Steven N Blair's research while affiliated with University of South Carolina and other places

Publications (1,000)

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Importance: The amount and intensity of physical activity required to prevent stroke are yet to be fully determined because of previous reliance on self-reporting measures. Furthermore, the association between objectively measured time spent being sedentary as an independent risk factor for stroke is unknown. Objective: To investigate the associ...
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Importance: Observational evidence suggests that higher physical activity is associated with slower kidney function decline; however, to our knowledge, no large trial has evaluated whether activity and exercise can ameliorate kidney function decline in older adults. Objective: To evaluate whether a moderate-intensity exercise intervention can af...
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A c c e p t e d M a n u s c r i p t We sought to determine the effects of 12 months of power training on cognition, and whether improvements in body composition, muscle strength and/or aerobic capacity (VO 2peak) were associated with improvements in cognition in older adults with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Participants with T2D were randomized to power...
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We sought to determine the effects of 12 months of power training on cognition, and whether improvements in body composition, muscle strength and/or aerobic capacity (VO2peak) were associated with improvements in cognition in older adults with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Participants with T2D were randomized to power training or low intensity sham exerc...
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Objective To examine the association between change in nonexercise estimated cardiorespiratory fitness (eCRF) and mortality risk in adult men. Patients and Methods A total of 10,445 men (mean age, 44.6±9.3 years) from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study underwent 2 comprehensive medical examinations and peak work rate tests between January 1, 1...
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This retrospective cohort study examined the relationship between self-reported participation in flexibility and muscular strengthening activities and the development of functional limitation (i.e., once an individual has difficulty with or becomes unable to perform activities of daily living). Data were obtained from 1318 adults (mean age 49.5 ± 9...
Preprint
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BACKGROUND Low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is an independent predictor of morbidity and mortality. Most healthcare settings use some type of electronic health record system (EHRs). However, many EHRs do not have CRF, or physical activity data collected, thereby limiting the types of investigations and analyses that can be done. OBJECTIVE Devel...
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Background and Purpose We examined differences in the volume and pattern of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior between adults with and without stroke. Methods We studied cohort members with an adjudicated or self-reported stroke (n=401) and age-, sex-, race-, region of residence-, and body mass index-matched participants without a histo...
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Cardiovascular (CV) disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of major morbidity and CVD- and all-cause mortality in most of the world. It is now clear that regular physical activity (PA) and exercise training (ET) induces a wide range of direct and indirect physiologic adaptations and pleiotropic benefits for human general and CV health. Generally,...
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The purpose of this study was to examine the associations of cardiorespiratory fitness, general adiposity, and central adiposity with incident intermediate hyperglycemia (IH) in women. We conducted a prospective cohort study of 1534 women aged 20-79 years old who had an annual health check-up with no history of major chronic diseases. At baseline,...
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Background: The effects of compliance with the US Physical Activity (PA) Guidelines and changes in compliance over time on cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality are unknown. Methods: Male participants in the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study (n = 15,411; 18-100 y) reported leisure-time PA between 1970 and 2002. The frequency of and time spent...
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Background: Increased resting heart rate (RHR) is a predictor of mortality. RHR is influenced by cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). Little is known about the combined associations of RHR and CRF on cancer mortality. Methods: 50,108 men and women (mean age 43.8 years) were examined between 1974 and 2002 at the Cooper Clinic in Dallas, Texas. RHR wa...
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A high level of physical fitness, especially cardiorespiratory fitness, is associated with lower incidence of hypertension. However, the relationship between flexibility, which is a component of physical fitness, and the incidence of hypertension is unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between flexibility and the i...
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Background: We examined the effect of power training on habitual, intervention and total physical activity (PA) levels in older adults with type 2 diabetes and their relationship to metabolic control. Materials and Methods: 103 adults with type 2 diabetes were randomized to receive supervised power training or sham exercise three times/week for 12...
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Current physical activity recommendations have been based on evidence from systematic reviews of questionnaire-based data. Questionnaire-based physical activity data are subject to both random and non-random error. If the estimated association between physical activity and health outcomes was different when a more accurate, objective measure was us...
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Purpose of review: The focus of this review is to discuss obesity, physical activity (and physical inactivity/sedentary behavior), cardiovascular disease (CVD), and their often interrelated health implications. The authors summarize the pathophysiological changes associated with obesity, which lead to the development of CVD, recommendations for in...
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Background Personal activity intelligence (PAI) is a metric developed to simplify a physically active lifestyle for the participants. Regardless of following today's advice for physical activity, a PAI score ≥100 per week at baseline, an increase in PAI score, and a sustained high PAI score over time were found to delay premature cardiovascular dis...
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Background: To examine the association between muscular and performance fitness (MPF) and the incidence of glaucoma. Methods: A total of 27,051 glaucoma-free participants aged 20-87 years underwent physical fitness tests between April 2001 and March 2002. The MPF index was calculated using an age- and sex-specific summed z-score from grip streng...
