Steven L. Zeichner's research while affiliated with University of Virginia and other places

Publications (91)

Article
A 7-year-old boy presented to the emergency department with fever, cough, congestion, abdominal pain, myalgias, and morbilliform rash. Several aspects of the patient's history, including recent travel, living on a farm, exposure to sick contacts, and new medications, resulted in a wide differential diagnosis. Initial laboratory testing revealed leu...
Preprint
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Many mechanisms responsible for COVID-19 pathogenesis are well-established, but COVID-19 includes features with unclear pathogenesis, such as autonomic dysregulation, coagulopathies, and high levels of inflammation. The receptor for SARS-CoV-2 spike protein's receptor binding domain (RBD) is angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). We hypothesized t...
Article
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Beyond their pulmonary disease, many COVID-19 patients experience a complex constellation of characteristics, including hyperinflammatory responses, autoimmune disorders, and coagulopathies. However, the pathogenesis of these aspects of COVID-19 is obscure. More than 90% of people are latently infected with the lymphotropic herpesviruses Epstein–Ba...
Article
Minicells, small cells lacking a chromosome, produced by bacteria with mutated min genes, which control cell division septum placement, have many potential uses. Minicells have contributed to basic bacterial physiology studies and can enable new biotechnological applications, including drug delivery and vaccines. Genome-reduced bacteria are another...
Preprint
Full-text available
Minicells, small cells lacking a chromosome, produced by bacteria with mutated min genes, which control cell division septum placement, have many potential uses. Minicells have contributed to basic bacterial physiology studies and can enable new biotechnological applications, including drug delivery and vaccines. Genome-reduced (GR) bacteria are an...
Article
Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a serious, sometimes life-threatening late complication of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with multiorgan involvement and evidence of immune activation. The pathogenesis of MIS-C is not known, nor is the pathogenesis of the severe organ damage that is the hallmark of MIS-C. Human herpesv...
Article
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Introduction Atopic dermatitis is a common skin disease characterized by altered cutaneous immunity in which patients often exhibit lower skin microbiota diversity compared to healthy skin and are prone to colonization by Staphylococcus aureus . Apple cider vinegar has been shown to have antibacterial effects; however, its effects on the skin micro...
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Significance We report a vaccine platform to express vaccine antigens on the surface of genome-reduced bacteria to enhance vaccine immunogenicity. We demonstrate the utility of this vaccine platform by expressing the highly conserved fusion peptide (FP) of SARS-CoV-2 and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus on the surface of Escherichia coli to produce...
Preprint
As the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic rages on, it is important to explore new evolution-resistant vaccine antigens and new vaccine platforms that can produce readily scalable, inexpensive vaccines with easier storage and transport. We report here a synthetic biology-based vaccine platform that employs an expression vector with an ind...
Article
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No effective therapy to eliminate the HIV latently infected cell reservoir has been developed. One approach, “shock and kill”, employs agents that activate HIV, subsequently killing the activated infected cells and/or virus. Shock and kill requires agents that safely and effectively activate HIV. One class of activation agents works through classic...
Article
A 16-year-old girl presented to the emergency department with intermittent fevers and worsening abdominal pain of 5 weeks duration. She had a history of travel to a less developed country and exposure to possible infectious diseases. Abdominal imaging and blood tests revealed diffuse mesenteric lymphadenopathy, elevated transaminases, and elevation...
Article
Background/objectives: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common chronic inflammatory skin condition associated with high transepidermal water loss, high skin pH, and Staphylococcus aureus skin colonization. The treatment of AD with bath additives remains highly debated. Recent evidence suggests that dilute apple cider vinegar (ACV) may improve skin barr...
Article
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Short bowel syndrome (SBS) presents an increasing problem in pediatrics. SBS often results from surgical resection of necrotic bowel following necrotizing enterocolitis or treatment of anatomic gastrointestinal defects. SBS is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, and creates substantial burdens for patients, families, and the health...
