Stéphane Chatty's research while affiliated with Ecole Nationale de l'Aviation Civile and other places

Publications (65)

Article
The persistent difficulty to develop and maintain interactive software has unveiled the inadequacy of traditional imperative programming languages. In the recent years, several solutions have been proposed to enrich the existing languages with constructs dedicated to interaction. In this paper, we propose a different approach that takes interaction...
Conference Paper
On June 1st, 2009 flight AF447 from Rio to Paris crashed into the Atlantic Ocean. The safety and legal investigations concluded that human factors have played an important role in the accident. Observing that a number of elements from the report written by the French Office of Investigations for Civil Aviation Safety may be assimilated to known con...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Touchscreen technologies will most probably replace current instrument panels in future aeronautical cockpits. However, while safety and performance require interactive instruments to maximize the perception, action and collaboration spaces offered to pilots, the literature highlights the limits of touch-based interaction regarding these aspects. O...
Article
Since the birth of the discipline, human-machine interaction is crossed by a tension between a theory of human-computer systems relations and a practice that aims at developing new interactive systems. Unfortunately, HMI has not yet succeeded in establishing a clear link between the two. In this paper we propose to tackle this difficulty through an...
Article
Full-text available
Dans cette démonstration, nous proposons de présenter les réalisations effectuées lors de quatre projets avec l'environnement de programmation djnn. Nous illustrons ainsi comment l'architecture de djnn permet d'aborder à la fois les exigences d'agilité liées aux processus de conception d'IHMs innovantes et les exigences du secteur aéronautique en m...
Article
Using a real life scenario of aircraft cockpit design, we illustrate how the model-based architecture of the djnn programming framework allows to combine the multidisciplinary and iterative processes of user interface design with the requirements of industrial system development. Treating software programs as hierarchies of interactive components a...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Djnn is a general framework dedicated to the development of complex interactive systems. We describe ongoing work aimed at developing verification mechanisms through the definition of syntax, grammar and semantics for djnn models. The results will serve to perform formal verification of interactive systems.
Conference Paper
On 2009, June 1st, flight AF447 from Rio to Paris crashed into the Atlantic Ocean. The safety and legal investigations have concluded that human factors played an important role in the accident. Observing that a number of elements from the report written by the French Office of Investigations for Civil Aviation Safety may be assimilated to known co...
Article
Full-text available
Air traffic control (ATC) guides aircraft to maintain safe distances and to optimize traffic fluidity. Combining the benefits of paper with those of digital through tangible interaction is a promising direction for meeting the demands of modern ATC. Designers have designed Stripping Tangible Interface for Controllers (Strip'TIC) to meet these objec...
Article
Works about adaptability and adaptivity in interactive systems cover very different issues (user adaptation, contextaware systems, ambient intelligence, ubiquitous computing), not always with the explicit goal of supporting programmers. Based on examples that highlight how weakly discriminative the present terminology is, we propose to separate two...
Article
http://hci-engineering.di.uminho.pt/Program_files/PreProceedings.pdf#page=48
Conference Paper
Full-text available
L'ingénierie des systèmes homme-machine implique la définition des besoins des utilisateurs en tant qu'éléments de l'architecture du système. Or l'analyse des pratiques industrielles dans la conception des systèmes complexes met en évidence des problèmes dans la prise en compte de l'utilisateur. Ces problèmes semblent insuffisamment traités par l'a...
Article
RÉSUMÉ Conception d'interfaces et conception logicielle ont des liens complexes, que la conception par objets a échoué à clarifier. Nous analysons ici ces rapports et proposons une voie pour les clarifier. L'échec de la conception par objets provient de son lien avec le modèle de programmation par objets, proba-blement très éloigné de ce qu'imagina...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Les tablettes tactiles représentent une première étape dans l'évolution de la forme des ordinateurs depuis le poste de travail graphique vers une plus grande variété. Il faut adapter les systèmes d'exploitation à une plus grande variabilité des moyens d'entrée, et à la remise en cause d'hypothèses de base telles que la présence d'un clavier ou d'un...
Article
Full-text available
When designing a representation, the designer implicitly formulates a sequence of visual tasks required to understand and use the representation effectively. This paper aims at making the sequence of visual tasks explicit in order to help designers elicit their design choices. In particular, we present a set of concepts to systematically analyse wh...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Collaboration is key to safety and efficiency in Air Traffic Control. Legacy paper-based systems enable seamless and non-verbal collaboration, but trends in new software and hardware for ATC tend to separate controllers more and more, which hinders collaboration. This paper presents a new interactive system designed to support collaboration in ATC....
