Stephen G Shirley's research while affiliated with Fraunhofer Institute for Biomedical Engineering IBMT and other places

Publications (37)

Article
Full-text available
We present comprehensive results on the experimentally measured performance of commercial serial flash-memory integrated circuits (ICs) over a wide temperature range (–196°C to 25°C). We also address endurance issues because our intended low-temperature application is electronics related to long-term storage of biological material. We compared six...
Conference Paper
Electronic identification of cryobiological specimens is an emerging technology in the field of advanced biological specimen banking. In this paper, we focus on the design and evaluation of a radio-frequency identification transponder (RFID) using a low-frequency carrier signal for wireless specimen identification between room temperature and liqui...
Article
With few exceptions, electronic components are rated by their manufacturers to -40 °C (sometimes -55 °C). The operation of electronic components, circuits, and systems at much lower temperatures is called cold electronics, cryogenic electronics, low-temperature electronics, or cryoelectronics [1], [2]. Although not all electronics components are us...
Article
Full-text available
Micro-encapsulation of cells or tissues is a promising treatment for hormone deficiency diseases (diabetes mellitus, hypoparathyroidism etc.). Alginate, a polymer from marine brown algae, is excellent for encapsulation. Its hydrated structure keeps out large antibodies and immune system cells while allowing diffusion of nutrients and therapeutic fa...
Conference Paper
This poster gives an overview of our developments in the field of innovative cryotechnologies for managing biological material stored over liquid nitrogen, especially for vaccine related specimens in the Collaboration for AIDS Vaccine Discovery (CAVD). As fundamental part of the novel technology we have developed innovative cryocontainers attached...
Article
Full-text available
The Global HIV Vaccine Research Cryorepository (GHRC) is an international consortium coordinated by the Fraunhofer Institute for Biomedical Engineering (Fraunhofer IBMT) and funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. It is one of the Centralized Service Facilities of the Collaboration for AIDS Vaccine Discovery (CAVD) whose goal is to discover...
Article
We describe a polymorphic electronic infrastructure for managing biological samples stored over liquid nitrogen. As part of this system we have developed new cryocontainers and carrier plates attached to Flash memory chips to have a redundant and portable set of data at each sample. Our experimental investigations show that basic Flash operation an...
Article
This paper gives an overview of our developments in the fields of cryotechnology and cryoelectronics for managing biological samples stored over liquid nitrogen, fields that are essential to a central cryostorage facility for AIDS related material used in worldwide collaborative research. As a fundamental part of this project we have developed new...
Conference Paper
HI virus collections are essential instruments for the development of new vaccines, because endless virus variations consistently raise new, unpredictable problems. In studies performed with HIV patients, blood samples are usually analyzed in laboratories located hundreds of kilometers away from sample origin, because of complicated conditions in t...
Article
Full-text available
The controlled dispersion of fluids, particularly biologically relevant solutions in micro-volumes, is of high practical interest in biotechnology and medicine. Pharmaceutical test assays, for example, need a method for the fast and defined deposition of fluid samples. Most current micro-dispensing methods, i.e. contact-based pin printing, have pro...
Article
Cryopreservation of human tumour cells and tissue is a valuable tool for retrospective analysis and for the transport and handling of biopsy material. Tumour tissue consists of different cell types, which have different optimal freezing conditions, and extracellular matrix. A well-defined and authentic model system is required for developing new fr...
Article
The physicochemical characteristics of the ultra-high viscosity and highly biocompatible alginates extracted from Lessonia nigrescens (UHV(N)) and Lessonia trabeculata (UHV(T)) were analyzed. Fluorescence and (1)H NMR spectroscopies, viscometry, and multi-angle light scattering (MALS) were used for elucidation of the chemical structure, molar mass,...
Article
Full-text available
We present a tool for dispensing very low volumes (20 nL or more) of ultra high viscosity (UHV) medical-grade alginate hydrogels. It uses a modified piezo-driven micrometering valve, integrated into a versatile system that allows fast prototyping of encapsulation procedures and scaffold production. Valves show excellent dispensing properties for UH...
