Stephen Fox's research while affiliated with VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland and other places

Publications (43)

Article
Business models have been a popular topic in research and practice for more than twenty years. During this time, frameworks for formulating business models have been developed, such as the business model canvas. Moreover, different business model frameworks have been proposed for different sectors. Yet, these frameworks have the fundamental shortco...
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Organizational neuroscience is recognized in organizational behavior literature as offering an interpretive framework that can shed new light on existing organizational challenges. In this paper, findings from neuroscience studies concerned with adaptive behavior for ecological fitness are applied to explore industrial adaptive behavior. This is im...
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Psychomotor experience can be based on what people predict they will experience, rather than on sensory inputs. It has been argued that disconnects between human experience and sensory inputs can be addressed better through further development of predictive processing theory. In this paper, the scope of predictive processing theory is extended thro...
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Unlike ecosystem engineering by other living things, which brings a relatively limited range of sensations that are connected to a few enduring survival preferences, human ecosystem engineering brings an increasing variety and frequency of novel sensations. Many of these novel sensations can quickly become preferences as they indicate that human li...
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Mutualism is an ecological concept. Mutualistic relationships are mutually beneficial. However, as found in development geography studies, relationships between different peoples in different parts of the world are often not mutually beneficial. For example, there is lack of mutualism in international production that is dominated by companies that...
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In previous production literature, the uncertainty of human behaviour has been recognized as a source of productivity, quality, and safety problems. However, fundamental reasons for the uncertainty of human behavior have received little analysis in the production literature. Furthermore, potential for these fundamental reasons to be aligned with pr...
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Amidst certainty, efficiency can improve sustainability by reducing resource consumption. However, flexibility is needed to be able to survive when uncertainty increases. Apropos, sustainable production cannot persist in the long-term without having both flexibility and efficiency. Referring to cognitive science to inform the development of product...
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There are many cases where technology domestication can be a comfortable experience. For example, there can be convenient supply of well-functioning consumer products, which are domesticated successfully into stable settings that are familiar and pleasing. By contrast, domestication of other technologies can be an uncomfortable experience. For exam...
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Purpose Exoskeletons are mechanical structures that humans can wear to increase their strength and endurance. The purpose of this paper is to explain how exoskeletons can be used to improve performance across five phases of manufacturing. Design/methodology/approach Multivocal literature review, encompassing scientific literature and the grey li...
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As well as physical technology in society and digital technology in society, there is also technology in society within the non-conscious human mind. In particular, unconscious preference for least cognitive effort and subconscious preference for least social resistance can coincide in groupthink about technology in society, which include fads, hyp...
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Entropy in workplaces is situated amidst workers and their work. In this paper, findings are reported from a study encompassing psychomotor work by three types of workers: human, cyborg and robot; together with three aspects of psychomotor work: setting, composition and uncertainty. The Principle of Least Psychomotor Action (PLPA) is introduced and...
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The introduction of technological innovations is often associated with suboptimal decisions and actions during cycles of inflated expectations, disappointment, and unintended negative consequences. For brevity, these can be referred to as hype cycles. Hitherto, studies have reported hype cycles for many different technologies, and studies have prop...
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Entropy in factories is situated. For example, there can be numerous different ways of picking, orientating, and placing physical components during assembly work. Physical components can be redesigned to increase the Information Gain they provide and so reduce situated entropy in assembly work. Also, situated entropy is affected by the extent of kn...
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Symbol systems can provide topic-specific languages comprising multimodal grammars and vocabularies. Symbol systems can facilitate mutual knowledge for innovation when people do not already have a common language for effective communication about an innovation. For example, there can be a lack of common language among diverse participants at public...
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Autonomous production needs to be reliable. Outputs from reliable production systems consistently conform to performance requirements. By contrast, outputs from unreliable production systems often do not conform to performance requirements. Unreliable production can lead to accidents, rework, scrap, loss of good will, etc. In this communication pap...
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There are many different types of manufacturing distributions, ranging from subsistence do-it-yourself (DIY) to centralized industrial production. In this paper, a taxonomy is introduced of alternative manufacturing distributions for sustainable production. First, different types of manufacturing distributions are explained. Second, the importance...
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Imagineering is a portmanteau combining the words imagination and engineering. The term, imagineering, was coined during the early 1940s. Since the new Millennium, imagineering has grown to the scale of a mass paradigm, because of the increasing scope and availability of automated engineering. Automated engineering is enabled by sophisticated softw...
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Private, public, and not-for-profit organizations come together in cross-sector alliance projects and programmes (CSA) to bring about large-scale changes. CSA can often face determined competition from other alliances that oppose large-scale change or propose alterative large-scale changes. Competition can be related to people’s deeply held beliefs...
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It has been argued that local people making what they need with moveable factories can improve potential for peace and prosperity. In this paper, moveable social manufacturing is described in the context of fragile regions in Somalia. Moveable manufacturing involves means of production that are designed and fabricated to be moveable. They can be us...