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Building interactive software is a notoriously complex task, for which many programming tools have been proposed over the years. Although the research community has sporadically identified usability requirements for such tools, tool proponents rarely document their design processes and there is no established reference for comparing tools with requ...
Article
Full-text available
When designing a representation, a designer implicitly formulates a sequence of visual tasks required to understand and use the representation effectively. This paper aims to make the sequence of visual tasks explicit, in order to help designers eliciting their design choices. In particular, we present a set of concepts to systematically analyze wh...
Article
Full-text available
When designing a representation, a designer implicitly formulates a method required to understand and use the representation effectively. This paper aims at making the method explicit, in order to help designers elicit their design choices. In particular, we present a set of concepts to systematically analyze what a user must theoretically do visua...
Conference Paper
Producing interactive applications is a multidisciplinary software composition activity. This, and the nature of user interface code, puts particular requirements on component composition frameworks. We describe a component model that relies on a hierarchical tree of heterogeneous elements communicating through events and data flows. This model al...
Article
Full-text available
IntuiKit is a programming framework aimed at making the design and development of post-WIMP user interfaces more accessible. Developing for tabletops puts special re- quirements on such a framework: managing parallel in- put, device discovery, device equivalence, and the descrip - tion of combined interactions. We describe how the model- based arch...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Developing for tabletops puts special requirements on interface programming frameworks: managing parallel input, device discovery, device equivalence, and describing combined interactions. We analyse these issues and describe the solutions that were used in IntuiKit, a model- based framework aimed at making the design and development of post-WIMP u...
Conference Paper
Animation or sound is often used in user interfaces as an attempt to improve users' perception and comprehension of evolving situations and support them in decision-making. However, empirical data establishing their real effectiveness on the comprehension of changes are still lacking. We have carried out an experiment using four combinations of vis...
Conference Paper
This article analyses the relationships between software architecture, programming languages and interactive systems. It proposes to consider that languages, like user interface tools, implement architecture styles or patterns aimed at particular stakeholders and scenarios. It lists architecture issues in interactive software that would be best res...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In order to support animation design in graphics inter- faces, we introduce the concept of visual transition. We then use this descriptive model to introduce a new ani- mation technique: differentiated visual transitions, which allow conveying information by varying visual transitions. This technique is illustrated on concrete cases with a professi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
When involved in the visual design of graphical user interfaces, graphic designers can do more than providing static graphics for programmers to incorporate into applications. We describe a technique that allows them to provide examples of graphical objects at various key sizes using their usual drawing tool, then let the system interpolate their r...
Conference Paper
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The Airbus Visual Line (AVL) project, now deployed on the A380 assembly line, was propelled by the desire to foster collaboration and coordination among aeronau- tical Final Assembly Line teams while going beyond the simplistic - repressive concept of "andon boards" (Monden, 1993). We introduced an environment composed of large public displays and...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Involving graphic designers in the large-scale development of user interfaces requires tools that provide more graphical flexibility and support efficient software processes. These requirements were analysed and used in the design of the TkZ-inc graphical library and the IntuiKit interface design environment. More flexibility is obtained through a...
Conference Paper
Iterative design methods are barely applied for complex system programming in the industry. However, more and more manufacturers become aware about products usability and try to find solutions for designing prototypes.IntuiLab has integrated participatory and iterative design methods in the industrialisation process of complex systems. It has adapt...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Programming highly interactive user interfaces remains a complex task with the available software tools. Interviews and observation of 50 design or production teams of in- dustrial products shows the importance of group produc- tion between graphics designers, programmers, usability experts and the lead designer. Tools must allow each of them to ef...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Ce document présente l'expérience acquise au cours du développement et de l'utilisation du bus logiciel Ivy, dans un cadre de prototypage de systèmes interactifs pour le contrôle du trafic aérien. Après une description du principe de fonctionnement de ce système, nous verrons comment cet outil a pu influer sur notre approche de problématiques IHM s...
Article
Groupware systems often propose coordination protocols inspired from computer technologies. Such protocols are rigid compared to the subtle coordination hints and to the social rules used by humans. Protocols act as intermediate between users in the same way as command languages once did between users and tasks. We propose to reduce the role of tho...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we evaluate an interaction style based on visual and auditory rhythms. We describe this rhythmic interactor and experimentally compare it to the pull-down menus found in current graphical user interfaces. The main result is that, for short and medium length menus, sound-enhanced rhythmic menus are faster than pull-down menus.
