Storrs L. Olson's research while affiliated with Smithsonian Institution and other places

Publications (197)

Article
A large, extinct species of Buteogallus Lesson is described from post-cranial elements in Quaternary cave deposits in western Cuba and south-central Hispaniola. The new taxon was approximately the same size as females of the extinct continental B. woodwardi, but more robust. Some fossils, recently documented from Hispaniola as Accipitridae genus an...
Article
The rails (Family Rallidae) are the most diverse and widespread group in the Gruiformes. Their extensive fossil history, global geographic distribution, and tendency to rapidly evolve flightless species on islands make them an attractive subject of evolutionary studies, but the rarity of modern museum specimens of so many rail species has, until re...
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A new small fossil species of vulture from Quaternary asphalt and cave deposits in western Cuba is described herein. Some specimens of this taxon are the smallest known in the genus Cathartes, including the modern Lesser Yellow-headed Vulture C. burrovianus. The extinction of the Cuban megafauna, coupled with the loss of open habitats once dominate...
Article
After reviewing the systematics and distribution of the living and fossil small West Indian taxa of Tytonidae (Tyto), we reached the following conclusions: (1) Strix tuidara J. E. Gray, 1827, type locality of Brazil, is the earliest available and correct name to be used in a binomen for New World mainland barn owls; (2) the North American mainland...
Article
The original bird fauna of most oceanic islands has been affected by recent extinction processes associated with human arrival and its subsequent impacts. In the volcanic Macaronesian archipelagos (Azores, Madeira, Selvagens, Canary Islands and Cape Verde), in the North Atlantic, the Late Quaternary fossil record indicates that there was formerly a...
Data
Cover montage of Bermuda and land snails along with supplementary data associated with Hearty and Olson 2019 paper available here: https://pubs.geoscienceworld.org/palaios or by request to the principle author
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Please contact primary author at kaisdad04@gmail.com for a complimentary copy of the published paper and supplements. Abstract: Considerable refinement of the surficial geology and biostratigraphy Bermuda has resulted in the proper ordering of the phylogenetic sequence of Poecilozonites, and thus offers an opportunity to examine evolutionary pathw...
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The Atlantic Lesser Frigatebird (Fregata trinitatis) is elevated to a separate species from Fregata ariel of the Indo-Pacific based on plumage differences and greater robustness of the rostrum and wing bones. The species now occurs only on the remote South Atlantic island of Trindade (South Trinidad) over 1,100 km east of mainland Brazil, although...
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Specimens of Galapagos tortoises (Testudo, now Chelonoidis) obtained by scientific institutions up to and including the voyage of the Beagle (1835) are reviewed, along with the scientific literature of that period. The idea that all giant tortoises (Galapagos and Indian Ocean) were a single species (Testudo indica) was challenged as early as 1817 b...
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A new species of extinct bullfinch, Pyrrhula crassa n. sp., is described from bones found in Furna do Calcinhas, a small cave situated at Caldeira, a volcano located in the southeastern portion of the Graciosa Island (Azores archipelago, North Atlantic Ocean). It is the first extinct passerine bird to be described from this archipelago. Both skull...
Article
We review the taxonomic history, external morphology, anatomy, behavior, distribution, and zoogeography of the Blue-headed Quail-Dove (Starnoenas cyanocephala), which is endemic to Cuba, and conclude that it is completely unlike any other New World member of the Columbidae. It presents a mosaic of characters shared with various genera in Australasi...
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Additional archival information on the history of the holotype of Testudo nigra (=T. californiana) confirms that there is probably no possibility of establishing its island of origin within the Galapagos. Both names should be suppressed as nomina dubia, despite the fact that T. nigra was relatively recently resurrected as the species name for all G...
Article
After reviewing the systematics and distribution of the extinct West Indian taxa of Tytonidae (Tyto) larger than the living barn owl Tyto alba (Scopoli), we reached the following conclusions: (1) the species T. ostologa Wetmore (1922) is the only giant barn owl known so far from Hispaniola; (2) T. pollens Wetmore (1937) was a somewhat larger and ev...
