Stephen M. Drigotas's research while affiliated with Johns Hopkins University and other places

Publications (23)

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Full-text available
Three studies examined the potential interactions of the experiential system and positive affect (PA) in predicting superstitious beliefs and sympathetic magic. In Study 1, experientiality and induced positive mood interacted to predict the emergence of belief in videos purporting to show unidentified flying objects or ghosts. In Study 2, naturally...
Article
Previous research has demonstrated that when a close romantic partner views you and behaves toward you in a manner that is congruent with your ideal self, you experience movement toward your ideal self (termed the "Michelangelo phenomenon"; Drigotas, Rusbult, Wieselquist, & Whitton, 1999). The present research represents an attempt demonstrate the...
Article
This research focused on perceptions held by heterosexual couples' friendship network concerning the couple's relationship. In a three-wave longitudinal study, we examined (a) whether these perceptions were similar to the couple's views of the relationship, (b) whether they predicted current relationship state and future fate, and (c) how they comp...
Article
This research focused on perceptions held by heterosexual couples' friendship network concerning the couple's relationship. In a three-wave longitudinal study, we examined (a) whether these perceptions were similar to the couple's views of the relationship, (b) whether they predicted current relationship state and future fate, and (c) how they comp...
Article
Given the potential negative ramifications of infidelity, it is not surprising that researchers have attempted to delineate its root causes. Historically, descriptive approaches have simply identified the demographics of who is unfaithful and how often. However, recent developments in both evolutionary and investment-model research have greatly fur...
Article
The transmission of another’s secret is likened to self-disclosure, and further predictions are set forth based on a relative intimacy hypothesis. This hypothesis maintains that individuals will be more likely to transmit private information gathered from a lower-level intimate to a higher-level intimate (upward transmission) rather than from a hig...
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Full-text available
This work incorporates concepts from the behavioral confirmation tradition, self tradition, and interdependence tradition to identify an interpersonal process termed the Michelangelo phenomenon. The Michelangelo phenomenon describes the means by which the self is shaped by a close partner's perceptions and behavior. Specifically, self movement towa...
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Many researchers have examined the justifications individuals give after being unfaithful to their romantic partners. However, very little research has been done to determine factors that actually predict infidelity. Two studies were conducted using the investment model (C. E. Rusbult, 1980, 1983) to predict instances of physical and emotional infi...
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Interdependence theory identifies level of dependence and mutuality of dependence as two key properties of interdependent relationships. In ongoing relationships, these structural properties are subjectively experienced in terms of commitment–dependence level is experienced as greater or lesser commitment level, and mutuality of dependence is exper...
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Full-text available
The authors advance an interdependence analysis of willingness to sacrifice. Support for model predictions was revealed in 6 studies (3 cross-sectional survey studies, 1 simulation experiment, 2 longitudinal studies) that used a novel self-report measure and a behavioral measure of willingness to sacrifice. Willingness to sacrifice was associated w...
Article
Interindividual-intergroup discontinuity is the tendency, in mixed-motive situations, for groups to interact more competitively, or less cooperatively, than individuals. In order to assess whether the discontinuity effect is partially driven by the individual anonymity inherent in group decisions, a laboratory experiment was conducted in which grou...
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Research on exit, voice, loyalty, and neglect suggests an enigma: Whereas responding to dissatisfying incidents with exit or neglect is generally harmful-and whereas voice is generally beneficial loyalty does not reliably yield favorable consequences. A diary study of dating partners' responses to dissatisfying incidents revealed results consistent...
Article
The present research involved an examination of interindividual-intergroup discontinuity in the context of three different generalizations of the prisoner's dilemma game (PDG). (Interindividual-intergroup discontinuity is the tendency of intergroup relations to be more competitive and less cooperative than interindividual relations.) Experiment 1 u...
Article
Conducted 2 experiments with 65 undergraduates to compare the variability of the similarity–attraction hypothesis proposed by D. Byrne et al (1966) and M. Rosenbaum's (see record 1987-13096-001) dissimilarity–repulsion hypothesis using a variation of Byrne's "phantom other technique." After filling out an attitude survey, Ss were privately asked t...
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Trait optimism as measured by the Life Orientation Test was explored as a predictor of judgemental distortions for positive and negative events within varying time-frames. Subjects were asked to predict their absolute or relative chances of experiencing positive and negative events within 3 months, 3 months to 1 year, or 1–5 years. It was predicted...
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The authors have previously shown that intergroup interactions are dramatically more competitive than interindividual interactions and have termed this phenomenon a discontinuity effect. They believe that this effect is partly driven by group members' fear of being exploited by the out-group. Experiment 1 found that when subjects were allowed to se...
Article
We extended the biosocial model of problem behavior tested by Udry (1990) to a panel design, following a sample of over one hundred boys in adolescence for three years. We found the expected results for sociological variables, but weaker effects for testosterone than Udry found on cross-sectional data. Using panel models with lagged hormone effects...
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The present research was designed to explore the role of communication on interindividual-intergroup discontinuity in the context of the PDG-Alt matrix. (The PDG-Alt matrix is a prisoner's dilemma game matrix that adds a third withdrawal choice to the usual cooperative and uncooperative choices of the PDG matrix, and interindividual-intergroup disc...
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Two experiments investigated the implications of realistic group conflict theory and social identity theory for explaining the individual-group discontinuity effect. We interpreted realistic group conflict theory as directly implying that individual-group discontinuity is motivated by competition for valued outcomes (max own); we interpreted social...
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Proposes a model of breakup decisions that extends interdependence theory. This dependence model asserts that the primary issue in understanding breakup decisions is degree of dependence on a relationship. Dependence is great when important outcomes in the current relationship are not available elsewhere. Need satisfaction dependence measures ident...
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A model of breakup decisions is proposed that extends interdependence theory. This dependence model asserts that the primary issue in understanding breakup decisions is degree of dependence on a relationship. Dependence is great when important outcomes in the current relationship are not available elsewhere. Need satisfaction dependence measures id...
Article
In a series of previous studies the authors have shown that intergroup interactions are dramatically more competitive and less cooperative than individual interactions. This phenomenon has been termed a discontinuity effect. The basic paradigm in this research measures competition and cooperation by choices made in a prisoner's dilemma game (PDG)....
Article
employed interdependence theory constructs and propositions to the goal of understanding how and why some relationships persist and thrive whereas other promising relationships wither and die / interdependence theory distinguishes between satisfaction with a relationship and dependence on a relationship / the investment model adopts this distinctio...