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Despite considerable evidence demonstrating that waist circumference (WC) is independently associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and/or all-cause mortality, whether the addition of WC improves risk prediction models is unclear. The objective was to evaluate the improvement in risk prediction with the addition of WC, alone or in combination w...
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Background: Many older adults in the U.S. do not achieve the recommended amount of physical activity (PA) to fully realize a myriad of health benefits. Adiposity is one of those important correlates of PA and sedentary behaviors. However, the full extent to which adiposity is associated with PA and stationary time (STA) is uncertain. Therefore, we...
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The purpose of this article is to propose ways in which to increase PA levels in students from elementary and secondary schools, based on the implications of research findings examining adults’ attitudes, beliefs, outlooks and preferences on PA and exercise. In other words, can the information that we have learned from adults in their relationship...
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This review attempted to answer whether we should target increased physical activity or reduced sedentary behavior to reduce the risk of CVD. The answer is clearly “both”. There is consistent scientific evidence that sedentary behavior is a risk factor for CVD; however, to maximize the benefits, sedentary behavior should be replaced with as much mo...
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BACKGROUND Several cross-sectional studies have linked higher physical fitness with better hearing sensitivity but have not established a causal relation; none have used a prospective design that is less susceptible to bias. We used a prospective cohort study to investigate the association between muscular and performance fitness and the incidence...
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Older adults have low rates meeting the physical activity (PA) guidelines and high sedentary time. Low PA and excessive sedentary time have been linked to adverse health outcomes. Less is known about whether exercise training influences sedentary time and PA in various intensities. Purpose: To examine the effects of a 16-week aerobic exercise tra...
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Importance Personal activity intelligence (PAI) is a novel activity metric that can be integrated into self-assessment heart rate devices, and translates heart rate variations during exercise into a weekly score. Previous studies relating to PAI have been conducted in the same populations from Norway where the PAI metric has been derived, limiting...
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Introduction Sedentary time is inversely associated with health. Capturing 24 hours of behavior (i.e., sleep, sedentary, light physical activity, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity) is necessary to understand behavior–health associations. Methods Healthy young adults aged 20–35 years (n=423) completed the Profile of Mood States, the Percei...
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Background: The present study examined, among weight-stable overweight or obese adults, the effect of increasing doses of exercise energy expenditure (EEex) on changes in total daily energy expenditure (TDEE), total body energy stores, and body composition. Methods: Healthy, sedentary overweight/obese young adults were randomized to one of 3 gro...
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Background: Walking independently is basic to human functioning. The Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE) studies were developed to assess whether initiating physical activity could prevent major mobility disability (MMD) in sedentary older adults. Methods: We review the development and selected findings of the LIFE studies...
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Objectives: To examine the independent, joint, and fully combined associations of sedentary behavior (SB), moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) with the odds of poor sleep quality (SQ). Methods: We performed a secondary data analysis on 757 working adults (male = 345) in Singapore, with an average ag...
Preprint
Background: Many older adults in the U.S. do not achieve the recommended amount of physical activity (PA) to fully realize a myriad of health benefits. Adiposity may be one of those important correlates of PA and sedentary behaviors. However, the full extent to which adiposity is associated with PA and sedentary time (SED) is uncertain. Therefore,...
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Background Characterizing the effects of physical activity (PA) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) on mortality is challenging because the causal relationship between PA, CRF, and other cardiovascular risk factors is unclear. Methods To better understand the effects of PA and CRF on mortality, we re-analyzed data from 42,373 participants in the A...
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Background: The benefits of aerobic exercise (AE) for cardiovascular disease (CVD) have been well documented. Resistance exercise (RE) has been traditionally examined for its effects on bone density, physical function, or metabolic health, yet few data exist regarding the benefits of RE, independent of and combined with AE, for CVD prevention. Thi...
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Background: The association between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and all-cause mortality is well established but it is unclear if there are differences in mortality risk among the 32 possible MetS combinations. Hence, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the associations between different MetS combinations and its individual components with all-c...
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Background Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) may protect against aging-related decline. This study directly compared ACEis and ARBs on associations with risk of mobility disability in older adults when combined with a physical activity intervention. Methods This was a secondary analysis of the...
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Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) has been widely studied as a powerful and independent predictor of all-cause and disease-specific mortality. Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is recognized as a significant cause of mortality among the general population, including the general population without previous symptoms of any coronary heart disease (CHD). Conseq...
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Objectives: We examined the overall association as well as the dose-response relationship between leisure-time running and incident type 2 diabetes. Methods: Participants were 19,347 adults aged 18-100 years who were free of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and diabetes at baseline, and who received at least 2 extensive preventive medical examina...
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Background and purpose: Although several studies have assessed the importance of traditional risk factors in predicting stroke, none have concurrently addressed the stroke-predicting ability of these risk factors across the lifespan of subjects without a hypertension (HTN) diagnosis. Thus, this study aimed to assess the importance of blood-pressur...