Article
The extinct Puerto Rican Parakeet (Psittacara maugei) has been known with certainty only from Mona Island and is usually regarded as a poorly defined subspecies of P. chloroptera of Hispaniola. Examination of skin specimens and comparison of skeletons with fossil and archeological material from Puerto Rico, show that Psitticara maugei is a fully di...
Article
In a 24 hr period during 23–25 December 1975, I documented a minimum of 282 dead individuals of Oceanic Puffer Lagocephalus lagocephalus that had washed ashore on the remote South Atlantic island of Trindade, 1200 km east of the coast of Brazil. All of the more than 50 individuals for which I determined the sex had been reproductively active males....
Article
A new species of small crested caracara, Caracara seymouri, from Quaternary asphalt deposits of the Talara Tar Seeps, northwestern Peru, is described from most major elements of the skeleton. Specimens reported in the literature from late Pleistocene deposits at La Carolina, Ecuador, are referred to the same species. These fossils had previously be...
Article
Three avian footprints from a well-known early Eocene fossil track locality in Utah appear to represent an otherwise unknown stilt-like bird, possibly referable to the Recurvirostridae. The bird that made these tracks had very long legs but relatively short toes and was probably somewhat smaller than modern stilts (Himantopus). There was a vestigia...
Article
Palaeontological studies show that three endemic procellariid seabird species became extinct on the remote island of St Helena in the South Atlantic Ocean. At least one of these, Pterodroma rupinarum Olson, 1975, is likely to have survived until human colonization of the island, although it is known only from subfossil bones. Several species of Pte...
Article
The Kona Grosbeak (Chloridops kona), last seen in 1892, was restricted to a small mid-elevation area on the leeward (Kona) side of the island of Hawaii. It was reported to feed almost exclusively on the fruits of the naio tree (Myoporum sandwicense), which are extremely hard, requiring a force of perhaps 400 newtons or more to open. The morphology...
Article
Palaeontological studies show that three endemic procellariid seabird species became extinct on the remote island of St Helena in the South Atlantic Ocean. At least one of these, Pterodroma rupinarum Olson, 1975, is likely to have survived until human colonization of the island, although it is known only from subfossil bones. Several species of Pte...
Article
Although currently treated as feminine, the rules of nomenclature dictate that the proper gender of the generic name Chelonoidis Fitzinger, 1835, used for certain tortoises of South America and the giant species of the Galapagos, is masculine. This necessitates changes to the endings of the following specific names Chelonoidis niger, C. californian...
Article
An associated partial skeleton from the Late Pliocene (3.0–2.6 million years) of St. George Island, Pribilofs, Alaska, is identified as the modern Thick-billed Murre (Uria lomvia). This is the oldest occurrence of either modern species of Uria and probably the oldest Cenozoic bird yet known from Alaska. A split between the two modern species of >3...
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The Jamaican hummingbird that Eleazar Albin called the "Mango Bird", which was the basis for the Linnean name Trochilus mango, is shown likely to have been based on a specimen he saw in Don Saltero's Coffee-House in Chelsea, London, in 1736, that was probably a gift of Sir Hans Sloane. The name "mango-bird" has long been in wide use for certain sou...
Article
The nomenclatural history of the small Antillean species that now goes by the name Audubon's Shearwater Puffinus lherminieri is briefly summarized. The type material of Puffinus lherminieri Lesson, 1839, supposed to be in a museum in Rochefort, France, could not be located and is presumed lost. The stated type locality “ad ripas Antillarum” is so g...
Article
A specimen of Nuku pu'u (Hemignathus lucidus Lichtenstein), collected by the U.S. Exploring Expedition in 1840 or 1841, is shown to have come from the island of Hawai'i. This is the first specimen evidence of the species for that island and the first evidence of probable sympatry of H. lucidus with the 'Akia pola'au (H. wilsoni Rothschild). Skull m...
