Stephen R Bowers's research while affiliated with Liberty University and other places

Publications (41)

Article
The authors conclude that Montenegro could be the key for Balkan peace. Relieved of its Yugoslav appendix, Serbia might finally focus inward on the pressing economic problems and opt for democratization and cooperation with the international community. However, it might also be that Montenegro is a trigger for a new protracted civil war, a new Viet...
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This paper is an effort to analyze the connection between failed new nation states, crime, and terrorism. Terrorist-criminal links in Former Soviet Union (FSU) countries pose one of the greatest potential threats to U.S. security, as many of these states are rent with economic instability, political turmoil, and religious fervor. Given sufficient p...
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In the past, the starting point for threat identification was the nation state. Today, national boundaries have lost much of their significance and global forces lacking identifiable national frontiers represent a real threat to US security. New technologies have facilitated the development of advanced terrorist methodologies and tactics. A new and...
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The false document trade is prevalent in three areas: counterfeiting of passports and identity cards,creation of false documents for vehicle sales, and education certifications. This activity facilitates the movements of terrorists from Afghanistan and Somalia through Tajikistan and toward theWest via Moldova. This paper explores the techniques use...
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As of 2007, there are few signs that the Muslim community of the Adygea Republic embraces the radical Islamic tendencies seen in other parts of the North Caucasus. There is no reason to suppose that the socio-political situation in the republic is being aggravated by the Islamic revival in places such as Chechnya. Yet, there are trends that threate...
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In spite of a South Ossetian independence referendum, there are indications that this trend does not mean the alienation of all Ossetians from Georgia.This paper is a study of Kitaani, an Ossetian village which is located in eastern Georgia. Residents of Kitaani recognize their special kinship with nearby Ossetian villages but their allegiance is w...
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Simpler folk communities in hitherto remote areas are under increasing pressure as modernization proceeds, especially when these represent minorities that have found themselves suddenly under new governments controlled by ethnically different populations. Other articles published in The Mankind Quarterly have shown how the withdrawal of colonial go...
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Utilizing the works of Uzbek scholars and journalists, the authors offer an analysis of the emergence of a culture of violence in post-Soviet Central Asia. This violence has been expressed in the form of terrorist strikes against security personnel as well as suicide attacks on civilian targets. What began as a cultural reawakening throughout Centr...
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Full-text available
Illustrates the crucial role of education in transforming post-Communist society by developments in Romania during its first post-revolutionary decade. Higher education; Selective migration; Brain drain; European economic integration.
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The primary focus of this study is on illegal weapons trade in Romania and the Caucasus region of the former USSR. Illegal weapons traffic in these regions is linked with both organized crime and terrorist activities. The main source of weapons for conflicts in the Caucasus region is corruption in Russian military circles.
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In 1989, Romanian freedom fighters liberated the nation from the yoke of an oppressive dictatorship. As a former communist state, Romania is charting a new course to expanding democracy and a market economy in Eastern Europe. This paper examines the current Romanian criminal justice system in the context of history, geography and government through...
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The communists' electoral victory and the elevation of Voronin to the Presidency drew Moldova closer to the Russian Federation and raised new questions about the stability of the Dniester Moldovan Republic. The existence of the DMR no longer serves Russian interests as it did in the past. The prospects for confrontation between the DMR and Moldova...
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This paper analyzes the issue of the stability of the Dniester Moldovan Republic in the context of the communists’ electoral victory and Voronin's rise to the Presidency, which drew the Republic of Moldova closer to the Russian Federation.
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The Western powers are the chief targets of a global Islamic jihad. Once believed to be a relic of history, the notion of Islamic jihad regained a political role in the 1980s. There are multiple meanings of the term jihad. While “great jihad” implies peaceful activity “small jihad” denotes the use of violence. There has never been a war in which Ch...
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In 1997, Professors Stephen R. Bowers and Marion T. Doss, Jr., began an effort to promote the systematic study of the problems of political violence and eventually opened an office in the Former Soviet Union to develop research on this topic. Their operating philosophy governing was that such a base would enable them to involve local scholars in re...
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From 29 March to 1 April 2000 several Humanitarian Non- Governmental Organizations, based in the Former Soviet Union (FSU) and calling themselves the Caucasus Forum, met to discuss humanitarian issues in the northern Caucasus. The goal of their conference was to define the issues facing the region and to develop.
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Examines the nature of the relationship between the regime and the church during the critical recent period of democratisation, evaluating how each institution has dealt with the stains that have become typical of Chilean politics. Concludes that the Catholic church has been willing to both advocate and criticise the policies of the regime, which i...
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Few post-War European disputes have received greater long-term attention that the question of the division of Berlin. During numerous crises, Berlin has been regarded as the greatest existing threat to peace and during the era of detente it has been touted as a barometer of East-West relations. There has always been considerable rhetoric about the...
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As part of a 2007-2008 project examining rural life in the eastern regions of Georgia, the authors prepared this study of a remote village in Kakheti.
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Building on an earlier article entitled Islam in the North Caucasus, by Bowers at al., published in Volume 26 (2001) of this journal, the authors analyze the historical evolution of Islamic terrorism in Russia, Chechnya, and more recently Ingushetia.
Article
With the collapse of Communist power in the Soviet Union, considerable attention has focused on the lessons produced by the experiment with Marxist socialism in the Russian empire and what we might regard as the legacies of Communism. One of the most highly visible legacies of that system is a pattern of environmental neglect that stretches from th...
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This survey of regional elites, conducted in November of 2001, concludes that the goals of the region’s Islamic fundamentalist groups include mobilization of Islamic faithful into radical activities, planning for sabotage of US military operations, and working to overthrow secular regimes.
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Religious diversity has had a dramatic impact on the development of the North Caucasus region. People do not indentify primarily with either a national or international Islamic community. The fundamentalist Vakhabite community has become a major regional force during the past decade in spite of numerous efforts to suppress its influence. Official s...
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The Gagauz leadership has advanced several basic demands. The first category of demands relates to economic concerns and these appear to be the most fundamental. The situation that they insist be addressed in that there is an economic disparity between Gagauzia and the rest of the Moldovan Republic. If one looks beyond the rhetoric of Comrat, Gagau...