Article
Regulation of expression of HTLV-1 gene products from integrated proviruses plays an important role in HTLV-1-associated disease pathogenesis. Previous studies have shown that T cell receptor (TCR)- and phorbol ester (PMA) stimulation of chronically infected CD4 T cells increases the expression of integrated HTLV-1 proviruses in latently infected c...
Article
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The oral microbial community (microbiota) plays a critical role in human health and disease. Alterations in the oral microbiota may be associated with disorders such as gingivitis, periodontitis, childhood caries, alveolar osteitis, oral candidiasis and endodontic infections. In the immunosuppressed population, the spectrum of potential oral diseas...
Article
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Despite much work, safe and effective approaches to attack and deplete the long-lived reservoir of cells latently infected with HIV-1 remain an elusive goal. Patients infected with HIV-1 treated with cytotoxic agents or bone marrow transplantation can experience decreases in the reservoir of HIV-1 latently infected cells. Other viruses capable of l...
Patent
A method for treating latent HIV infection is disclosed. The method includes administering to a subject in need of such treatment an effective amount of an anti-IκBα agent, an anti-IκBε agent or both; and administering to the subject an effective amount of an antiviral agent. A pharmaceutical composition for treating latent HIV infection is also di...
Article
The only successful HIV cure was produced by allogeneic stem cell bone marrow transplantation (BMT) using a [INCREMENT]32 CCR5 homozygous donor. Other HIV patients with lymphoma, treated with BMT and HAART, had significant decreases in HIV reservoirs. One possible explanation for BMT's effect on HIV reservoirs is that BMT conditioning regimens help...
Article
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Purpose: The function of the appendix is largely unknown, but its microbiota likely contributes to function. Alterations in microbiota may contribute to appendicitis, but conventional culture studies have not yielded conclusive information. We conducted a pilot, culture-independent 16S rRNA-based microbiota study of paired appendix and rectal samp...
Article
A central feature of herpesvirus biology is the ability of herpesviruses to remain latent within host cells. Classically, exposure to inducing agents like activating cytokines or phorbol esters that stimulate host cell signal transduction events, and epigenetic agents (e.g. butyrate) were thought to end latency. We recently showed that Kaposi's Sar...
Article
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Latently infected cell reservoirs represent the main barrier to HIV eradication. Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) effectively blocks viral replication, but cannot purge latent provirus. One approach to HIV eradication could include cART to block new infections plus an agent to activate latent provirus. NF-κB activation induces HIV expressi...
Data
Statistical modeling of the dependence of Nugent score on community state type.
Data
Modeling of Jensen-Shannon distance to community state type IV-A.
Data
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Contingency table of community state type and Nugent score category.
Data
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Principal component analysis 3D projection of the community states, with the centers of the main five clusters (community state types) indicated by colored balls. The green ball is at the center of community state type IV-A. Download Figure S1, PDF file, 0.2 MB.
Data
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Modeling the association between community state types and treatment at visit V4 compared to visits V2 and V3.
Article
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Unlabelled: Vaginal HIV microbicides offer great promise in preventing HIV transmission, but failures of phase 3 clinical trials, in which microbicide-treated subjects had an increased risk of HIV transmission, raised concerns about endpoints used to evaluate microbicide safety. A possible explanation for the increased transmission risk is that th...
Data
Community state type abundance in sampled vaginal communities.
Article
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is linked to several neoplastic diseases: Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), and multicentric Castleman's disease (MCD). KSHV replicates actively, via a controlled gene expression program, but can also remain latent. It had been thought that the transition from latent to lytic replicati...
Article
Full-text available
Long-lived reservoirs of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) latently infected cells present the main barrier to a cure for HIV infection. Much interest has focused on identifying strategies to activate HIV, which would be used together with antiretrovirals to attack reservoirs. Several HIV activating agents, including Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (T...
Article
5 of 6 children infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) receiving Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) experienced absolute decreases in bone mineral density (BMD). 2 pre-pubertal subjects experienced >6% BMD decreases. 1 subject was the smallest child and experienced a 27% decrease, necessitating withdrawal of TDF. Subsequently, her BMD re...