Article
The history of discovery of the fossil goose Geochen rhuax Wetmore on the island of Hawaii is reviewed through archival records and the literature. Although the age of the fossil was previously undetermined, recent radiocarbon dates establish that the age of the lava flow immediately overlying the bones was 9170 ± 100 yrs b.p. A very large extinct,...
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Hermit-crab transported shells of the West Indian top shell Cittarium pica occur in numerous terrestrial fossil deposits on Bermuda, which is the most remote outpost of this Caribbean species. Cittarium is so far known only from deposits of interglacial ages corresponding to marine isotope stages (MIS) 11, 9, 5e, and 1 (Holocene). In at least the c...
Article
The extinct São Miguel Scops Owl Otus frutuosoi n. sp. is described from fossil bones found in Gruta de Água de Pau, a volcanic tube in São Miguel Island (Azores Archipelago, North Atlantic Ocean). It is the first extinct bird described from the Azores and, after the Madeiran Scops Owl (O. mauli Rando, Pieper, Alcover & Olson 2012a), the second ext...
Article
Fossils of woodpeckers (Picidae) occur on Bermuda in late Pleistocene and Holocene deposits. Most of these are from a flicker (Colaptes), presumably derived from the North American Colaptes auratus that was smaller than all mainland forms of that species. The Bermuda flicker was larger than C. a. gundlachi of Grand Cayman and is named as a new spec...
Article
The extinct drepanidine genus Ciridops is known from five historically taken specimens of Ciridops anna from the island of Hawaii, the last in 1892, and from fossil populations on Molokai, Oahu, and Kauai. The origins of the historical specimens and the taxonomic history of the genus are reviewed. The plumages of C. anna are interpreted as highly s...
Article
Fossil remains of a small owl found in eight separate localities on Bermuda ranging in age from the end of the last interglacial period (Marine Isotope Stage 5a, ca. 80,000 years ago) and up into the Holocene are described here as a new species, Aegolius gradyi, the only representative of its genus known from a remote oceanic island. This differed...
Article
The appendicular myology of the Scarlet Finch Haematospiza sipahi was found to be primitive in all of the characters known to show variation within the subfamily Carduelinae (Fringillidae). It is the only species of cardueline known so far to exhibit this combination of myological characters, although taxon sampling is still inadequate. Haematospiz...
Article
Pipilo naufragus, new species, is described from Middle and Late Pleistocene to Holocene cave and pond deposits on the island of Bermuda. It is most similar to the Eastern Towhee P. erythrophthalmus but differs in having a heavier bill, more robust hindlimbs, and reduced wing and pectoral girdle, with the sternum in particular being shorter, wider,...
Article
The extinct Madeiran Scops Owl Otus mauli n. sp. is described from fossil bones found in Quaternary sites on Madeira Island (Madeira Archipelago, North Atlantic Ocean). It is the first extinct bird to be described from this archipelago and the first extinct species of Strigiformes known from anywhere in Macaronesia. The forelimb bones of the new ta...
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A review of all available specimens and the discovery of many unpublished life history notes allows a much more complete picture of the morphology and behavior of the extinct Wake Island Rail (Gallirallus wakensis). The breeding season of the species may have been environmentally influenced but, under favorable conditions, there may have been two b...
Article
Feducciavis loftini, new genus and species, is described from a single partial associated skeleton from the Middle Miocene Calvert Formation of Virginia. This bird was evidently most closely related to the noddy terns (Anoinae, Anous, Procelsterna). Compared with those genera, the tibiotarsus was much shorter and the ulna much longer in relation to...
Article
A nearly complete skeleton of an adult Hawaiian flightless ibis (Apteribis sp.) was recovered from a vaulted dry lava tube in association with remains of contour feathers. This is the first documentation of the genus Apteribis from the island of Lanai and provides the only record of the nature of the plumage in any of the prehistorically extinct sp...
