Stephanie E. Chang's research while affiliated with University of British Columbia - Vancouver and other places

Publications (89)

Article
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This paper compares economic recovery in the COVID-19 pandemic with other types of disasters, at the scale of businesses. As countries around the world struggle to emerge from the pandemic, studies of business impact and recovery have proliferated; however, pandemic research is often undertaken without the benefit of insights from long-standing res...
Article
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This paper proposes a simple analytical scheme and associated qualitative impact scales that capture the spatially varying effects of a regional disaster. Large-scale disasters that affect many towns and cities pose particular challenges for emergency response planning. For example, disruption to transportation systems can impede regional supply ch...
Article
Our understanding of the impacts of oil spills highlights the urgency of preventing them. A new study considers public health and other effects of an oil spill from an abandoned Red Sea tanker.
Technical Report
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Our team partnered with Metro Vancouver and Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) to better understand how seismic risk may change in Metro Vancouver over the coming decades, focusing on the effect of anticipated changes in population and the built environment. We drew on Metro Vancouver's long-range population and housing forecasts and NRCan's loss mod...
Technical Report
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Our team at UBC partnered with Natural Resources Canada (NRCan), the City of Vancouver, and Sage on Earth Consulting to better understand the spatial distribution of socially vulnerable populations within Vancouver as part of the City’s seismic retrofit program. The project aims to help policymakers determine which neighbourhoods are most vulnerabl...
Technical Report
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Our team at UBC partnered with the University of Victoria, Defense Research and Development Canada, Natural Resources Canada, and Sage on Earth Consulting to identify neighbourhoods in Vancouver that have low post-disaster recovery capacity or “recoverability.” This project aims to understand better those factors affecting recovery within the City...
Technical Report
This Working Group focuses on the economic recovery of businesses and economies from the COVID-19 pandemic. With communities around the world experiencing severe economic impacts, we anticipate a proliferation of efforts to track, assess, and explain local economic recovery. Our Working Group's efforts are focused on understanding how the knowledge...
Article
A framework of agent-based models for housing recovery is presented and used to investigate post-earthquake recovery in the City of Vancouver, Canada. Housing recovery is modeled for a portfolio of buildings, contrasting with the practice of assessing the reconstruction of buildings in isolation. Thus, the presented approach better captures the eff...
Article
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Increasing coastal flood risk has prompted a proliferation of cities that are adopting risk reduction and adaptation tools. This article inquires into what types of tools local governments tend to adopt for managing coastal flood risk and the factors that may be influencing these choices; in particular, factors related to hazard vulnerability and i...
Article
Seismic provisions in building codes arguably constitute the most important and effective means for improving the performance of the built environment during earthquakes. Because they serve as the minimum and mandatory requirements for new construction that accumulates over time, building codes can and have reduced disaster risk in cities around th...
Article
An agent-based object-oriented model for household displacements is presented and used to analyze household decision-making after a hypothetical earthquake in the City of Vancouver, Canada. Temporary displacements and permanent relocation are accounted for. The model for households include considerations of socioeconomic demographics, social networ...
Technical Report
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This Working Group focuses on the economic recovery of businesses and economies from the COVID-19 pandemic. With communities around the world experiencing severe economic impacts, we anticipate a proliferation of efforts to track, assess, and explain local economic recovery. Our Working Group's efforts are focused on understanding how the knowledge...
Chapter
Transportation system disruption is widely recognized as a major source of spatial and economic impact in disasters, yet modeling these effects remains a challenge. This chapter develops a framework for modeling transport system disruption that is designed to support decision-making for disaster resilience. It focuses on a relatively simple yet vit...
Article
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Disaster risk reduction should anticipate how future natural hazard risk would be influenced by changes in urban vulnerability. This paper investigates the effect of one key driver of change, urban development. It models current and future risk for the year 2041 in a rapidly growing urban area, Vancouver, Canada, from both earthquake and coastal fl...
Article
This study investigates where coastal green infrastructure (CGI) can provide highest potential coastal protection benefits, while considering its vulnerability to environmental conditions. CGI provides important coastal protection benefits, however, influenced by climate change and human activities, these benefits are highly threatened. This vulner...
Article
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Risk is produced by the interaction of exposure to hazards in a place and the vulnerability of the people that live there. Research on the factors that influence vulnerability has advanced a conceptual understanding of the uneven nature of risk. Just as many factors, or determinants, of vulnerability interact to shape risk, so too do multiple expos...
Article
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Objective This study aimed to identify maritime transportation disruption impacts on available health care supplies and workers necessary to deliver hospital-based acute health care in geographically isolated communities post-disaster. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 25 key informants knowledgeable about the hospital-based a...
