Stephen S. Intille's research while affiliated with Northeastern University and other places

Publications (188)

Article
Research Objectives To investigate how social engagement impacts motivation for physical activity (PA) in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). Design User-needs survey. Setting Community. Participants 23 participants (15 individuals with SCI and eight friends or family members) between the ages of 28-57 were recruited. Interventions Not a...
Article
Full-text available
The ILHBN is funded by the National Institutes of Health to collaboratively study the interactive dynamics of behavior, health, and the environment using Intensive Longitudinal Data (ILD) to (a) understand and intervene on behavior and health and (b) develop new analytic methods to innovate behavioral theories and interventions. The heterogenous st...
Article
Spinal cord injury (SCI) affects the mobility of 250,000 people per year worldwide. Physical activity (PA) in individuals with SCI is positively associated with improved mental and physical health outcomes. Mobile technologies have been developed to motivate individuals with SCI to increase PA using activity tracking and real-time feedback. We cond...
Article
Introduction: Estimating physical activity, sedentary behavior, and sleep from wrist-worn accelerometer data requires reliable detection of sensor non-wear and sensor wear during both sleep and wake. Purpose: To develop an algorithm that simultaneously identifies sensor wake-wear, sleep-wear, and non-wear in 24-hour wrist-accelerometer data coll...
Article
Full-text available
Research examined how acute affect dynamics, including stability and context-dependency, contribute to changes in children’s physical activity levels as they transition from late-childhood to early-adolescence. Children (N = 151) (ages 8–12 years at baseline) participated in an ecological momentary assessment and accelerometry study with six semi-a...
Article
Background: Recent studies have shown potentially detrimental effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on physical activity (PA) in emerging adults (ages 18-29 y). However, studies that examined the effects of COVID-19 on PA location choices and maintenance for this age group remain limited. The current study investigated changes in PA location choices ac...
Article
Recognized challenges in promoting long-term physical activity maintenance may be due to inconsistencies in the conceptualization and operationalization of behavior maintenance terminology in physical activity research. The overall goal of this paper is to propose a framework and agenda for the development of a common set of terms, definitions, and...
Article
Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) is used to gather in-situ self-report on behaviors using mobile devices. Microinteraction EMA (μEMA), is a type of EMA where each survey is only one single question that can be answered with a glanceable microinteraction on a smartwatch. Prior work shows that even when μEMA interrupts far more frequently than s...
Preprint
BACKGROUND Young adulthood (ages 18-29 years) is marked by substantial weight gain, leading to increased lifetime risks of chronic diseases. Engaging in sufficient levels of physical activity and sleep, and limiting sedentary time are important contributors to the prevention of weight gain. Dual-process models of decision-making and behavior that d...
Article
Background: Young adulthood (ages 18-29 years) is marked by substantial weight gain, leading to increased lifetime risks of chronic diseases. Engaging in sufficient levels of physical activity and sleep, and limiting sedentary time are important contributors to the prevention of weight gain. Dual-process models of decision-making and behavior that...
Article
Research Objectives To identify the individual and interpersonal needs for a just-in-time adaptive intervention (JITAI) system that engages individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) and their friends/family to perform physical activity. Design User-needs survey. A participatory design process was utilized. Five 90-minute virtual focus group sessio...
Preprint
BACKGROUND The use of ecological momentary assessment (EMA) has been utilized with young people experiencing homelessness to gather information on contexts associated with homelessness and risk behavior in real time and has proven feasible with this population. However, the extent to which EMA may impact attitudes or behaviors of currently homeless...
Article
Background: Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) has been used with young people experiencing homelessness to gather information on contexts associated with homelessness and risk behavior in real time and has proven feasible in this population. However, the extent to which EMA may affect the attitudes or behaviors of young adults who are currentl...
Article
Background: Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) uses mobile technology to enable in situ self-report data collection on behaviors and states. In a typical EMA study, participants are prompted several times a day to answer sets of multiple-choice questions. Although the repeated nature of EMA reduces recall bias, it may induce participation burde...