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We document massive deposition of carbonate sands along the south shore of Bermuda that were emplaced during one or two great storms during the last interglacial. As determined by their stratigraphic position and geochronological data, these deposits formed during marine isotope substage (MIS) 5c ca. 100 ka ago. Within a leeward set of eolian beds,...
Article
Birds have frequently evolved to exploit insular environments by becoming adapted to a terrestrial lifestyle and losing the ability to fly, usually via reducing the wings and pectoral girdle. The enigmatic flightless ibis Xenicibis xympithecus (Threskiornithidae) from the Quaternary of Jamaica provides a rare example of flight loss in ibises. We re...
Article
Four bones of a dove from Bermuda are tentatively identified with the West Indian Zenaida Dove as cf. Zenaida aurita. These occur in deposits dating to about 55,000 to 28,000 years ago that formed during the last glacial period when the land area of Bermuda was much larger. At that time, the West Indies would have been a much more likely source are...
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During the last half million years, pulses of gigantism in the anagenetic lineage of land snails of the subgenus Poecilozonites on Bermuda were correlated with glacial periods when lower sea level resulted in an island nearly an order of magnitude larger than at present. During those periods, the island was colonized by large vertebrate predators t...
Article
A tradition of shooting Common Loons (Gavia immer) for food and for bone fishing lures was established on Shackleford Banks, North Carolina, by the mid-19th century. This strongly ingrained tradition continued to be maintained, primarily by residents of nearby Harkers Island, when inhabitants of the banks moved inland about 1899. The practice proba...
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Through the continuing accumulation of fossil evidence, it is clear that first human arrival on islands around the world was linked to a rise in the extinction rate for vertebrates. Bones in human-era fossil sites can also reveal changes in the composition and structure of ecological communities due to human environmental impacts. New Caledonia is...
Article
The name "Mary-Land Yellow-Throat" coined by James Petiver in 1702 was subsequently applied to the bird now known as the common yellowthroat, Geothlypis trichas, and the term "yellowthroat", ultimately derivable from Petiver, is now used as a generic term for all nine species of the warbler genus Geothlypis (Parulidae). Re-examination of Petiver's...
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Shells from over 280 collections representing all known forms of subgenus Poecilozonites (Zonitidae) from Bermuda have been ranked in stratigraphic order and relative-age aminostratigraphy. The samples were first grouped by their source lithostratigraphic unit, with additional refinements being made based on the epimerization ratio d-alloisoleucine...
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The tapaculos (Rhinocryptidae) are tracheophone, suboscine birds restricted to South and Central America. Most tapaculos share a number of internal and external characteristics that have been used to define the family taxonomically. The genera Melanopareia and Psiloramphus do not fully fit this pattern and have caused considerable dispute among tax...
Article
The extinct species Puffinus parvus Shufeldt of Bermuda is shown to be synonymous with the living taxon Puffinus boydi of the Cape Verde islands. This species occurred on Bermuda throughout the last 400 000 years, during both glacial and interglacial intervals, and into the Holocene up until the arrival of humans when introduced predators evidently...
Article
A fragmentary radius of Hesperotestudo bermudae from an underwater cave deposit in Bermuda is only the second known specimen of the species. The exact provenance and age of the specimen have been lost, but the record provides additional evidence that there was a population of endemic tortoises on Bermuda in the Pleistocene.
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The greater fishing bat Noctilio leporinus has long been erroneously attributed to Isla de Mona, Puerto Rico, based on specimens from Monos Island, Trinidad. There are no historical specimens from the island but a radius from a late Holocene cave deposit now establishes that the species was once present. Its apparent extinction may be have been cau...
Article
Calonectris kurodai, new species, is described from the Middle Miocene Calvert Formation of Virginia and Maryland. This shearwater was much smaller than any living congeneric species and provides the earliest record for the genus Calonectris. A femur referred to Calonectris sp. is probably from later Miocene deposits of the Choptank Formation and w...