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Framing strongly influences actions among technology proponents and end-users. Underlying much debate about artificial intelligence (AI) are several fundamental shortcomings in its framing. First, discussion of AI is atheoretical, and therefore has limited potential for addressing the complexity of causation. Second, intelligence is considered from...
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Do-it-yourself trends, such as self-broadcasting, music self-publishing and personal manufacturing, involve combining human imagination and automated engineering. In particular, automated engineering enabled by artificial intelligence algorithms is used for pattern recognition and other highly complex tasks across physical, virtual and social media...
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Framing of causal interdependencies and uncertainties is important due to factors bringing change to healthcare, such as increasing access to healthcare information via the Internet and increasing self-care. In this paper, it is explained how critical realism can provide a basis for framing causal interdependencies and causal uncertainties within h...
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Industrial thinking is being applied in efforts to try to stem the flow of migrants to Europe. In particular, industrial production in the Middle East is being subsidized by the European Union. This is being done with good intentions. However, positive outcomes are limited. In this paper, it is explained that limited positive outcomes are inevitabl...
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Moveable factories can enable leapfrogging of fixed industrial factories, and so make immediate contributions to global goals of more resilient sustainable manufacturing. Moveable factories bring into use diverse technological advances that reduce the number, size, and weight of machines needed to carry out manufacturing operations at points of sup...
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Leapfrog technologies, such as off-grid solar energy, overcome traditional trade-offs including widespread geographical distribution versus huge capital investment. The positive potential of leapfrog technologies is widely recognized. However, the need to overcome traditional skill trade-offs has received less consideration. Rather, skills continue...
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We explain that the extant framing of research relevance is skewed because it is centred upon irrelevance of much research knowledge to practitioners, while excluding or under emphasising the irrelevance of much practice knowledge to practitioners. Moreover, the current framing is skewed because the extant literature disregards the very common coll...
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The need for self-expression influences individuals in their preferences for goods and how they obtain them. One way for individuals to express themselves is through the prosumption of original unique goods. It is explained how the traditional trade-off between the originality and economy of such goods can be addressed through applications of artif...
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Purpose For several decades, national culture has been described as having major influence over international business outcomes. Yet national culture has been framed often by vague terms and simplistic scales. The purpose of this paper is to explain why and how the influence of national culture should be reframed. Design/methodology/approach Revie...
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Mass migrations can be perceived to be intractable crises comprising maritime rescues, security reinforcements, violent protests, and other high socio-economic costs. Yet, intractable real-world problems can be dealt with by changing their representations and seeing new associations. In this paper, it is argued that addressing the causes of mass mi...
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Virtual technologies, social technologies, and physical technologies are often considered separately. By contrast, there has been little consideration of virtual-social-physical convergence (VSP) in the literature. Moreover, there has been little, if any, consideration of latent realities brought about by VSP. Latent realities are realities that ex...
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Moveable factories enable high performance manufacturing. They carry their own power generation and are built to cover rough terrain. Hence, they have potential to enable more widespread modern manufacturing. In this paper, findings are reported from a study addressing two research questions. First, what goods should be produced by local people in...
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Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to inform information and communication design (ICD) for multi-national projects through the presentation of an example that does not rely on expensive expertise in graphic design. Design/methodology/approach – Action research involving participants from five different sectors. Findings – Successful ICD is n...
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There is a new Do-It-Yourself (DIY) paradigm that involves ordinary people inventing, designing, making, and/or selling physical goods ranging from jewellery to off-road vehicles. Via websites, this DIY involves combining the read-write functionality of Web 2.0 with computer-aided (CAD) design and additive manufacturing. In addition, the new DIY is...
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Purpose – Potential for practical stylish combination of micro-electronics and computational functionalities into apparel has been recognized for many years. Yet, wearable computing is often characterized by distinctive style or by utilitarian practicality. The purpose of this paper is to investigate what actions can be taken to address the style v...
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Discusses how the Internet can fundamentally change the creation and distribution of information. Recently, another opportunity for fundamental change has become apparent. That is, the potential of the Internet to fundamentally alter the creation and distribution of physical goods. In particular, the Internet, combined with new digital technologies...
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Cycles of hype and disappointment are frequently observed in relation to new technologies. Hype draws attention to potential positive effects while excluding or under emphasizing a new technology's dependencies on other factors and its potential negative effects. Thus, hype presents a partial picture of technological innovation. In this paper, it i...
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A framework for analysing advances in materials technologies is introduced. This framework is used to underpin forecasting related to the expansion of prosumption. The term, prosumption, refers to the social change of individuals being directly involved in the design and production of the goods that they consume. It is explained why expanding the s...
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Recent developments in technology, such as building information models (BIMs), immersive displays, and mobile computing tools, have enabled changes in the means and locations of communication throughout the building architecture, engineering, construction, and operation (AECO) industry. This paper presents the findings from an exploratory study reg...