Preprint
BACKGROUND Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) uses mobile technology to enable in-situ self-report data collection on behaviors and states. In a typical EMA study, participants are prompted several times a day to answer sets of multiple-choice questions. While the repeated nature of EMA reduces recall bias, it may induce participation burden. Th...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Human activity recognition using wearable accelerometers can enable in-situ detection of physical activities to support novel human-computer interfaces. Many of the machine-learning-based activity recognition algorithms require multi-person, multi-day, carefully annotated training data with precisely marked start and end times of the activities of...
Article
Full-text available
People differ from each other to the extent to which momentary factors, such as context, mood, and cognitions, influence momentary health behaviors. However, statistical models to date are limited in their ability to test whether the association between two momentary variables (i.e., subject-level slopes) predicts a subject-level outcome. This stud...
Article
Adults with serious mental illness engage in limited physical activity, which contributes to significant health disparities. This study explored the use of both ecological momentary assessments (EMAs) and activity trackers in adults with serious mental illness to examine the bidirectional relationship between activity and affect with multilevel mod...
Preprint
BACKGROUND Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) is an in-situ method of gathering self-report on behaviors using mobile devices. Microinteraction-EMA (Micro-EMA or μEMA) is a type of EMA where all the self-report prompts are single-question surveys that can be answered using a one-tap glanceable microinteraction, conveniently on a smartwatch. Prio...
Article
Background Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) is an in situ method of gathering self-report on behaviors using mobile devices. In typical phone-based EMAs, participants are prompted repeatedly with multiple-choice questions, often causing participation burden. Alternatively, microinteraction EMA (micro-EMA or μEMA) is a type of EMA where all the...
Article
Objective: The majority of individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) experience chronic pain. Chronic pain can be difficult to manage because of variability in the underlying pain mechanisms. More insight regarding the relationship between pain and physical activity (PA) is necessary to understand pain responses during PA. The objective of this stu...
Article
Studies using wearable sensors to measure posture, physical activity (PA), and sedentary behavior typically use a single sensor worn on the ankle, thigh, wrist, or hip. While the use of single sensors may be convenient, using multiple sensors is becoming more practical as sensors miniaturize. Purpose: We evaluated the impact of single- vs. multi-...
Article
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The use of intensive sampling methods, such as ecological momentary assessment (EMA), is increasingly prominent in medical research. However, inferences from such data are often limited to the subject-specific mean of the outcome and between-subject variance (i.e., random intercept), despite the capability to examine within-subject variance (i.e.,...
Article
Background: Physical behavior researchers using motion sensors often use acceleration summaries to visualize, clean, and interpret data. Such output is dependent on device specifications (e.g., dynamic range, sampling rate) and/or are proprietary, which invalidate cross-study comparison of findings when using different devices. This limits flexibi...
Article
Interventions that promote long-term maintenance of behaviors such as exercise, healthy eating, and avoidance of tobacco and excessive alcohol are critical to reduce noncommunicable disease burden. Theories of health behavior maintenance tend to address reactive (i.e., automatic) or reflective (i.e., deliberative) decision-making processes, but rar...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Human activity recognition using wearable accelerometers can enable in-situ detection of physical activities to support novel human-computer interfaces and interventions. However, developing valid algorithms that use accelerometer data to detect everyday activities often requires large amounts of training datasets, precisely labeled with the start...
Article
Full-text available
Low levels of physical activity (PA) and high levels of sedentary behavior in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) have been associated with secondary conditions such as pain, fatigue, weight gain, and deconditioning. One strategy for promoting regular PA is to provide people with an accurate estimate of everyday PA level. The objective of thi...
Poster
Full-text available
ABSTRACT Microinteraction Ecological Momentary Assessment (uEMA) is a method for assessing affect in-situ using brief interactions. uEMA self-reports can be completed with a glance and a tap on an easily accessible wearable device, such as a smartwatch. In prior work, despite an eight-times-higher sampling rate, uEMA, was shown to have higher re...
Article
Objective: Affective response during physical activity may be a key factor reinforcing future behavior. However, little is known about how affective responses during physical activity may differ across phases of behavior change. This study used real-time Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) to examine within-subject differences in affective respo...
Article
Inter-subject variability in accelerometer-based activity recognition may significantly affect classification accuracy, limiting a reliable extension of methods to new users. In this work we propose an approach for personalizing classification rules to a single person. We demonstrate that the method improves activity detection from wrist-worn accel...