Citations

... However, in addition to these findings, self-disclosure with another couple and that other couples' subsequent responsiveness uniquely increased passionate love. The current research adds to a growing body of research suggesting social networks and other couples can influence outcomes and perceptions of one's own relationship (e.g., Agnew et al., 2001;Milardo, 1982;Slatcher, 2010;Sprecher et al., 2002). Although the current studies examined interactions with other couples, couples can have a wide variety of interactions with many different types of individuals in different contexts. ...
... If the dyad is not in agreement, Journal of eoretical Social Psychology 3 this will influence future interactions [26,54,59]. If in the first week one partner does the less desirable task of laundry, they will likely have to switch tasks the following week in order to remain satisfied [57,69]. e situation and choices available to each individual are greatly shaped by what has happened previously and how motivated they are to remain in the interaction [26,53,54,59,70]. ...
... Evolutionary history has seen members of social species frequently engage in conflict over finite resources within their ecology, with considerable documentation of physical conflict between groups in humans and non-human primates (Insko et al., 1992;Wrangham & Peterson, 1996). The coevolution of physical conflict with the sexual dimorphism in formidability has led to conflict becoming sexually asymmetric, as men engage more frequently in physical conflict (Sell et al., 2012). ...
... It is conceptualized as a serious breach of faith that violates relational rules of monogamy and exclusivity (Drigotas, Saf strom, & Gentilia, 1999). It implies interfer ence from a third-party that afflicts disrup tions on norms established for physical and emotional intimacy outside the primary ro mantic relationship (Drigotas & Barta, 2001). The social scientist Alfred Kinsey is amongst the pioneers to examine the nature of infidel ity. ...
... Mills (2010) provided empirical support for this notion by finding that gossiping was a useful way for employees to enact sense-making and social exchange. To sum, social information, reputational information, and work-related information can all be disseminated through gossip and be used for individuals' sense-making processes in their particular work contexts (Michelson et al., 2010;Yovetich & Drigotas, 1999). ...
... A lot of research has been done on behavior in the prisoners' dilemma game which shows that both being in a group and playing against a group have a negative effect on cooperation. Schopler et al. (1993) let individuals and groups play a modified version of the prisoners' dilemma that has an additional option to withdraw. If a player expects the other side to defect, this withdraw option gives a higher payoff than the other two options, defect or cooperate. ...
... Responses that entail passive behaviours, that is, loyalty and neglect, essentially denote 'do nothing', and as such are less observable (Drigotas et al. 1995). In contrast, exit and voice are both observable behaviours that reflect revealed preferences and not merely stated preferences (Van de Walle 2016). ...
... A central question in group research is whether "two heads are better than one" (Insko et al. 1987(Insko et al. , 1988(Insko et al. , 1990Schopler et al. 1991Schopler et al. , 1993. This question was first addressed using a simple prisoner's dilemma game in which negotiators were offered a cooperative (trusting) choice or a defecting (self-interested, exploitive) choice. ...
Reference: Negotiation
... A third explanation is that with a stronger group-level mindset, and within the actual group, individuals may be sheltered from taking personal responsibility for competitive and aggressive actions taken. Individual actions become more anonymous, and blame is easier projected (either explicitly or implicitly when making personal sense of actions) at others in the group (Schopler et al. 1995). Such a mechanism makes it easier to choose and rationalize self-interest-motivated orientations and behaviors (in this article, to compete rather than cooperate and having cynical attitudes of others). ...
... Our research considers a larger social system (guanxi), within which teams are embedded. Our findings support that the influences of subgroups depend on the degree of informal integration present in teams (Insko et al., 1993). Guanxi perception focuses on team members' sensitivity to establishing interpersonal relationships across subgroups. ...