Conference Paper
We describe the principles, concepts, architecture and implementation of ChameleonLab® and its interfaces to Eurocryo biobank database and to electronic infrastructure for cryotanks. ChameleonLab® is a laboratory knowledge and workflow management system for biomedical collaborative scenarios. It aims at comparable and uniform sample processing and...
Conference Paper
This paper describes the development of a 32 bit ARM microcontroller-based backplane system for cryogenic applications, especially for use in the “Global HIV Vaccine Research Cryorepository” (GHRC). The aim is to guarantee secure and fast data communication between the modular components of a cryotank mechanical rack system down to the newly develo...
Conference Paper
We describe the design, evaluation and application of electronic cryovials and peripheral electronic modules as part of the low temperature section of an electronic infrastructure for use in the “Global HIV Vaccine Research Cryorepository”. The aim is the reliable coupling of precious HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) samples and aliquots to cryo-...
Article
Replacing dysfunctional endocrine cells or tissues (e.g. islets, parathyroid tissue) by functional, foreign material without using immunosuppressives could soon become reality. Immunological reactions are avoided by encapsulating cells/tissues in hydrogel (e.g. alginate) microcapsules, preventing interaction of the enclosed material with the host’s...
Article
Full-text available
Biobanks store alive cell samples to provide them for a later use in many biomedical applications. Amongst many others, cord blood samples are cryopreserved (long-term stored between -130°C and -196°C) today for future stem cell therapy or tissue engineering. Different cell types need to be treated differently. Therefore, biomedical laboratories an...
Article
Replacing dysfunctional endocrine tissues (eg, islets) with healthy, nonautologous material protected against the immune defense of the patient could soon become a reality. Recent advances have resulted in the development of alginate-based microcapsules that meet the demands of biocompatibility, long-term integrity, and function. Focus on the devel...
Article
We describe the manufacture of highly stable and elastic alginate membranes with good cell adhesivity and adjustable permeability. Clinical grade, ultra-high viscosity alginate is gelled by diffusion of Ba2+ followed by use of the "crystal gun" [Zimmermann H. et al., Fabrication of homogeneously cross-linked, functional alginate microcapsules valid...
Article
Full-text available
The water supply to leaves of 25 to 60 m tall trees (including high-salinity-tolerant ones) was studied. The filling status of the xylem vessels was determined by xylem sap extraction (using jet-discharge, gravity-discharge, and centrifugation) and by (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance imaging of wood pieces. Simultaneously, pressure bomb experiments...
Conference Paper
There is an increasing need to cryo-preserve living cells material, particularly for medical applications. Advances in stem cell therapies and other techniques could create a demand for stored sample numbers of the order of 109. Currently (and in the foreseeable future) the only long-term method of preserving live cells is cryo-storage at temperatu...
Conference Paper
This paper describes a system design for optoelectronic signal transmission to control a multiplexer system at cryogenic temperatures. In combination with cryo-tolerant flash memory devices directly coupled to a biological sample, such systems could optimise data- and workflow logistics in huge biological cryobanks. The aim is to provide secure dat...
Conference Paper
This paper describes low-temperature electronics for cryogenic applications, especially for cell storage near liquid-nitrogen temperatures. The aim is the reliable coupling of a biological sample to cryo-tolerant electronics, particularly memory devices holding data about the origin and type of the specimen, identification, lab workflow definition...
Article
This paper describes low-temperature electronics for cryogenic applications, especially for a new technique for living-cell storage near liquid-nitrogen temperatures. Central is the reliable coupling of a sample carrier to cryo-tolerant electronics, particularly memory devices storing continuity of care records, lab workflows, and other useful docu...
Article
The only widely used and accepted method for long-term cell preservation is storage below -130 degrees C. The biosciences will make increasing use of preservation and place new demands on it. Currently, cells are frozen in volumes greater than 1 ml but the new cell and implantation therapies (particularly those using stem cells) will require accura...
Conference Paper
Our primary interest is in constructing circuitry useful in the preservation of living cells at or near liquid nitrogen temperatures. Typically, the circuits are used for monitoring and controlling the cryo–environment and for recording data about the biological specimens, see [1, 2]. One necessary piece of test equipment is an 'oven', a test chamb...