Article
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This commentary describes the development, vision, and initial progress of the newly-founded Boston Physical Activity Resource Collaborative (BPARC). Our aims are to move the field of physical activity forward, with broader dissemination and translation, by creating a local Boston and Massachusetts hub for researchers, practitioners, advocates, and...
Article
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Background Young adults who experience homelessness are exposed to environments that contribute to risk behavior. However, few studies have examined how access to housing may affect the health risk behaviors of young adults experiencing homelessness. Objective This paper describes the Log My Life study that uses an innovative, mixed-methods approa...
Preprint
Full-text available
BACKGROUND Transition-aged youth (TAY) who experience homelessness are exposed to environments that contribute to risk behavior. However, few studies have examined how access to housing may affect the health risk behaviors of transition-aged youth (TAY) experiencing homelessness. OBJECTIVE This paper describes the Log My Life (LML) study that uses...
Article
Technological advancements in the past decades have improved dietary intake and physical activity measurements. This report reviews current developments in dietary intake and physical activity assessment in youth. Dietary intake assessment has relied predominantly on self-report or image-based methods to measure key aspects of dietary intake (e.g.,...
Preprint
BACKGROUND Understanding how engagement in mobile health (mHealth) weight loss interventions relates to weight change may help develop effective intervention strategies. OBJECTIVE This study aims to examine the (1) patterns of participant engagement overall and with key intervention components within each intervention arm in the Cell Phone Interve...
Article
Research is inconclusive about whether physical activity (PA) should be performed every day or performed less frequently but in longer bouts to obtain mental health benefits. The current study examined the extent to which day-to-day variability in PA is associated with adults' mental health, and if this association differed by Body Mass Index (BMI)...
Article
Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) is a real-time sampling strategy that may address limitations in health research, such as the inability to examine how processes unfold on a daily basis. However, EMA studies are prone to limited data availability due to difficulties in implementing sophisticated protocols and systematic non-compliance with pro...
Article
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Our study investigated the performance of proximity sensor-based wear-time detection using the GT9X under laboratory and free-living settings. Fifty-two volunteers (23.2 ± 3.8 y; 23.2 ± 3.7 kg/m(2)) participated in either a laboratory or free-living protocol. Lab participants wore and removed a wrist-worn GT9X on 3-5 occasions during a 3-hour direc...
Article
Mobile-based ecological-momentary-assessment (EMA) is an in-situ measurement methodology where an electronic device prompts a person to answer questions of research interest. EMA has a key limitation: interruption burden. Microinteraction-EMA(µEMA) may reduce burden without sacrificing high temporal density of measurement. In µEMA, all EMA prompts...
Article
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Purpose: State-of-the-art methods for recognizing human activity using raw data from body worn accelerometers have primarily been validated with data collected from adults. This study applies a previously available method for activity classification using wrist or ankle accelerometer to work on datasets collected from both adults and youth. Metho...
Article
Psychosocial stress may be a factor in the link between physical activity and obesity. This study examines how the daily experience of psychosocial stress influences physical activity levels and weight status in adults. This study reports temporally ordered relationships between sedentary, light, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity levels an...
Article
Research attempting to elucidate physical activity (PA) intention-behavior relations has focused on differences in long-term behavior forecasting between people. However, regular PA requires a repeated performance on a daily or within-daily basis. An empirical case study application is presented using intensive longitudinal data from a study of PA...
Article
Background Although disorganized, chaotic households have been linked to poorer sleep outcomes, how household chaos actually manifests itself in the behaviors of others around the bedtime of a child or adolescent is not well understood. Objective To determine whether household chaos was associated with specific, nightly sleep-disturbing activities...
Article
This study used time-varying effect modeling to examine time of day differences in how behavioral cognitions predict subsequent physical activity (PA). Adults (N =116) participated in three, four-day "bursts" of Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA). Participants were prompted with eight EMA questionnaires/day assessing behavioral cognitions (i.e.,...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) is a method of in situ data collection for assessment of behaviors, states, and contexts. Questions are prompted during everyday life using an individual's mobile device, thereby reducing recall bias and increasing validity over other self-report methods such as retrospective recall. We describe a microinteract...
Article
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Background: Objective physical activity monitors (eg, accelerometers) have high rates of nonwear and do not provide contextual information about behavior. Objective: This study tested performance and value of a mobile phone app that combined objective and real-time self-report methods to measure physical activity using sensor-informed context-se...