Article
Virologic response to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) treatment of HIV infection depends on viral sensitivity to antiretrovirals and excellent medication adherence. Adolescents with vertically acquired HIV may require complicated regimens because of significant treatment experience and often have poor medication adherence. A retrospect...
Article
We examined 28 children with HIV-1 infection who were not responding to existing antiviral regimens and were enrolled into clinical trials conducted at the National Cancer Institute to receive salvage therapy. In 3 of the 28 patients (10.7%), the Q151M complex amino acid substitutions were identified. The three patients had received nucleoside reve...
Article
A longitudinal study of viral reservoirs in children initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in early infancy was undertaken to test the hypothesis that early effective treatment affects the persistence of replication-competent viral latency and the evolution of HIV-1 in resting CD4(+) T cells. An end point dilution culture assay wa...
Article
Full-text available
A longitudinal study of viral reservoirs in children initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in early infancy was undertaken to test the hypothesis that early effective treatment affects the persistence of replication-competent viral latency and the evolution of HIV-1 in resting CD4 T cells. An end point dilution culture assay was u...
Article
Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, a nucleotide analog HIV reverse transcriptase inhibitor with demonstrated activity against nucleoside-resistant HIV, is approved for use in adults but not children. Metabolic bone abnormalities have been seen in young animals given high-dose tenofovir and HIV-infected adults that were treated with oral tenofovir disop...
Article
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In today's era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), few children with HIV-1 infection experience severe central nervous system (CNS) manifestations indicative of encephalopathy. However, little is known about the neurocognitive strengths and weaknesses of HIV-infected children treated with HAART. This cross-sectional study is the first...
Article
Combined from the following chapters in the Textbook of Pediatric HIV Care: Normal development and physiology of the immune system Sherilyn Smith and Ann Melvin. HIV basic virology for clinicians Steven L. Zeichner. The immunology of pediatric HIV disease Elizabeth McFarland. The clinical virology of pediatric HIV disease Paul Palumbo. The natural...
Article
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Highly active antiretroviral therapy has altered the course of HIV infection among children, but new antiretroviral agents are needed for treatment-experienced children with drug-resistant virus. Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (DF) is a promising agent for use in pediatric salvage therapy, because of its tolerability, efficacy, and resistance profil...
Article
The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Vpr protein has important functions in advancing HIV pathogenesis via several effects on the host cell. Vpr mediates nuclear import of the preintegration complex, induces host cell apoptosis, and inhibits cell cycle progression at G(2), which increases HIV gene expression. Some of Vpr's activities hav...
Article
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Treatment of primary effusion lymphoma cells latently infected by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV; human herpesvirus-8 [HHV-8]) with agents such as 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) induces a lytic viral replication cycle, with an ordered gene expression program. Initial studies of the KSHV expression program following TPA in...
Article
The HIV-1 gene promoter is a bi-directional promoter of transcription. We report the characterization of the negative sense promoter (NSP) by analysis of the effect on negative sense transcription of a series of LTR U3 region substitution mutants. Mutations in the region nt -58 to -183 (positive sense transcription initiation nt +1) reduced transcr...
Article
The existence of reservoirs of cells latently infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a major obstacle to the elimination of HIV infection. We studied the changes in cellular gene expression that accompany the reactivation and completion of the lytic viral cycle in cell lines chronically infected with HIV-1. We found that several genes...
Article
To characterize the type and frequency of biochemical lipid abnormalities and physical changes in body composition associated with the use of protease inhibitor (PI)-containing antiretroviral therapy among human immunodeficiency virus-infected children treated for up to 6 years. A retrospective study of human immunodeficiency virus-infected pediatr...
Article
Primary effusion lymphomas (PEL) are uniformly infected with Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), and thus likely present both tumor and viral antigens to the immune system. In order to grow unrestricted and cause disease, multiple immune evasion strategies may be utilized by PEL to evade immune surveillance. Using six well-established P...
Article
Full-text available
Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (DF) is a potent nucleotide analog reverse transcriptase inhibitor approved for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults. The single-dose and steady-state pharmacokinetics of tenofovir were evaluated following administration of tenofovir DF in treatment-experienced HIV-infected children requi...