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Turdus trichas Linnaeus, 1766 is a composite of two species. To preserve the name as currently used for the Common Yellowthroat Geothlypis trichas, the specimen illustrated by Edwards (1758) is designated as lectotype and Charleston, South Carolina, is designated as the revised type locality.
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Talpanas lippa is described as a new genus and species of waterfowl from Kauai, Hawaiian Islands, that is unlike any other known member of the order. It is characterized by a short, stout tarsometatarsus and a braincase that is shallow and wide relative to its length with very small orbits. In comparison with extant species, the optic foramen of Ta...
Article
Talpanas lippa is described as a new genus and species of waterfowl from Kauai, Hawaiian Islands, that is unlike any other known member of the order. It is characterized by a short, stout tarsometatarsus and a braincase that is shallow and wide relative to its length with very small orbits. In comparison with extant species, the optic foramen of Ta...
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New data are presented on the phylogenetically informative plantaris muscle in the Drepanidini. The primitive condition (presence) corroborates the basal placement of the creepers of the genera Oreomystis. and Paroreomyza. The derived condition of the plantaris (absence) was found in the Hawaii Creeper (Loxops mana), previously considered by some t...
Article
Linnaeus (1766) proposed Certhia pinus based on two different entities, the Blue-winged Warbler (Vermivora pinus) and the Pine Warbler (Dendroica pinus). The confusion was noted by Wilson (1808–1814) who restricted Latham's (1790) Sylvia pinus, based on C. pinus, to the Pine Warbler (in 1811) and proposed, as a new species (in 1810), S. solitaria,...
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Study of the type series and much new fossil material of the Cuban teratorn, Teratornis olsoni Arredondo & Arredondo, shows that this species possessed unique characters within the family Teratornithidae, including a shorter and more flattened humerus and femur, and a tarsometatarsus with a long trochlea II. The differences are so great as to merit...
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A small, protected karstic feature exposed in a limestone quarry in Bermuda preserved abundant sedimentary and biogenic materials documenting a transgressive phase, still-stand, and regressive phase of a sea-level in excess of 21.3 m above present during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 11 (400 ka) as determined by U/Th dating and amino acid racemization...
Article
Se describe una nueva especie, Caracara tellustris, proveniente de los depósitos de una cueva del área árida de Portland Ridge en el sur de Jamaica. Se caracteriza por su gran tamaño y la marcada reducción de las alas, y probablemente fue de hábitos casi completamente terrestres sino incluso no voladora. Estuvo por ende probablemente confinada a la...
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Se describe una nueva especie de pinzón de Hawai a partir de dos fósiles de maxilas extraidos de sedimentos lacustres del Holoceno en la cueva Makauwahi, en la isla de Kaua‘i. La nueva especie es asignada a Loxioides con base en caracteres definidos en un estudio previo sobre la filogenia de los Drepanidini. La maxila de la nueva especie es similar...
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A complete tarsometatarsus from a small Pleistocene sinkhole in northwest central Cuba is identified as that of a Bare-throated Tiger-Heron Tigrisoma mexicanum. This constitutes the first record of any kind of tiger-heron (subfamily Tigrisomatinae) in the West Indies. The extinction of the species in Cuba is perhaps attributable to habitat loss due...
Article
The following critiques express the opinions of the individual evaluators regarding the strengths, weaknesses, and value of the books they review. As such, the appraisals are subjective assessments and do not necessarily reflect the opinions of the editors or any official policy of the American Ornithologists' Union.
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New information is presented concerning the systematics and biogeography of the islands of the Pacific coast of western Panama. Sporophila angolensis fractor, new subspecies, characterized by a larger bill than S. a. ochrogyne, is described from Isla de Coiba, Panama. Recent doubt cast on the validity of the Coiba endemic subspecies Polioptila plum...
Article
The gull Larus smithsonianus Coues, 1862 was based on specimens in the collections of the Smithsonian Institution, but no type material has been identified and the type locality was never restricted beyond the eastern and western coasts of North America. We here designate USNM 18216 as lectotype, and the restricted type locality thus becomes Henley...