Article
Objective: To develop and evaluate energy expenditure (EE) estimation models for a physical activity monitoring system (PAMS) in manual wheelchair users (MWUs) with spinal cord injury (SCI). Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: University-based laboratory environment, a semi-structured environment at the National Veterans Wheelchair Games,...
Article
Objective: To evaluate the capacity of a mobile technology-based intervention to support healthy eating among ethnic minority female students. Participants: Forty-three African-American and Hispanic female students participated in a three-week intervention between January and May 2013. Methods: Participants photographed their meals using their...
Data
Figure S1: Effect of interventions on percent change in weight from baseline to 24 months. Figure shows model-based estimates from linear mixed model analyses. Abbreviations: CP, Cell Phone Intervention; PC, Personal Coaching Intervention; CI, Confidence Interval. Figure S2: Effect of interventions on Health Eating Index (HEI) in kcal/wk from basel...
Article
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Objective To determine the effect on weight of two mobile technology-based (mHealth) behavioral weight loss interventions in young adults. Methods Randomized, controlled comparative effectiveness trial in 18- to 35-year-olds with BMI25 kg/m(2) (overweight/obese), with participants randomized to 24 months of mHealth intervention delivered by interac...
Article
The current study used a novel real-time data capture strategy, ecological momentary assessment (EMA), to examine whether within-day variability in stress and context leads to exacerbations in asthma symptomatology in the everyday lives of ethnic minority adolescents. Low-income Hispanic adolescents (N = 20; 7th-12th grade; 54% male) with chronic a...
Article
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Adverse and suboptimal health behaviors and habits are responsible for approximately 40 % of preventable deaths, in addition to their unfavorable effects on quality of life and economics. Our current understanding of human behavior is largely based on static “snapshots” of human behavior, rather than ongoing, dynamic feedback loops of behavior in r...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We describe the design and preliminary evaluation of a virtual agent that provides continual bedside companionship and a range of health, information, and entertainment functions to hospital patients during their stay. The agent system uses sensors to enable it to be aware of events in the hospital room and the status of the patient, in order to pr...
Article
Decisions to perform moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) involve behavioral cognitive processes that may differ within individuals depending on the situation. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) was used to examine the relationships of momentary behavioral cognitions (i.e., self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, intentions) with MVPA (measu...
Article
Background/aims: The obesity epidemic has spread to young adults, and obesity is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The prominence and increasing functionality of mobile phones may provide an opportunity to deliver longitudinal and scalable weight management interventions in young adults. The aim of this article is to describe t...
Article
This work describes an automatic method to recognize the position of an accelerometer worn on five different parts of the body–ankle, thigh, hip, arm and wrist–from raw accelerometer data. Automatic detection of body position of a wearable sensor would enable systems that allow users to wear sensors flexibly on different body parts or permit system...
Article
Higher positive and lower negative affective response during physical activity may reinforce motivation to engage in future activity. However, affective response during physical activity is typically examined under controlled laboratory conditions. This research used ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to examine social and physical contextual in...
Article
Parental stress is an understudied factor that may compromise parenting practices related to children's dietary intake, physical activity, and obesity. However, studies examining these associations have been subject to methodological limitations, including cross-sectional designs, retrospective measures, a lack of stress biomarkers, and the tendenc...
Article
Background: Obesity affects young adults, leading to future morbidity and mortality. Early behavioral intervention may promote long-term weight control. Mobile technology-based (mHealth) interventions may be particularly effective in young adults. We compared both an mHealth behavioral weight loss intervention and a personal coaching weight loss in...
Article
Interventions aiming to help ethnically diverse emerging adults engage in healthy eating have had limited success. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of and adherence to an intervention capitalizing on mobile technology to improve healthy eating. Participants created an online photo food journal and received motivational text messa...
Article
Availability of physical activity monitors for wheelchair users can potentially assist these individuals to track regular physical activity (PA), which in turn could lead to a healthier and more active lifestyle. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop and validate algorithms for a physical activity monitoring system (PAMS) to detect wheelc...
Conference Paper
This paper extends previous work automatically detecting stereotypical motor movements (SMM) in individuals on the autism spectrum. Using three-axis accelerometer data obtained through wearable wireless sensors, we compare recognition results for two different classifiers - Support Vector Machine and Decision Tree - in combination with different fe...