Conference Paper
The only widely used and accepted method for vital long–term cell preservation is storage below -130 °C. The ongoing progress in the biosciences will dramatically increase the use of cell preservation and revitalisation. We can predict a very large number of samples for such applications. Current cryo–techniques cannot handle so many samples in an...
Conference Paper
The need for cell preservation and revitalisation will dramatically increase as the biosciences progress. The only widely applicable and accepted method for vital long–term cell preservation is freezing followed by storage below 140K (-130°C). A new approach is the reliable mechanical coupling of a new kind of sample–substrate with electronics, esp...

Citations

... Once a sample has been introduced into the storage system, it will not be moved very often so the number of mating cycles is quite low. There are few corrosion problems in cold nitrogen gas and the system is designed to work in the frost-free environment provided by IBMT technology [3]. The board has a matrix switch, fig. ...
... We have developed an advanced cryotechnology platform for biological specimen banking at Fraunhofer IBMT over the last ten years [3]- [6]. It has several advantages over conventional cryostorage techniques: close coupling between specimen and data, automated inventory control, monitoring and recording of specimen temperature and movement, icefree cold specimen handling, automated electronic shipping documentation, and guaranteed stability of the cold chain. ...
... However, no studies about flash-memory ICs at cryogenic temperatures are known to us. Our first evaluation of parallel flash memory for cryobiophysical applications [19] indicated write-speed improvement by a factor of about 1.5 at 83 K [3]. ...
... In general, due to the inherent benefit of operating CMOS at low temperatures (higher mobility and lower leakage current etc.), both SRAMs and DRAMs have been reported to be functional down to 77K (LNT) with the improvement in the access time for SRAMs and DRAMs (1.5-2 times at 77K) and the improvement of retention time for DRAMs (orders of magnitude at 89K) at low temperatures compared to room temperature [23]- [26]. Flash memories were also reported to be operational down to 77K [24]. However, when total 6 batches (differ by date code, technology, and assembly line) of COTS low voltage flash memories from the same manufacturer were tested, the failure rates at cryogenic temperatures and failure signatures varied widely from batch to batch (Fig. 14). ...
... Droplet-based microfluidics holds a great promise in a broad range of areas, e.g. single cell analysis, cellbased assays, and drug discovery, most of them requiring biological materials (cells, organisms, proteins, beads) to be encapsulated inside liquid droplets [19,20]. The encapsulation technology, which has attracted a flow of interests, offers a tremendous tool for many industrial applications especially in the biotechnological, chemical and pharmaceutical areas. ...
... The low-temperature circuits developed for spacecraft [19], [20], scientific equipment [21], ultralow-noise detectors [22], cryobiology [23], and others have been custom-designed relying on a semiempirical approach. This approach requires laborious and expensive low-temperature measurements to extract model parameters for tuning RT compact models to the target low temperature [22], [24], [25]. ...
... T=4K). The literature has limited reports of the functionality of NV-RAMs at cryogenic temperatures [13], [14]. The issue partially stems from a lack of measured data and experience with related MOSFET transistor physics at cryogenic temperatures. ...
... Similar European and global biobanks are already established for other research purposes. 49,50 In addition, such facilities could provide training and capacity building for regional institutions and technology transfer to the HBM4EU consortium. In this context, QA and quality management could doubtlessly improve sample quality and effectiveness of collaborations between researchers in biomedical research and HBM. ...
... To prepare spherical alginate microbeads, the procedure previously described by Zimmermann et al. using ultrahigh viscosity alginates (LN/LT 1:1) was adapted. 24 Briefly, the 0.65% (% w/v) alginate solution was dispersed into small droplets using a coaxial air stream and gelled while dropping into 20 mM BaCl 2 applied as a cross-linker agent. After 20 min of cross-linking, alginate beads (r = 0.25 mm) were washed three times with NaCl and stored at 4°C until usage. ...
... Malicious crawlers are rapidly increasing every day. The demand for retrieving data from the banking network has raised various crawlers (Mohammad et al., 2015;Security Views-Malware, 2007;Shirley et al., 2009;Besanko and Thakor, 1992). For identifying the crawlers, it is essential to detect their design goals and routing pattern (Qassrawi and Zhang, 2011). ...