Article
Nyctanassa carcinocatactes is described from Pleistocene and Holocene cave and pond deposits on the island of Bermuda. It is most similar to the Yellow-crowned Night-Heron N. violacea but differs in having a shorter and much heavier bill, a much more massive cranium, and more robust hindlimbs. Early historical accounts contain descriptions of what...
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Bermuteo avivorus, new genus and species, is described from rare Quaternary fossils from the island of Bermuda. Although clearly referable to the Buteoninae, its relationships within that group are difficult to assess. Considerable size variation may be attributable to sexual dimorphism associated with bird-catching behavior. It is uncertain if the...
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The Bay Wren (Thryothorus nigricapillus) is distributed from Costa Rica to Ecuador and includes seven described subspecies, five of which occur in the Caribbean lowlands of Panama. The subspecies vary in plumage characters, with particularly striking differences between Bay Wrens from western Panama (to the north), and eastern Panama (to the south)...
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The Hawaiian "honeyeaters," five endemic species of recently extinct, nectar-feeding songbirds in the genera Moho and Chaetoptila, looked and acted like Australasian honeyeaters (Meliphagidae), and no taxonomist since their discovery on James Cook's third voyage has classified them as anything else. We obtained DNA sequences from museum specimens o...
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The two species of Antillean "screech" owls, notable for having unfeathered tarsi and lacking erectile "ear" tufts, have a rather complicated early history because specimens were at first very rare in collections so that for a long time no investigator was able to compare the two side by side. The first to be described was Strix nudipes Daudin (180...
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Remains of at least 26 individuals of a Calonectris shearwater were recovered from a Pleistocene beach deposit on Bermuda that formed when sea-level was more than 21 m above present level during an interglacial (Marine Isotope Stage 11) 400,000 yr ago. Two prefledging juveniles in the sample indicate breeding on the island. This shearwater was the...
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The professional collector Joseph H. Batty obtained birds, mammals, and insects in Panama in 1901 and supposedly 1902, at least some of which have long been thought to have been labeled with suspicious locality information. Examination of catalog records for birds and mammals, the labels of hundreds of specimens of birds, and archival material prov...
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Lost Land of the Dodo. By Anthony Cheke and Julian Hume. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT, 2008. 480 pp. $55. ISBN 9780300141863. T & AD Poyser (A&C Black), London. £45. ISBN 9780713665444. In this detailed consideration of the extinctions that followed the human arrival on the Mascarene Islands (Indian Ocean), the authors describe the complex...
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The exinct macaw Ara autochthones, previously known only from a single bone from an archaeological site on St. Croix, Virgin Islands, is here identified from several associated bones from an archaeological site in south-central Puerto Rico. The species belongs to a distinctive intermediate size-class and was larger than the Cuban Macaw Ara tricolor...
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Graded, sorted, rounded, and ponded marine sand and conglomerate deposited in caves and on an erosional terrace at +20 m on Bermuda, previously interpreted as originating in a eustatic highstand of sea level during the middle Pleistocene, were reinterpreted by McMurtry et al. (2007) as the result of a great 20 m megatsunami at sea, propagating out...
Article
A cranium of the extinct Cuban Macaw Ara tricolor from a Quaternary sinkhole in Villa Clara Province, Cuba, is the third paleontological record for the species in Cuba or for any macaw in the West Indies. The specimen also constitutes the northern and easternmost proven occurrence of the species and adds further information bearing on the osteology...
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The supposed lack of calcium during glacial periods of red soil development has been cited as the principal factor influencing evolution in land snail shells on Bermuda during the Quaternary. We argue that at no time was there an appreciable deficiency of calcium carbonate on Bermuda because the red soils themselves are largely made up of carbonate...