Article
This study used Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA), a real-time self-report strategy, to describe the physical and social contexts of adults' physical activity and sedentary activity during their everyday lives and to determine whether these patterns and relationships differ for men and women. Data from 114 adults were collected through mobile p...
Article
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Introduction: Despite the known advantages of objective physical activity monitors (e.g., accelerometers), these devices have high rates of non-wear, which leads to missing data. Objective activity monitors are also unable to capture valuable contextual information about behavior. Adolescents recruited into physical activity surveillance and interv...
Article
The obesity epidemic has spread to young adults, leading to significant public health implications later in adulthood. Intervention in early adulthood may be an effective public health strategy for reducing the long-term health impact of the epidemic. Few weight loss trials have been conducted in young adults. It is unclear what weight loss strateg...
Conference Paper
Background: Positive affective (i.e., emotional) response to physical activity is considered a key reinforcement process underlying motivation to engage future activity. However, affective response to physical activity is typically examined under controlled laboratory conditions. To understand how affective responses to physical activity may differ...
Article
What follows is the second part of a two-part special series of articles that illustrate through examples the breadth and depth of the field of behavioral-change science and highlight the challenges in moving it in to the 21st century. The first part appeared in the September/October issue of IEEE Pulse (see [1]?[3]).
Article
Full-text available
Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs)?such as heart disease and stroke, cancer, diabetes, and chronic lung disease?kill more people globally than infectious diseases and are responsible for about two-thirds of deaths worldwide [1]. Six out of the seven most important risk factors for premature death (high blood pressure, high cholesterol, high body mass...
Article
PURPOSE: Large physical activity surveillance projects such as the UK Biobank and NHANES are using wrist-worn accelerometer-based activity monitors that collect raw data. The goal is to increase wear time by asking subjects to wear the monitors on the wrist instead of the hip, and then to use information in the raw signal to improve activity type a...
Article
Obesity has spread to all segments of the U.S. population. Young adults, aged 18-35, are rarely represented in clinical weight loss trials. We conducted a qualitative study to identify factors that may facilitate recruitment of young adults into a weight loss intervention trial. Participants were 33 adults aged 18-35yrs with BMI≥25kg/m(2). Six grou...
Article
Shifting demographics and the rising cost of healthcare delivery globally will increase the need for sustainable interventions that help people change the behaviors that are negatively affecting their health and happiness. Fresh approaches to motivating behavior change and maintenance are welcomed by researchers in health and behavioral sciences, w...
Article
PURPOSE—Large physical activity surveillance projects such as the UK Biobank and NHANES are using wrist-worn accelerometer-based activity monitors that collect raw data. The goal is to increase wear time by asking subjects to wear the monitors on the wrist instead of the hip, and then to use information in the raw signal to improve activity type an...
Article
Full-text available
Background Research on children’s sedentary behavior has relied on recall-based self-report or accelerometer methods, which do not assess the context of such behavior. Purpose This study used ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to determine where and with whom children’s sedentary behavior occurs during their nonschool time. Methods Children (N...
Article
Purpose: Previously, the National Health and Examination Survey measured physical activity with an accelerometer worn on the hip for 7 d but recently changed the location of the monitor to the wrist. This study compared estimates of physical activity intensity and type with an accelerometer on the hip versus the wrist. Methods: Healthy adults (n...
Conference Paper
Introduction: Intention and self-efficacy (SE) are recognized as important cognitive determinants for physical activity (PA). However, few studies have examined the near-time (within a few hours) effects of intention and SE on PA. Methods: This study used electronic surveys delivered by mobile phones to assess adults' intention and SE in PA during...
Article
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Metabolic functions typically increase with human activity, but optimal methods to characterize activity levels for real-time predictions of ventilation volume (l/min) during exposure assessments have not been available. Could tiny, triaxial accelerometers be incorporated into personal level monitors to define periods of acceptable wearing complian...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Mobile phones are ubiquitous and easy to use, and thus have the capacity to collect real-time data from large numbers of people. Research tested the feasibility and validity of an Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) self-report protocol using electronic surveys on mobile phones to assess adults' physical activity and sedentary beha...