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Background Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) assessment provides key information regarding general health status that has high clinical utility. In addition, in the sports setting, CRF testing is needed to establish a baseline level, prescribe an individualized training program and monitor improvement in athletic performance. As such, the assessment...
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Introduction: Approximately half of adults have hypertension (HTN) under the 2017 blood pressure (BP) guidelines. The guidelines recommend lifestyle factors, such as limiting alcohol consumption, to manage BP, although safe levels of alcohol consumption have not been investigated for this new population with HTN. Objective: To examine the dose-resp...
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Sedentary behavior and physical inactivity are among the leading modifiable risk factors worldwide for cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. The promotion of physical activity and exercise training (ET) leading to improved levels of cardiorespiratory fitness is needed in all age groups, race, and ethnicities and both sexes to prevent many...
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Purpose Inflammatory contributions from diet and adiposity may interact with respect to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We investigated the degree to which adiposity modified the association between dietary inflammatory potential and incident T2DM. Methods Data from 6,016 US men in the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study who com...
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Objective: To examine the association between muscular strength and incident type 2 diabetes, independent of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). Patients and methods: A total of 4681 adults aged 20 to 100 years who had no type 2 diabetes at baseline were included in the current prospective cohort study. Participants underwent muscular strength test...
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Background: To investigate the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and all-cause mortality in men with musculoskeletal conditions. Methods: Participants were 12,728 men (mean age 47.0 [9.3] y) with a history of musculoskeletal conditions (including joint pain, low back pain, stiff joints, art...
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The number and scope of established health-related benefits from physical activity continue to expand. Notable recent additions include improved weight status and bone health in children 3-5 years of age, prevention of excessive weight gain among adults, reduced risk of dementia, and improved cognition and a variety of other brain-health benefits....
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Aims/Introduction To investigate the relationship between combined aerobic and resistance training, and the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods The present study included 10,680 Japanese women. Participants enrolled between 2005 and 2010, and were followed up until 2014. The frequency of combined training was counted for t...
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Sleep disturbances, chronotype and social jetlag [SJL] have been associated with increased risks for major chronic diseases that take decades to develop, such as obesity, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Potential relationships between poor sleep, chronotype, and social jetlag as they relate to metabolic risk factors for chronic disea...
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The cardiovascular disease (CVD) pandemic has placed considerable strain on healthcare systems, quality of life, and physical function, while remaining the leading cause of death globally. Decades of scientific investigations have fortified the protective effects of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), exercise training, and physical activity (PA) agai...
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The purpose of this study was to examine the longitudinal association between TV viewing and all-cause mortality in older adults with hypertension. Sedentary behavior, physical activity, hypertension and other chronic diseases were assessed by face-to-face interviews and confirmed by medical history. Mortality was reported by relatives and confirme...
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Family history of hypertension (FH) is a nonmodifiable risk factor for hypertension. However, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is a modifiable risk factor and might be important for preventing hypertension in both people with and without FH. The purpose of this study was to investigate the combined association of CRF and FH on the incidence of hyper...
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Purpose: Resistance exercise (RE) can improve many cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, but specific data on the effects on CVD events and mortality are lacking. We investigated the associations of RE with CVD and all-cause mortality, and further examined the mediation effect of body mass index between RE and CVD outcomes. Methods: We incl...
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Background: Sedentary behaviour (SB) may contribute to the development of several chronic diseases, such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM) and all-cause mortality. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between different domains of SB with diabetes among adult users of the Brazilian National Health System (NHS). Methods: C...
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Objectives: Although maintaining cardiorespiratory fitness is encouraged to reduce the risk of hypertension, the level at, and length of time for which, individuals need to maintain fitness remains unclear. We examined the association between the frequency of achieving the recommended fitness levels of the 'Physical Activity Reference for Health P...
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Aim: Recent studies have suggested that non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) may be a good marker of coronary heart disease and cardiovascular disease risk. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and non-HDL-C. Methods: We evaluated CRF and the incidence of high level of non-HDL-C in 4,06...
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The aims of the present article are to systematically review and meta-analyze the existing evidence on: 1) differences in physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior (SB), cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and muscular strength (MST) between metabolically healthy obesity (MHO) and metabolically unhealthy obesity (MUO); and 2) the prognosis of all-caus...
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Purpose: To examine the associations of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness (hereafter fitness) with incident glaucoma in a prospective observational study. Methods: Physical activity was measured by self-reported leisure-time activities and fitness was measured by maximal treadmill test. Incident glaucoma was defined based on physic...
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Excessive sedentary time is related to poor mental health. However, much of the current literature uses cross-sectional data and/or self-reported sedentary time, and does not assess factors such as sedentary bout length. To address these limitations, the influence of objectively measured sedentary time including sedentary bout length (i.e. <30 min,...