of conceptual database design since the original entity-relationship (ER) model proposed by Chen. Subsequently many papers discussing classification frameworks for cardinality constraints have been proposed. Completeness of such frameworks has always been in question since well-defined cr...
Conference Paper
Data Provenance refers to the lineage of data including its origin, key events that occur over the course of its lifecycle, and other details associated with data creation, processing, and archiving. We believe that tracking provenance enables users to share, discover, and reuse the data, thus streamlining collaborative activities, reducing the pos...
Article
Full-text available
Geospatio-temporal conceptual models provide a mechanism to explicitly represent geospatial and temporal aspects of applications. Such models, which focus on both "what" and "when/where," need to be more expressive than conventional conceptual models (e.g., the ER model), which primarily focus on "what" is important for a given application. In this...
Article
Several methods have been proposed for cascading other classification algorithms with decision tree learners to alleviate the representational bias of decision trees and, potentially, to improve classification accuracy. Such cascade generalization of decision trees increases the flexibility of the decision boundaries between classes and promotes be...
Article
Variety of decision models have been proposed in contemporary literature to tackle the problem of screening product innovations. Although linear models have gained considerable attention and recommendation, contemporary literature contains strong evidence in support of nonlinear noncompensatory models. In this paper, the authors first demonstrate h...
Article
A database design-support environment supports a data analyst in eliciting, articulating, specifying and validating data-related requirements. Extant design-support environments—based on conventional conceptual models—do not adequately support applications that need to organize data based on time (e.g., accounting, portfolio management, personnel m...
Article
The World Wide Web is transitioning from being a mere collection of documents that contain useful information toward providing a collection of services that perform useful tasks. The emerging Web service technology has been envisioned as the next technological wave and is expected to play an important role in this recent transformation of the Web....
Article
Market segmentation is an important issue in today's intensely ompetitive environment. While many methods have been proposed for market segmentation, they can be classified into two categories: descriptive and predictive. Descriptive methods are optimized for segment identifiability while predictive methods are optimized for segment responsiveness....
Article
Availability of increasingly rich biological data has tremendous potential for discovering new knowledge that is mostly found via the links among data sources. The current simple ways of implementing these links do not explicitly represent their semantics, and therefore, fail to provide useful information. In order to facilitate knowledge discovery...
Article
Interschema relationship identification (IRI), that is, determining the relationships among schema elements in heterogeneous data sources, is an important first step in integrating the data sources. This chapter proposes a cluster analysis-based approach to semi-automating the IRI process, which is typically very time-consuming and requires extensi...
Article
In recent years, business-rule management has become an important component of enterprise information systems. Business rules are guidelines for how an enterprise should conduct its business and provide better service to customers. Business rules are being widely deployed in supply chains to support real-time decision-making. The research reported...
Chapter
Interschema relationship identification (IRI), that is, determining the relationships among schema elements in heterogeneous data sources, is an important first step in integrating the data sources. This chapter proposes a cluster analysis-based approach to semi-automating the IRI process, which is typically very time-consuming and requires extensi...
Article
Recently, there has been increased interest in information sharing among government agencies, with a view toward improving security, reducing costs and offering better quality service to users of government services. In this work, the authors complement earlier work by proposing a comprehensive methodology called IAIS (Inter Agency Information Shar...
Conference Paper
Advances in analytical techniques have drastically increased the amount of biological data available, which in turn has increased the difficulty and complexity of biological knowledge discovery. It is important to have mechanisms to take fall advantage of the data not only for doing simple searches, but also for answering ad hoc and complex questio...
Conference Paper
Genomic researchers use a number of heterogeneous data sources including nucleotides, protein sequences, 3-D Protein structures, taxonomies, and research publications such as MEDLINE. This research aims to discover as much biological knowledge as possible about the properties and functions of the structures such as DNA sequences and protein structu...
Article
Business rules are the basis of any organization. From an information systems perspective, these business rules function as constraints on a database helping ensure that the structure and content of the real world—sometimes referred to as miniworld—is accurately incorporated into the database. It is important to elicit these rules during the analys...
Article
Entity identification, i.e., detecting semantically corresponding records from heterogeneous data sources, is a critical step in integrating the data sources. The objective of this research is to develop and evaluate a novel multiple classifier system approach that improves entity identification accuracy. We apply various classification techniques...
Article
In recent years, business rule management has become an important component of enterprise information systems. Business rules represent guidelines about how an enterprise should conduct its business and provide better service for customers. Business rules are being widely deployed in supply chains to support real-time decision making. The research...
Chapter
Recently, there has been increased interest in information sharing among government agencies with a view toward improving security, reducing costs, and offering better quality service to users of government services. Previous work has focused largely on the sharing of structured information among heterogeneous data sources, whereas government agenc...
Article
Recently, there has been increased interest in information sharing among government agencies with a view toward improving security, reducing costs, and offering better quality service to users of government services. Previous work has focused largely on the sharing of structured information among heterogeneous data sources, whereas government agenc...
Article
Full-text available
While many real-world applications need to organize data based on space (e.g., geology, geomarketing, environmental modeling) and/or time (e.g., accounting, inventory management, personnel management), existing conventional conceptual models do not provide a straightforward mechanism to explicitly capture the associated spatial and temporal semanti...