Article
Coastal communities around the world face challenges in planning for coastal flooding and sea-level rise related to climate change. This paper develops an approach for identifying typologies of communities on the basis of their hazard vulnerability characteristics. The approach first characterizes communities with a suite of vulnerability indicator...
Article
Indicator-based approaches to hazard vulnerability analysis are designed to produce policy-relevant information, but are limited in their ability to incorporate indicators that reflect the complex nature and contextual influence of institutional factors on vulnerability. This study focuses on local government policy and practice as an institutional...
Research
Coastal and island communities in British Columbia (BC) are highly dependent on maritime transportation to support their basic needs, such as fuel deliveries. Historically, coastal communities maintained substantial local caches of supplies; however, with the advance of integrated supply chains and more frequent scheduled maritime service, just-in-...
Article
The high demolition rate (~60%) of reinforced concrete (RC) buildings that generally performed well in Christchurch, New Zealand, has been one of the most important lessons from the Canterbury Earthquakes. In an effort to understand such an outcome, various factors influencing the post-earthquake decisions on buildings (demolition or repair) are ex...
Article
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Disasters may offer a window of opportunity, in which extraordinary circumstances create momentum for positive social change. While this potential is popularized through the concept of “building back better,” few studies have examined quantitatively the processes and drivers of broader social change in a post-disaster context. Using renewable energ...
Article
This paper focuses on households’ development of new energy-efficient habits as demonstrated in the context of a major electricity shortfall event. Energy conservation policies should encourage households to take measures that are actually effective in reducing energy consumption and that can be sustained over long periods of time. Few studies, how...
Article
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This paper proposes a new approach to developing and utilizing vulnerability indicators, which is based on the concept of similarity. Methods for assessing the disaster vulnerability of communities through quantitative indices are established in research and practice. They are typically used to identify which cities or other spatial units are most...
Article
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Making cities more disaster resilient is an important goal for civil society. We develop and apply a method to elicit ranked preferences to set priorities among alternatives for a small set of selected contexts for improving regional infrastructure resilience. Our approach is based on preference judgments from representatives of infrastructure syst...
Article
The 2010-2011 Canterbury earthquakes, which involved widespread damage during the February 2011 event and ongoing aftershocks near the Christchurch Central Business District, left this community with more than $NZD 40 billion in losses (~20 % GDP), demolition of approximately 60 % of multi-storey concrete buildings (3 storeys and up), and closure o...
Chapter
Some of the most dramatic changes in regional economic and infrastructure capacity follow from natural disasters. These events imply substantial economic losses associated with the disruption of the urban economy. Despite this, the existing literature on the cost of earthquakes is largely restricted to the measurement of structure and contents loss...
Article
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As oil transportation worldwide continues to increase, many communities are at risk of oil spill disasters and must anticipate and prepare for them. Factors that influence oil spill consequences are myriad and range from the biophysical to the social. We provide a summary literature review and overview framework to help communities systematically c...
Article
Electricity crises can spur improvements in electricity conservation that would be unachievable under normal circumstances. This paper investigates how businesses adapted to electricity shortages following the March 11, 2011, Great East Japan earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear disaster. In summer 2011, mandatory and voluntary electricity conservation...
Article
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The Canterbury earthquakes, which involved widespread damage in the February 2011 event and ongoing aftershocks near the Christchurch central business district (CBD), presented decision makers with many recovery challenges. This paper identifies major government decisions, challenges, and lessons in the early recovery of Christchurch based on 23 ke...
Article
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Resilient infrastructure systems are essential for cities to withstand and rapidly recover from natural and human-induced disasters, yet electric power, transportation, and other infrastructures are highly vulnerable and interdependent. New approaches for characterizing the resilience of sets of infrastructure systems are urgently needed, at commun...
Article
This paper provides an overview of economic impacts in the first year after the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear accident-at an estimated ¥16.9 trillion (US$211 billion) in direct damage, the costliest natural disaster on record. Documented costs to date include ¥2.9 trillion in insurance payouts and ¥17.7 trillion in response and r...
Article
This paper explores the question of whether natural hazard risks for urban areas are growing or diminishing over time. While trends such as population growth in hazardous areas increase the potential for loss in disaster events, other factors, such as improved building codes, tend to reduce this risk. The net effects of such urban changes are exami...
Article
This study seeks to assess the levels of community-scale building damage and socioeconomic disruption following the January 2010 Haiti earthquake. Damage and disruption were analyzed for pre-event, post-event, and early recovery time periods in seven Haitian communities-three inside and four outside Port-au-Prince. Damage datasets from the Global E...
