Steven J. Fleck's research while affiliated with Andrews Research and Education Foundation and other places

Publications (150)

Article
We read the article of Buckner et al. (1), hoping to find new insights on resistance training. Unfortunately, the article is a restatement of information contained in previously published reviews from this group. Here are our major concerns: HYPERTROPHY AND STRENGTH GAINS Buckner et al. believe that high-volume phases are unnecessary. Initial alter...
Article
Aim This study compared the effect of different resistance training (RT) frequencies on total, android, gynoid and trunk body fat in overweight/obese older women. Methods Fifty-seven overweight/obese older women (66.9±5.3 years and 39.9±4.9% body fat) were randomly assigned to one of three groups: a group performing RT twice a week (G2X), a group p...
Article
Full-text available
The main purpose of this study was compare the effects of resistance training (RT) performed two versus three times per week on phase angle (a cellular health indicator) in older women. Thirty-nine women (69.1±5.5 years) were randomly assigned to perform a RT program two (G2X) or three (G3X) days per week for 12 weeks. The RT was a whole-body progr...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of resistance training (RT) performed in a pyramid (PR) versus a traditional (TD) system on muscular strength, muscle mass, and hormonal responses in older women. Twenty-five older women (67.6 ± 5.1 years, 65.9 ± 11.1 kg, 154.7 ± 5.8 cm, and 27.5 ± 4.5 kg m) performed both a TD and PR s...
Article
The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of an in-hospital exercise intervention during neoadjuvant chemotherapy on the inflammatory profile and immune cell subpopulation in 20 children with solid tumors (control [n = 11] and exercise group [n = 9]). Although no significant interaction (group × time) effect was found with an analysis of...
Article
Full-text available
BACKGROUND: Flexibility is an important component of physical fitness. However, to date, there is no comparative study between men and women concerning the influence of RT on flexibility. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the effect of RT on flexibility in young adult men and women. METHODS: Twenty-eight men and 30 women underwent progressive RT for 16 weeks,...
Article
Full-text available
International Journal of Exercise Science 10(3): 354-364, 2017. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of six months of training with three different number of sets of resistance training on flexibility in young men. Forty-seven men (mean ± SD age = 24 ± 1yrs; body mass = 79.39 ± 9.12 kg; height = 174.5 ± 5.6 cm) were randomly divided...
Article
INTRODUCTION: The randomized controlled trial 'Physical Activity in Pediatric Cancer' (PAPEC) determined the effects of an in-hospital exercise intervention combining aerobic and muscle strength training on pediatric cancer patients with solid tumors undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy. METHODS: Participants were allocated to an exercise (n=24, 17...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose was to examine a round trip trans-American jet travel on performance, hormonal alterations, and recovery. Ten matched pairs of recreationally trained men were randomized to either a compression group (COMP) (n= 10, age: 23.1 ± 2.4 years, height: 174.8 ± 5.3cm, body mass: 84.96 ± 10.16 kg, body fat: 15.3 ± 6.0%) or control group (CONT) (...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the autonomic cardiac modulation between professional volleyball players (VP) and recreational aerobically trained individuals (RAT). Methods: Twenty-eight men were divided into two groups, (VP; n = 14) and (RAT; n = 14) and each group was subjected to a sub-maximal progressive ramp treadmill test...
Article
The aim of this study was to compare the effect of resistance training (RT) performed with different frequencies followed by a detraining period on muscular strength and oxidative stress (OS) biomarkers in older women. Twenty-seven physically independent women (68.8 ± 4.8 years, 69.1 ± 14.3 kg, 156.0 ± 6.5 cm, and 28.3 ± 4.9 kg.m-2) were randomly a...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to compare the effect of resistance training (RT) performed with different frequencies followed by a detraining period on muscular strength and oxidative stress (OS) biomarkers in older women. Twenty-seven physically independent women (68.8±4.8 years, 69.1±14.3 kg, 156.0±6.5 cm, and 28.3±4.9 to kg.m −2) were randomly assig...
Article
The purpose of this study was to analyze the specific training load during a resistance training (RT) programme designed to increase muscular hypertrophy in men and women. Thirty-four women (22.7 ± 4.1 years, 58.8 ± 11.9 kg, 162.6 ± 6.2 cm and 22.1 ± 3.6 kg.m −2) and 30 men (22.7 ± 4.4 years, 68.4 ± 9.0 kg, 174.5 ± 6.6 cm and 22.5 ± 2.4 kg.m −2) un...
Article
Full-text available
We analyzed the effects of a 4-month resistance (weight lifting) training program followed by a 2-month detraining period in 7 adult McArdle patients (5 female) on: muscle mass (assessed by DXA), strength, serum creatine kinase (CK) activity and clinical severity. Adherence to training was ≥ 84% in all patients and no major contraindication or side...