Citations

... Small Jihad may necessitate Holy War, which can be described as the perpetual struggle to defend Islam with violence and force if necessary. Holy War instructs believers to fight against infidels and those who defy Islam and to expand Islam in the world [9], [10]. ...
... Brain drain, an international phenomenon in its modern interpretation, emerges during the post-war period (Carr et al. 2005 ). It represents the solution to the defi cit of highly skilled professionals for the winning countries (especially the United States and the Soviet Union), facing a new stage of scientifi c and technological development 3 after the Second World War (Iredale 2001 ; Tascu et al. 2002 ). However, the concept of brain drain appears in the literature on migration in early 1960s to refer to the loss of European skilled professionals, mainly leaving UK and migrating to the United States (Kroef 1970 ; Ackers 2005 ; Horvat 2004 , Cervantes and Guellec 2002 ). ...
... While immigration is a normal globalisation process and while it plays a positive role in enhancing human resources, international trade and revenue, it (in both legal and illegal forms) has also been associated with transnational crimes such as terrorism, human and drug trafficking, armed robbery, money laundering (Bowers and Parke 2009). Since the September 11 attacks in the USA in 2001, for example, that country has become exceptionally careful in dealing with the inflow of immigrants whom they fear might cause a similar attack (Finckenauer 2000). ...
... İstihbarat, yüzyıllardır askeri amaçlar için kullanılmıştır. İstihbarat kullanımının en eski örneklerinden bazıları, Milattan önce 490 yılında yazılan Sun TZU'nun 'Savaş Sanatı' (Bowers, 1984); Milattan önce 300'de Çanakya 'Kautilya' tarafından yazılan ve devlet idaresi, ekonomi politikası ile askeri stratejiyi konu alan bir eser olan 'Arthaşastra' (Shamasastry, 1915: 491); Zen, Şinto ve Konfüçyüs düşüncelerinden etkilenen Musashi tarafından 1644 yılında yazılan 'Beş Çember Kitabı' (Thomas, 2014: 57) olarak sıralanabilir. Bu kitaplar bugün hala askeri ve iş stratejistleri tarafından çalışılmakta olup politikalara yön vermektedir. ...
... During the second half of the 20 th century, both North Macedonia and Kosovo were part of the socialist Yugoslavia where, often, the only organizations in villages were cooperatives, and thus represented places for social and cultural events. The ruling communist party, not the cooperative members, had the final say in the decision-making solation during that period (Bowers 1989) restricted communication across the border for the Albanians in the Sharra region. After 1991 Albania democratized its political system, but Yugoslavia broke up, which slowed down the cross-border cooperation within the region for an additional decade. ...
... As many Latin American governments shifted to the left, scholars, activists, and communities converged on an understanding that post-neoliberalism, expressed in greater government regulation or control over economic activity, did not alter the negative socioecological impacts of extractive activities, and, in many cases, represented an intensification of extraction. While similar observations emerged in the 1970s and 1980s comparing environmental destruction in the Soviet Union and in Western capitalism (Bowers, 1993;Peterson, 1993), it took the Pink Tide to prompt the centering of extractivism, whether in neoliberal or progressive form, as the new adversary in Latin American politics. Extractivism discourse brought to the fore that the anti-capitalist, even antiimperialist politics on offer did not inherently solve connundra regarding resource extraction, generating yet unresolved political debate on how transitions to post-extractivism and buen vivir might be possible (Mora, 2020). ...
... The public generally views threats to information security as coming from determined deviates from outside the corporation (Bowers, 1998), and while technological solutions to the problem may operate rather like locking the door to your home in that it keeps honest people honest, a determined cracker is likely to succeed in getting around even the best defenses (Bresz, 2004;Sasse et al., 2004). Nevertheless, a report by the Department of Justice (2004) indicated that the most significant threat comes from insiders who perhaps regard the illicit use of information and software as innocuous peccadilloes, and taking precautions to reduce this propensity to contravene security can mitigate the threat. ...