Article
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A resilient community is one that does not experience serious degradation in critical services when a hazard occurs and, in the event of degradation or failure, recovers to a similar or better level of service in a reasonable amount of time. The most efficient means of making a community resilient is to make its critical services and capital robust...
Article
This study introduces a methodology for anticipating the post-earthquake functionality of hospitals in a region. Performance levels for interacting systems (structural, nonstructural, lifeline, and personnel) in a hospital are operationally defined, empirically correlated, and probabilistically modeled using damage data from past earthquakes. Separ...
Article
This report describes research on community-scale damage and disruption in Haiti after the devastating January 12, 2010, earthquake. Data collection was undertaken with support from the National Science Foundation through RAPID grant no. CMMI-1034876. The project had three specific objectives: (1) to gather perishable data on physical damage and di...
Article
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This work is part of an exploratory study that seeks to describe the levels of community-scale building damage and socio-economic disruption following the January 2010 Haiti earthquake. Damage and disruption were analyzed for pre-event, post-event, and early recovery time periods in seven Haitian communities. Specifically here, remote sensing analy...
Article
This is the second of two special issues in Progress in Planning exploring emerging research agendas in planning. It brings together scholars from diverse schools working on new areas of research and application in urban design and planning. Emergent research agendas include both novel areas of research and important shifts in the direction of a re...
Article
This paper provides a framework for assessing empirical patterns of urban disaster recovery through the use of statistical indicators. Such a framework is needed to develop systematic knowledge on how cities recover from disasters. The proposed framework addresses such issues as defining recovery, filtering out exogenous influences unrelated to the...
Article
This article develops a conceptual and analytical framework with empirical applications to characterize infrastructure failure interdependencies (IFIs). It uses major electrical power outages as the context for understanding how extreme events (within or external to the power system) lead to failures of other infrastructure systems, given a major e...
Article
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Resilience of complex systems has emerged as a fundamental concern for system managers, users, and researchers. This paper addresses resilience within infrastructure systems, after an extreme event such as an earthquake. It develops a conceptual framework for understanding the factors that influence the resilience of infrastructure systems in terms...
Article
This study focuses on the human-ecological dimension of disaster resilience after the 2004 tsunami. The paper examines how concepts of social capital and external aid delivery influence community performance in conservation of mangrove ecosystems. Experiences are reported through the words of local informants in six villages in Thailand. Findings i...
Technical Report
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This report provides a summary of the findings of a NSF/USGS supported workshop on the need transform and support research on disaster resiliency and vulnerability to better ensure the creation of disaster resilient communities throughout the United States. It was produced by the Workshop steering committee and calls for the creation of a new obser...
Article
Several broad themes emerge in this chapter to point the way for strategic directions in the development of HAZUS® and other tools for estimating losses from disasters. These include expanding and enhancing data types, data sources and data collection schedules. New empirical data collection efforts — including network, engineering and building dat...
Article
Full-text available
This paper develops an analytical framework with empirical applications to characterize infrastructure failure interdependencies (IFIs). It uses major electrical power outages as the context for understanding how extreme events (within or external to the power system) lead to failures of other infrastructure systems, given a major electrical power...
Article
Full-text available
Monte Carlo simulation techniques are used with bridge fragility curves to evaluate bridge damage in terms of a bridge damage index, and highway network link damage in terms of a link damage index. Static, user-equilibrium analysis is used to evaluate total transportation network delay due to seismically induced damage inflicted on the Los Angeles...
Article
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This paper addresses the problem of interdependent failures of critical infrastructures in disasters. Disruptions to critical infrastructure systems such as electric power or transportation frequently cause major social and economic loss in disasters, both directly and through failures in one system leading to or compounding disruptions in another....
Article
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An exploratory study was conducted on the role of coastal ecosystems in protecting communities from the December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, focusing on mangrove forests on the Andaman coast of Thailand and how well villages were undertaking environmental conservation. Remote sensing analysis identified predisaster mangrove change and postdisaster s...
Article
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This paper sets out the foundations for developing robust models of community recovery from earthquake disasters. Models that anticipate post-disaster trajectories are complementary to loss estimation models that predict damage and loss. Such models can serve as important decision support tools for increasing community resilience and reducing disas...
Article
As power failures continue to occur and a consistent record of the types of effects experienced by dependent critical infrastructure accumulates, there may be changes in the courts’ finding of fact as to what is “reasonably foreseeable.” If this shift occurs, the minimum standard of care owed by one party to another may be affected and the bar on w...
Technical Report
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From 2002 to 2004 (years five and six of a ten-year funding cycle), the PEER Center organized the majority of its research around six testbeds. Two buildings and two bridges, a campus, and a transportation network were selected as case studies to “exercise” the PEER performance-based earthquake engineering methodology. All projects involved inte...