Article
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Recent results showed that certain DEAD box protein RNA helicases, DDX3 and DDX1, play an important role in the HIV infection cycle by facilitating the export of long, singly spliced or unspliced HIV RNAs from the nucleus via the CRM1-Rev pathway. Close examination of an extensive microarray expression profiling dataset obtained from cells latently...
Article
This case series describes 4 children with vertically acquired human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection who exhibited immunologic, virologic, and clinical stability while on a protease inhibitor-containing highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimen, yet demonstrated significant cognitive decline as measured by standardized intelligenc...
Article
An important step in the herpesvirus life cycle is the switch from latency to lytic reactivation. In order to study the life cycle of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), we developed a gene expression system in KSHV-infected primary effusion lymphoma cells. This system uses Flp-mediated efficient recombination and tetracycline-inducible...
Article
The K1 protein of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) contains an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) in its cytoplasmic region and elicits cellular signal transduction through this motif. To investigate the role of K1 signal transduction in KSHV replication, we expressed full-length K1 and CD8-K1 chimeras in BCBL1 cell...
Article
The sulphur mustard vesicant 2-chloroethylethyl sulphide (CEES) induced apoptosis in Jurkat cells. Akt (PKB), a pivotal protein kinase which can block apoptosis and promotes cell survival, was identified to be chiefly down-regulated in a dose-dependent manner following CEES treatment. Functional analysis showed that the attendant Akt activity was s...
Article
The early human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) accessory protein Nef makes an important contribution to virulence, but the mechanisms by which Nef influences pathogenesis remain unclear. Many well-studied effects of Nef, like CD4 and class I MHC downregulation, occur posttranslationally. However, Nef has the potential to affect gene expression by int...
Article
Two children (ages 12 and 13 years) with transfusion-acquired human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection presented with facial pain and rhinorrhea. Radiographic imaging showed extensive paranasal sinus disease, presumed to be bacterial sinusitis, and the patients were treated with broad-spectrum oral antibiotics. Both patients were unresponsive t...
Article
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The Tax protein of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1), an oncoprotein that transactivates viral and cellular genes, plays a key role in HTLV-1 replication and pathogenesis. We used cDNA microarrays to examine Tax-mediated transcriptional changes in the human Jurkat T-cell lines JPX-9 and JPX-M which express Tax and Tax-mutant protein, respe...
Article
Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), a gammaherpesvirus implicated in Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma, and Castleman's disease, encodes several pathogenically important cellular homologs. To define the HHV-8 transcription program, RNA obtained from latently infected body cavity-based lymphoma 1 cells induced to undergo lytic replication was use...
Article
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Virologic and immunologic responses were examined for 33 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected children who participated for ⩾96 weeks in a phase 1/2 protocol of 16 weeks of indinavir monotherapy, followed by the addition of zidovudine and lamivudine. At week 96, a median increase of 199 CD4+ T cells/μL and a median decrease of 0.74 log10 HIV...
Article
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Little is known about cellular immunity to human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), the virus associated with Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). T cell proliferative responses to purified HHV-8 were measured in homosexual men, a group with elevated HHV-8 seroprevalence and high risk of KS. None of 20 blood donor controls had T cell responses to HHV-8. Among human immunode...
Article
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Telomere shortening may reflect the total number of divisions experienced by a somatic cell and is associated with replicative senescence. We found that the average rate of telomere shortening in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained longitudinally from nine different infants during the first 3 years of life (270 bp per year) is more...
Article
Telomere shortening may reflect the total number of divisions experienced by a somatic cell and is associated with replicative senescence. We found that the average rate of telomere shortening in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained longitudinally from nine different infants during the first 3 years of life (270 bp per year) is more...
Article
To address the question of how cell turnover is affected by retroviral infections, we used the telomeric terminal restriction fragments (TRFs) as markers of cell replicative history and measured their length in macaques infected with chimeric simian-human immunodeficiency viruses (SHIVs). The TRF lengths of mononuclear cells in 104 samples, includi...