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Tissue samples from 699 birds from three regions of Asia (Myanmar, India, and South Korea) were screened for evidence of infection by avian parasites in the genera Plasmodium and Haemoproteus. Samples were collected from November 1994 to October 2004. We identified 241 infected birds (34.0%). Base-on-sequence data for the cytochrome b gene from 221...
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The so-called "walking eagle," currently known as Wetmoregyps daggetti from the Pleistocene of southern California and northern Mexico, is practically identical in morphology and proportion to the living Savanna Hawk (Buteogallus meridionalis) but ≈40 larger. It should therefore be known as Buteogallus daggetti, new combination. Its habits were per...
Article
The overlooked word "woggin", with many variants, was widely used by Yankee whalers for both the great auk (Pinguinus impennis) and for penguins (Spheniscidae), as documented in numerous logbooks and journals and at least two published sources. Although in use from at least 1762 until the 1860s, this word appears to be entirely unknown in scholarly...
Article
The following critiques express the opinions of the individual evaluators regarding the strengths, weaknesses, and value of the books they review. As such, the appraisals are subjective assessments and do not necessarily reflect the opinions of the editors or any official policy of the American Ornithologists' Union.
Article
Fósiles del Holoceno tardío provenientes de un depósito subterráneo en la península de Portland Ridge al sur de Jamaica extienden el rango de Buteogallus aequinoctialis hasta la cuenca del Caribe, a más de 1700 km al oeste-noroeste de la distribución actual más occidental de esta especie. Los fósiles se localizaron cerca de las áreas más extensas d...

Citations

... We exclude Tachyeres because it shows different proportions, probably due to the importance of the forelimb during the superficial swimming (Williams, 2015). A large difference between the humerus and carpometacarpus is observed in Chendytes lawi, and Ptaiochen pau in both the ratio is 0.36 (Olson and James, 1984;Livezey, 1993). The shape of the humerus in Cayaoa, with a very large proximal epiphysis compared to the rest of the element, and a relatively robust diaphysis, is typical of non-flying birds (Livezey, 1993;Watanabe and Matsouka, 2015), such as Chendytes lawi and Shiriyanetta hasegawai. ...
... For those authors, Gallirallus contains only two species: the weka G. australis and the New Caledonian rail G. lafresnayanus. They classified the invisible rail G. wallacii into the monospecific genus Habroptila G.R. Gray, 1861, and erected a further monospecific genus, Aptenorallus Kirchman, McInerney, Giarla, Olson, Slikas & Fleischer, 2021 (formally described in [23], a corrigendum to that publication), solely for the Calayan rail G. calayanensis. All remaining species were allocated to the genus Hypotaenidia Reichenbach, 1853 by those authors. ...
... However, while Cyanolimnas has reduced powers of flight, it is volant (AK pers obs), and in any case, flightlessness is now known to have arisen many times in Rallidae and cannot be used as a predictor of relationships (e.g., Olson 1973;Slikas et al. 2002;Kirchman 2012;Gaspar et al. 2020;Garcia-R and Matzke 2021, although Cyanolimnas was incorrectly treated as flightless in the latter). As noted by Olson (1973) and Steadman et al. (2013), in its robust, deep-based bill Cyanolimnas is similar to the two species frequently assigned to Neocrex Sclater & Salvin, 1868, Colombian Crake N. colombiana and Paint-billed Crake N. erythrops (both of which are now often placed in an expanded Mustelirallus Bonaparte, 1856; e.g., Kirchman et al. 2021). Plumage and osteological characters are similar to either Neocrex, or less so to the latter's sister taxon Pardirallus Bonaparte, 1856, to which genus Cyanolimnas was considered most closely related in the morphological phylogenies of Livezey (1998) and Garcia-R and Matzke (2021). ...
... The older deposit contains abundant fossils of medium and large size rodents that were likely accumulated by T. ostologa (Su arez and Olson, 2015). Fossils of this extinct owl were also found in the Trou Woch Sa Wo locality and are relatively abundant in other localities across Hispaniola (Woods, 1989;Súarez and Olson, 2020). The Trou Woch Sa Wo locality is a hillside rock shelter that was excavated between February 1978 and May 1984 resulting in a large collection of fossils including those of many native mammals. ...