Article
This paper demonstrates the concept of disaster resilience through the development and application of quantitative measures. As the idea of building disaster-resilient communities gains acceptance, new methods are needed that go beyond estimating monetary losses and that address the complex, multiple dimensions of resilience. These dimensions inclu...
Article
. This paper explores the influence of Walter Isard, his work, and the field of regional science generally on transportation geography. It argues that Isard's impact was both subtle and significant. Regional science greatly influenced the emergence of modern transportation geography in the 1950s. Transportation themes and methods from Isard's own w...
Article
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We set out the foundations for developing robust models of community recovery from earthquake disasters. These models are a core requirement of decision support tools for increasing community resilience and reducing social vulnerability. We first present a comprehensive conceptual model of recovery. The conceptual model enumerates important relatio...
Article
Electric power is essential for virtually every urban and economic function. Failures of electric power networks and grids — whether from natural disaster, accident, or man-made disaster such as terrorism — can cause severe and widespread societal and economic disruption. In the 1994 Northridge earthquake that struck Los Angeles, some 2.5 million c...
Chapter
Each disaster reminds us that, from an economic standpoint, losses do not occur instantaneously, but are accumulated over the course of a sometimes long and complex recovery process. Moreover, disasters are spatial events that impact some places and some groups within those places more heavily than others. These effects can be observed in both natu...
Article
This paper addresses the issues of security, system behavior, and socio-economic efficiency of utility power networks based on a multitude of research interests. In this paper, a general GIS based methodology is developed to analyze the behavior of large electric utility systems under a catastrophic event, such as a severe earthquake, a technologic...
Article
This paper develops a methodology for evaluating the benefits and costs of disaster mitigation measures for urban infrastructure systems. The methodology is distinguished in three respects: first, it demonstrates how life cycle cost analysis, a method often used in infrastructure management, can be extended and applied to the disaster context. Seco...
Article
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SUMMARY This paper presents a conceptual framework to define seismic resilience of communities and quantitative measures of resilience that can be useful for a coordinated research effort focusing on enhancing this resilience. This framework relies on the complementary measures of resilience: "Reduced failure probabilities," "Reduced consequences f...
Conference Paper
This paper describes the application of a life cycle cost methodology for evaluating seismic mitigations for urban infrastructure systems. In contrast to more traditional benefit-cost analysis, the life cycle cost framework readily and transparently accomodates costs that may change over time. For infrastructure systems, this is advantageous for ad...
Article
A methodology is developed in this paper for evaluating and enhancing the performance of urban transportation systems in the aftermath of a disaster. A performance measure is proposed for assessing overall and distributional impacts based on the concept of accessibility. The methodology is demonstrated with two case studies. The first focuses on pa...
Article
This paper examines the impacts of the February, 2001, Nisqually earthquake on businesses. Focusing on two hard-hit business districts in Seattle, the study investigates the extent of losses, patterns of disparities, and underlying loss factors. A conceptual framework is proposed of how business vulnerability dimensions contribute to disaster loss....
Article
This paper develops a methodology to estimate the regional economic impacts of electricity lifeline disruptions caused by a catastrophic earthquake. The methodology is based on specially designed input-output and linear programming models. A simulation of a major earthquake in the New Madrid Seismic Zone near Memphis, Tennessee, indicates the poten...
Article
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In this paper a simulation approach to modeling the linkages between physical infrastructure systems and the urban economy is developed. A simulation approach based on probabilistically specifying the key model relationships is effective for situations that involve substantial uncertainty, and is particularly suited to assessing risk from natural h...
Article
Recent earthquake disasters have caused major damage to transportation networks, leading to significant economic disruption. While this suggests the need to evaluate total system performance in transportation risk assessment, in addition to examining the vulnerability of individual components such as bridges, no appropriate measures currently exist...
Article
In this paper we summarize an integrated, operational model of losses due to earthquake impacts on transportation and industrial capacity, and how these losses affect the metropolitan economy. The procedure advances the information provided by transportation and activity system analysis techniques in ways that help capture the most important ecomon...
Article
This paper proposes a methodology by which probabilistic risk analysis methods can be extended to the assessment of urban lifeline systems. Probabilistic hazard information is commonly used for site-specific analysis. However, for such systems as highway networks, electric power grids, and regional health care delivery systems, the spatial correlat...
Article
In the 1995 Great Hanshin earthquake, the Port of Kobe (Japan) suffered severe damage that essentially shut it down and required over two years to fully repair. This paper explores the impact of the disaster on the Port, focusing on international container traffic. Prior to the disaster, Kobe had ranked sixth among container ports worldwide; in 199...