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Multi-disciplinary multi-national education and research in building architecture, engineering, construction, and operation (AECO) can involve participants with different first languages and/or different preconceptions. Further, AECO education and research can involve uncertain and evolving situations and/or geographically dispersed interactions. A...
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In recent years, the assessment of intangible benefits has become an explicit requirement of investment evaluation techniques. By contrast, assessments of three factors which can prevent the realization of any benefits have not become an explicit requirement. Those three factors are disbenefits, reliability and utilization. The importance of these...
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Numerous potential barriers to the interorganizational use of building information models (BIMs) have been reported. These potential barriers are technological and organizational. Further, potential barriers are specific to building information models and general to the diffusion of innovation. In spite of potential barriers, there is interorganiza...
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VTT Working Papers 88 The use of Building Information Models (BIM) has been increasing in the building architecture, engineering, construction and operation (AECO) sector during recent years. BIM use is being encouraged by several large building facility owners, including Senate Properties in Finland and the General Services Administration in the U...

Citations

... In particular, dynamic embodied cognition [66]. That is, cognition that depends on sensory inputs brought by and processed by the physical body that shapes prior beliefs and action outputs [67]. Different memory capacities can affect different individuals' formulation of cognitive maps [68], which can be held within different individuals' different embodied cognitive architectures [69,70]. ...
... Thermodynamic entropy [34] and information-theoretic entropy [35] have been applied separately in the description of human-nature coupled systems. However, the most comprehensive account is provided by joint agent-environment systems theory with its focus on reciprocal synchronous generative development [14,15] and its foundation in physics of life principles [36,37], which have been applied in analyses of human [38,39] and natural systems [40,41]. Addressing entropy is at the core of these formulations. ...
... The industry will also be able to invest in technologies that support augmented reality (Müller, Jaeger & Hanewinkel, 2019), with a higher expectation in relation to the other, having the user's vision in a real environment as a major characteristic, an example would be the projection of a person in another distant location through a hologram, or even a technical visit to a distant company through virtualization in the environment, the possibilities are diverse (Fox et al., 2020). http://www.ijmp.jor.br ...
... Only relevant feature information, such as distance, velocity, acceleration, target movement direction, and radial velocity, is considered for the purpose of simplicity. The introduction of radial velocity data has been thoroughly examined [21][22][23]. But the extraction of radial velocity requires a nonlinear motion model and nonlinear filtering method, which increases the complexity of the system. ...
... Robotic exoskeletons are wearable mechanisms capable of augmenting, restoring, or assisting the function of human limbs by acting in parallel (Pons, 2008). This technology can be applied in many fields, ranging from industrial (Fox et al., 2019) or military (Chu et al., 2006) domains, where the user is empowered to perform a heavy task, to space teleoperation (Lovasz et al., 2017) or health care (Cardona et al., 2020). More specifically, two of the fields in which lower-limb robotic exoskeletons have shown promising results are rehabilitation (Louie and Eng, 2016;Holanda et al., 2017) or assistance (Yan et al., 2015a) of human gait. ...
... This 'compatibility between an individual and his [or her] workgroup' (Kristof-Brown et al., 2014) is likely to enhance the member's perceptions of his or her collective identity with the group and thereby strengthen groupthink. With studies showing the role of groupthink in constraining ideation and building socially restrictive minds (Fox, 2019), we also expect it to foster unethical leadership practices. Therefore, we anticipate that meso-level dynamics will translate into micro-level influences where collective thinking at the group level constrains the honest appraisal of the task under the influence of congruence expected between an employee and his group. ...
... The closer the fit between a human behavioral trait and the current environment in which the person intends to survive, the less information the person will be lacking about how to survive, the less physical disorder there will be in the person's actions to survive in the environment, and the less energy the person will consume unproductively in actions to survive. Hence, when there is a good fit between a person's behavioral traits and the environment, the person can survive with least action and have energy free for other actions [24][25][26]. In such situations, a person can maintain internal stability by internal regulation through homeostasis [27]. ...
... Overestimating the possibilities of a developing technology can create hype: exaggerated claims or excessive publicity or discussion surrounding specific research field, technology or application (e.g. Abetti & Haldar, 2009;Caulfield & Condit, 2012;Caulfield, 2016Caulfield, , 2018Fox, 2018). Hype can occur both in relation to the expected positive and negative possibilities or consequences. ...
... This is done so that it is immediately and unequivocally apparent how a part is to be put into a subassembly. In other words, it is done so there is no ambiguity about how the part is picked, orientated and placed either by a human or by a robot [40,41]. Subsequently, it is intended to profit from the costs invested in industrial engineering explorations. ...
... A related direction for further research is participative design of digital twins. For example, consideration could be given to the use of multimodal symbol systems to facilitate the development of mutual knowledge among participants who have different backgrounds and languages that can introduce information-theoretic entropy into the design process [131]. ...