Book
Help your students develop an understanding of exercise physiology concepts and their application athletic performance and well-being with Exercise Physiology, 2e. Using an engaging evidence-based approach that combines research and theory with practical discussions of nutrition and training, the authors help students understand how the human body...
Article
Full-text available
The study's purpose was to compare the response of performing 1, 3 and 5-sets on measures of performance and muscle hypertrophy. Forty eight men, with no weight training experience, were randomly assigned to one of three training groups, 1-SET, 3-SETS, 5-SETS, or control group (CG). All training groups performed three resistance training sessions p...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Magnitude and duration of the hypotensive response after a strength training (ST) session may in part depend on the manipulation of ST variables. This review examines the effect of the ST variables on the hypotensive response after a ST session. Data sources: Thirty-two studies were included in this review. Studies concerning the post-ex...
Article
The importance of strength training to elderly individuals is well established. However, the dose-response relationship of the benefits of strength training in this population is unclear. The purpose of the study was to use meta-analysis to investigate the dose-response of the effects of strength training in elderly individuals. Fifteen studies wit...
Data
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to analyze eletromyographic (EMG) signal of biceps femoris (BF), vastus lateralis (VL), lumbar multifidus (LM), anterior tibialis (AT), and medial gastrocnemius (MG) during the deadlift (DL) and stiff-legged deadlift (SLDL). Fourteen men (26.71 ± 4.99 yrs; body mass 88.42 ± 12.39 kg; 177.71 ± 8.86 cm) voluntarily part...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to analyze eletromyographic (EMG) signal of biceps femoris (BF), vastus lateralis (VL), lumbar multifidus (LM), anterior tibialis (AT), and medial gastrocnemius (MG) during the deadlift (DL) and stiff-legged deadlift (SLDL). Fourteen men (26.71 ± 4.99 yrs; body mass 88.42 ± 12.39 kg; 177.71 ± 8.86 cm) voluntarily part...
Article
Full-text available
Background The purpose of this study (randomised controlled trial) was to assess the effects of an 8-week combined ‘whole muscle’ (resistance+aerobic) and inspiratory muscle training (IMT) on lung volume, inspiratory muscle strength (PImax) and cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2 peak) (primary outcomes), and dynamic muscle strength, body composition an...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to compare two models of resistance training (RT) programs, nonperiodized (NP) training and daily non-linear periodized (DNLP) training on strength, power, and flexibility in untrained adolescents. Thirty-eight untrained male adolescents were randomly assigned to one of three groups: a control group (CG), NP RT program and...
Article
Kraemer, WJ, Looney, DP, Martin, GJ, Ratamess, NA, Vingren, JL, French, DN, Hatfield, DL, Fragala, MS, Spiering, BA, Howard, RL, Cortis, C, Szivak, TK, Comstock, BA, Dunn-Lewis, C, Hooper, DR, Flanagan, SD, Volek, JS, Anderson, JM, Maresh, CM, and Fleck, SJ. Changes in creatine kinase and cortisol in national collegiate athletic association divisio...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this investigation was to describe the physiological profile of elite senior Chinese female wrestlers. Twenty-five elite wrestlers, nationally ranked in the top-3 of their weight class, participated in the study. The subjects included Olympic and world champion medalists. The physiological profile included testing of running maximal...
Article
Owing to the risk of severe rhabdomyolysis, clinicians advise McArdle disease patients to refrain from strenuous exercise, particularly weight lifting. A 15-year-old male McArdle disease patient performed a 6-week, supervised, light- to moderate-intensity (∼65-70% of one-repetition-maximum) resistance (weight lifting) training program (2 sessions/w...
Article
Full-text available
The Activity in GEriatric acute CARe (AGECAR) is a randomised control trial to assess the effectiveness of an intrahospital strength and walk program during short hospital stays for improving functional capacity of patients aged 75 years or older. Patients aged 75 years or older admitted for a short hospital stay (≤ 14 days) will be randomly assign...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of nonlinear periodized (NLP) and linear periodized (LP) resistance training (RT) on muscle thickness (MT) and strength, measured by an ultrasound technique and 1 repetition maximum (1RM), respectively. Thirty untrained men were randomly assigned to 3 groups: NLP (n = 11, age: 30.2 ± 1.1 years, h...
Article
The use of strength training designed to increase underlying strength and power qualities in elite athletes in an attempt to improve athletic performance is commonplace. Although the extent to which strength and power are important to sports performance may vary depending on the activity, the associations between these qualities and performance hav...
Article
Full-text available
ABSTRACT: The purpose of the current study was to compare strength and hypertrophy responses to resistance training programs that instituted constant rest intervals (CI) and decreasing rest intervals (DI) between sets over the course of eight weeks by trained men who supplemented with creatine monohydrate (CR). Twenty-two recreationally trained men...