... This suggests that extinct species tended to be functionally similar (Fig. S14), having traits that resemble those of other species in different island assemblages (Rosenblad & Sax, 2017;Li et al., 2020). Human colonization of oceanic islands is known to have caused the extinction of bird species with similar traits, typical of species that evolved in isolation and with few to no predators, such as flightlessness, ground-foraging, and specialized diets, and that are associated with high vulnerability to anthropogenic threats, like hunting, introduced predators and habitat loss (Kirchman & Steadman, 2006;Carpenter et al., 2020;Rando et al., 2020;Sayol et al., 2020). For example, the two Mascarene Islands lost different species of shelducks, night-herons and rails that were susceptible to human activities given their larger body size, low flight capacity (or flightlessness), and ground-foraging strategy (Hume et al., 2013). ...
... Genetic differences based on corrected p-distances and average Tamura and Nei (1993) (TN) distances were calculated between AMOVA-defined groups, and visualized using a Principal Coordinates Analysis (PCoA). Median-joining haplotype networks were created for each species in Network v.5.0.0.0 (Fluxus Technology Ltd, 1999-2017, to compare the genealogical relationship among the haplotypes. For F. minor, we employed the Star Contraction option for network simplification to overcome issues related to missing data. ...
... Possible candidate species of Chelonoidis consist of three continental forms (the red-footed tortoise C. carbonaria, yellow-footed tortoise C. denticulata, and Chilean tortoise C. chilensis of mainland South America), and the Galápagos tortoise species group (nomenclature of the Galápagos tortoises C. elephantopus s.l. reviewed inOlson, 2017;Olson and Humphrey, 2017). With tortoises on tropical islands regarded as "ecological and evolutionary keystone species"(Hansen et al., 2010), introducing non-native extant tortoises as replacements for extinct species is a reasonable and feasible ecological restoration scheme(Griffiths et al., 2010). ...
... These species occur in all (rodents and cats) or almost all (rabbits) the islands [15,16], with known impacts on native birds [17][18][19][20][21]. It is known that some endemic terrestrial birds went extinct, probably associated to the arrival of humans and the introduction of non-native predators [22][23][24]. Two species of Mustelidae have also been introduced in the Azores during the islands' colonization: the least weasel (Mustela nivalis) and the ferret (M. ...
... Table 2. Quaternary bat records from the Chapada Diamantina region compared with the extant records from the region and Quaternary records from elsewhere in the Neotropics. Abbreviations and data sources as follows: CD, Chapada Diamantina Plateau, Bahia (Quaternary: Czaplewski and Cartelle, 1998;extant: Sbragia, 2012); LS, Lagoa Santa, Minas Gerais (Lund, 1840;Winge, 1892;Paula Couto, 1946); SM, Serra da Mesa, Goiás (Fracasso and Salles, 2005); RRV, Ribeira River Valley, São Paulo (Trajano and de Vivo, 1991;Ameghino, 1907); Ga/Sa, Garivaldino and Sangão sites, Rio Grande do Sul (Hadler et al., 2010); Caa, bat records from the Caatinga Biome that occurs in the Chapada Diamantina Plateau (Sá-Neto and Marinho-Filho, 2013); SA, South America, excepting Brazil (Morgan et al., 1988;Pardiñas and Tonni, 2000;Czaplewski et al., 2005); CA, Central America and Caribbean (Reynolds et al., 1953;Choate and Birney, 1968;Silva-Taboada, 1974, 1979Olson et al., 1990;Arroyo-Cabrales and Polaco, 2008;Olson and Nieves-Rivera, 2010;Orihuela, 2012;Velazco et al., 2013); NA, North America (Mexico only) sites (Arroyo-Cabrales and Polaco, 2008); *, data from current work; **, first record for area. plastic zip bags. ...