Article
To quantify the long-term dynamics of telomere lengths and the effect of HIV infection on lymphocyte turnover rates, we measured in a blinded study longitudinal samples from 6 individuals using a highly accurate method based on two-dimensional calibration of DNA sizes. For two uninfected controls followed 8 and 10 years the average telomeric termin...
Article
Glycocalicin (GC) is the carbohydrate-rich portion of platelet membrane glycoprotein Ib(alpha) that can be cleaved from circulating platelets by proteases. The plasma GC level is an indicator of platelet turnover. Using an ELISA for GC, we assayed the plasma of 20 normal children (age 6 to 13 years), 50 HIV+ children (ages 4 to 18 years), 32 normal...
Article
We developed an improved method for accurately measuring telomere lengths based on two-dimensional calibration of DNA sizes combined with pulsed field electrophoresis and quantitative analysis of high-resolution gel images. This method was used to quantify the length of telomeres in longitudinal samples of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs)...
Article
To predict long-term (12 weeks or longer) virological responses to antiretroviral treatment from measurements made during the first few days on therapy. Forty-one HIV-1-infected children were treated with ritonavir for 12 weeks followed by triple drug combination treatment, and the kinetics of virus decay in plasma, ritonavir concentration and CD4...
Article
In order to identify cellular genes differentially expressed during human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) infection, we conducted a screen using differential display. The sequence of one of the clones, 0085, was identical to a sequence present in the RNA splicing factor SC35. Since splicing is an essential point of control during HIV gene expressi...
Article
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Neurologic abnormalities are common in HIV-1 infected patients and often represent the dominant clinical manifestation of pediatric AIDS. Although the neurological dysfunction has been directly related to CNS invasion by HIV-1, the pathogenesis of neurologic disorders remains unclear. Microglia and macrophages are major HIV-1 targets in the brain,...
Article
Vertically transmitted HIV disease constitutes a significant problem in pediatrics. In order to characterize some of the possible host factors involved in HIV replication in fetuses and newborns, we surveyed the HIV-1 LTR binding factors present in nuclear extracts from cord blood mononuclear cells. A series of electrophoretic mobility shift assays...
Article
Vertically transmitted HIV disease constitutes a significant problem in pediatrics. In order to characterize some of the possible host factors involved in HIV replication in fetuses and newborns, we surveyed the HIV-1 LTR binding factors present in nuclear extracts from cord blood mononuclear cells. A series of electrophoretic mobility shift assays...
Article
Full-text available
A clone obtained from a differential display screen for cellular genes with altered expression during human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection matched the sequence for the human GLUT3 facilitative glucose transporter, a high-velocity-high-affinity facilitative transporter commonly expressed in neurons of the central nervous system. Northern (RN...
Article
The kinetics of H1V-1 infection may play a critical role in palhogenesis. Previous studies have used potent inhibitors to examine viral replication kinetics. Here we develop a new approach for analysis of the fuie kinetics of quantitative viral RNA changes, based upon observed variations in viral load in the absence of antiviral agents using an RT-...
Article
Recent studies have used potent antiviral agents to investigate the kinetics of HIV infection in vivo. They provided estimates for important kinetic parameters, including the decay constants for circulating virus and infected CD4+cells. However, since all of these studies fundamentally rely on the use of antiviral agents, it would be useful to deve...
Article
To investigate potential mechanisms for HIV-1 proviral latency, we generated a set of chronically HIV-1 infected and stably long terminal repeat-chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (LTR-CAT)-transfected TE671/RD cells, and studied both their virus production and LTR-driven reporter gene expression. Established tissue culture models of retroviral lat...
Article
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In previous transfection analyses using the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene system, we determined that linker substitution (LS) mutations between -201 and -130 (relative to the transcription start site) of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 long terminal repeat (LTR) caused moderate decreases in LTR transcriptional activity in...
Article
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We have examined the transcriptional utilization of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) long terminal repeat (LTR) under differentiating conditions by using the embryonal carcinoma cell line NTERA-2. NTERA-2 cells undergo two distinct pathways of terminal differentiation, to a neuronal phenotype in response to retinoic acid and to a non...