Article
Full-text available
Non-Linear Periodization for General Fitness & Athletes Periodization of resistance training or planned changes in training volume and intensity are used to maximize strength and fitness gains. Several types of periodized resistance training plans have been developed. The most common of these plans is linear also termed classic or strength/power pe...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of different exercise orders on the local muscular endurance of trained women. Methods. Nineteen women with a minimum of two years experience in resistance training volunteered to participate in the study (age 27.68 ± 5.24 years; body mass 60.31 ± 7.50 kg; height 161.83 ± 7.05 cm; bo...
Article
The purpose of our study was to assess the effects of an 8-wk intrahospital combined circuit weight and aerobic training program performed by children with cystic fibrosis (of low-moderate severity and stable clinical condition) on the following outcomes: cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2peak) and muscle strength (five-repetition maximum (5RM) bench p...
Article
Previous research on wrestling suggests winning wrestlers will have a greater increase in testosterone (Tes) than losing wrestlers, although the physiological mechanism is unknown. To determine the role of the sympathetic nervous system in this phenomenon, 12 male wrestlers from an National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I program wrestle...
Article
Full-text available
Exercise effects in subjects with HIV/AIDS are not entirely understood. The study aimed to investigate the effects of a supervised exercise program on the physical fitness and immunological function of HIV-infected subjects. Twenty-seven highly active antiretroviral therapy treated HIV-infected patients (age: 45±2 years; CD4-T: 21.3±2.2%) were assi...
Article
Full-text available
Most resistance training programs use constant rest period lengths between sets and exercises, but some programs use decreasing rest period lengths as training progresses. The aim of this study was to compare the effect on strength and hypertrophy of 8 weeks of resistance training using constant rest intervals (CIs) and decreasing rest intervals (D...
Article
Full-text available
It is speculated that exercise training decreases resting levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and C-reactive protein (CRP); reduces body mass and leptin (LP); and increases adiponectin (AD) and insulin sensitivity. This systematic review analyzed the effectiveness of resistance training (RT) longitudinal clinical studies on AD, LP, CR...
Article
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a 16-week intrahospital supervised, conditioning program including both resistance and aerobic type training on insulin-like growth factors 1 and 2 (IGF-1, IGF-2), several IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs), and growth hormone (GH) in children receiving treatment against acute lymphoblastic leukemia (...
Article
The purpose of this controlled trial was to assess the effect of an approximately 3-wk intrahospital exercise intervention performed during inpatient hospitalization for pediatric allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) on (i) immune cell recovery and (ii) body composition. Immune (i.e., blood counts of leukocytes, monocytes, lymphocyt...
Article
Full-text available
To determine the most effective periodization model for strength and hypertrophy is an important step for strength and conditioning professionals. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of linear (LP) and daily undulating periodized (DUP) resistance training on body composition and maximal strength levels. Forty men aged 21.5 +/- 8.3 and...
Article
This study investigated the effect of resistance exercise order on the oxygen uptake (Vo2) and energy expenditure (EE). Ten trained women (age, 22 +/- 2 years; body mass index, 21 +/- 2 kgxm; peak Vo2, 42.2 +/- 2.9 ml kg min) volunteered for the study. Data were collected in 5 nonconsecutive days: (day 1) assessment of the peak Vo2 in a maximum eff...
Article
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether modifying the standing long jump test would enhance its ability to be a better predictor of anaerobic performance compared to other common anaerobic power tests. Three modified box long jump (MBLJ) tests were performed using 1, 2, or 3 boxes. Subjects consisted of 38 healthy males (age, 21.7 +/-...
Article
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a running-specific, periodized strength training program (performed over the specific period [8 weeks] of a 16-week macrocycle) on endurance-trained runners' capacity to maintain stride length during running bouts at competitive speeds. Eighteen well-trained middle-distance runners completed...
Article
The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effect of 10 weeks of strength training on the flexibility of sedentary middle-aged women. Twenty women were randomly assigned to either a strength training group (n = 10; age, 37 +/- 1.7 years; body mass, 65.2 +/- 10.7 kg; height, 157.7 +/- 10.8 cm; and body mass index, 25.72 +/- 3.3 kg x m(-...
Article
The magnitude and pattern of the hematocrit (Hct), hemoglobin (Hb), and plasma volume (PV) responses during and upon recovery from two resistance training protocols based on either a ten-repetition maximum (10 RM) or five-repetition maximum (5 RM) resistance was examined. Twelve college-aged male resistance exercise trainers were equally divided be...
Chapter
Chronic adaptations at restAcute responseMechanisms of the pressor responseChronic adaptations during activityReferences
Chapter
Virtually all individuals interested in total-body health and fitness should not only follow a sound nutritional program, but should also perform regular physical activity including aerobic or cardiovascular training and weight or resistance training. This is true for adolescents as well as seniors. There are a myriad of health and fitness benefits...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of 2 different rest period lengths during a resistance training session with the number of repetitions completed per set of each exercise, the volume completed over 3 sets of each exercise, and the total volume during a training session. Fourteen experienced, weight-trained men volunteered to par...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of a relatively short (8-weeks) period of detraining on cardiorespiratory capacity, dynamic strength endurance, task specific functional muscle capacity and quality of life (QOL) of breast cancer survivors who had previously undergone a combined supervised (aerobic and resistance) training program...
Article
The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of different resistance exercise orders on the number of repetitions performed to failure and on the ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) in trained women. Twenty-three women with a minimum of 2 years of resistance training experience volunteered to participate in the study (age, 24.2 +/- 4....
Article
Improvements in chemotherapy and radiotherapy have contributed to the high survival rate (approximately 70%) of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). However, during treatment, lack of physical activity and treatment cause various short- to long-term side effects, such as muscle atrophy and physical deconditioning. The purpose of this study...
Article
This column is part 2 of a series on bridging the gap between science and practice in the profession of strength and conditioning. Using a group of leading practitioners and a group of scientists active in the strength and conditioning field, a round table format will be used to discuss specific questions on the practical application of science to...
Article
The purpose was to investigate the effect of a 16-wk intrahospital supervised conditioning program including both resistance and aerobic training and a 20-wk detraining period on measures of aerobic fitness, muscular strength, functional mobility, ankle range of motion, and quality of life (QOL) in children receiving treatment for acute lymphoblast...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of a relatively short (8-weeks) period of detraining on cardiorespiratory capacity, dynamic strength endurance, task specific functional muscle capacity and quality of life (QOL) of breast cancer survivors who had previously undergone a combined supervised (aerobic and resistance) training program...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of a very slow (VS) velocity and a self-selected volitional (VOL) velocity at varying intensities on repetition number, peak force, peak power, and total volume in the squat and shoulder press exercises. On separate testing days, 9 resistance trained men (age: 23.9 +/- 2.5 years; height: 174.8 +...
Article
Full-text available
The case is reported of a 78 year old man with McArdle's disease and a history of treated coronary heart disease. Despite the pre-exercise administration of sucrose allowing the patient to exercise with normal physiological responses, and without typical McArdle's symptoms or biochemical evidence of muscle damage, his exercise capacity was very low...
Article
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether indices of cardiorespiratory fitness are related to quality of life (QOL) in women survivors of breast cancer. Using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-30 questionnaire, we assessed the QOL of 16 participants (age, 50 +/- 9 years; body mass, 66.6 +/- 9.6 kg). All p...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the effects of a combined cardiorespiratory and resistance exercise training program of short duration on the cardiorespiratory fitness, strength endurance, task specific functional muscle capacity, body composition and quality of life (QOL) in women breast cancer survivors. Sixteen subjects were rando...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether indices of cardiorespiratory fitness are related to quality of life (QOL) in women survivors of breast cancer. Using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-30 questionnaire, we assessed the QOL of 16 participants (age, 50 +/- 9 years; body mass, 66.6 +/- 9.6 kg). All p...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the effects of a combined cardiorespiratory and resistance exercise training program of short duration on the cardiorespiratory fitness, strength endurance, task specific functional muscle capacity, body composition and quality of life (QOL) in women breast cancer survivors. Sixteen subjects were rando...
Article
Twelve middle-aged women (mean age 41.9 +/- 1.6 y) performed variable-cam resistance training and aerobic training 3 times/week for 14 weeks. One repetition maximum (1 RM) significantly increased between pre-training and training week 7 (13.1%-17.8%), between training week 7 and post-training (10.8%-14.1%), and between pre-training and post-trainin...
Article
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of short-term (7 days) oral creatine supplementation (0.3 g.kg(-1)) in elderly women during exercise tests that reflect functional capacity during daily living tasks. We assessed several indices of endurance capacity (1-mile walk test, gross mechanical efficiency, ventilatory threshold, and pea...
Article
Full-text available
The order of resistance exercises within a training session may have a vital impact on the quality of the constituent exercises performed. However, very few studies have documented the specific influence of exercise order. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effect of exercise order on back squat performance in the context of a...
Article
The effect of resistance exercise (RE) on the postexercise systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) response in young men was investigated. Group 1 (G1) and group 2 (G2) performed three 6 repetition maximum (6RM) sets in a set repetition format for 5 and 6 exercises, respectively. G1 and G2 also performed a circuit and set repetition for...