Article
Research on user interaction on air traffic control can lead to dealing with new air traffic management (ATM) concepts. That is especially the case for research on collaboration tools between controllers. Focusing on collaborations quickly shows ATM as a workflow, that is an information-based process where many different actors interact in successi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Structuring full scale, highly interactive applications still involve complex design choices for programmers. This is because current techniques do not cover the issue of structuring applications at all scales. Programmers thus have to make choices without a good understanding of their consequences. We consider that this is similar to the problem e...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Producing formal descriptions of low level interaction is necessary to completely capture the behaviour of user interfaces and avoid unexpected behaviour of higher level software layers. We propose a structured approach to formalising low level interaction and scaling up to higher layers, based on the composition of transducers. Every transducer en...
Article
Modernizing workstations for air traffic controllers is a challenge: designers must increase efficiency without affecting safety in any way. Air traffic control is a time-intensive and safety-critical activity, and thus interaction efficiency and low error rates are crucial. Classical interaction techniques have been used in prototype workstations,...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The lack of formal models for describing low-level interaction restricts programmers to interactors provided by toolkits. It impedes the construction of highly interactive systems and the design of new interaction styles, such as multimodal interaction. This article reports on our experience with formalising low-level graphical interaction. We prop...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper presents Whizz'Ed, an experimental tool for construction of highly interactive or animated applications. Whizz'Ed makes it possible to visually describe by direct manipulation the behaviour of graphical objects and their interrelations. It provides elementary bricks that encapsulate basic interactive behaviours. Whizz'Ed aims at allowing...
Article
In this paper we focus on tools and environments for visual interface development that have been proposed recently. The aim is to introduce Whizz'Ed, an experimental editor for construction of highly interactive or animated applications in order to highlight the original contribution of the Whizz'Ed approach. Whizz'Ed provide an easy-to-use environ...
Article
Modernizing workstations for air traffic controllers is a challenge: designers must increase efficiency without affecting safety in any way. Air traffic control is a time-intensive and safety-critical activity, and thus interaction efficiency and low error rates are crucial. Classical interaction techniques have been used in prototype workstations,...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper describes the issues raised by the development of visual tools for the construction of graphical interfaces. It presents Whiz z'Ed, an experimental editor for construction of highly interactive or animated applicatio ns. In addition to the features of traditional interface builders, Whizz'Ed makes it possibl e to visually describe by dir...
Article
Multimodal interaction combines input from multiple sensors such as pointing devices or speech recognition systems, in order to achieve more fluid and natural interaction. Two-handed interaction has been used recently to enrich graphical interaction. Building applications that use such combined interaction requires new software techniques and frame...
Conference Paper
This paper presents Whizz, a system for building animated interactive applica- tions. We describe its musical metaphor, and its underlying model based on streams and events. We analyze the notion of animation, and show how the Whizz model can be applied to the whole dynamic behaviour of an interface, including animation, user input, and communicati...
Article
Groupware systems often propose coordination protocols inspired from computer technolo- gies. Such protocols are rigid compared to the subtle coordination hints and to the social rules used by humans. Protocols act as intermediate between users in the same way as command languages once did between users and tasks. We propose to reduce the role of t...
Article
Full-text available
RÉSUMÉ Le programmeur est un client d'une ou plusieurs toolkits au même titre que l'utilisateur du logiciel final est un client du programmeur. Il se pose les même questions en terme de puissance d'expression et de facilité d'utili-sation. Le choix d'utiliser une toolkit particulière pour un projet pose des contraintes à différent niveaux de concep...
Article
This paper describes the OpenATC project carried out to promote the free software initiative in the Air Traffic Management (ATM) community, and explains its potential benefits. The free software model has been growing in popularity for a few years, first because it was considered an excellent support for research, and then because it proved being a...
Article
Groupware systems often propose coordination protocols inspired from computer technologies. Such protocols are rigid compared to those used by humans, who are used to subtle coordination hints, social rules and negotiations. Pro- tocols act as intermediate between users in the same way as command languages once did between users and tasks. We propo...
Article
Full-text available
RÉ SUMÉ . Les collecticiels synchrones, qui permettent à plusieurs utilisateurs de collaborer en temps réel, sont encore à la recherche d'applications. Une explication à ce problème est la sépa-ration pratiquée entre les activités de manipulation des données et celles de communication entre participants réalisées à travers des outils différents, ce...
Article
Alarm design in HCI is a growing concern as events to be notified grow in number and diversity. We need visual notifications that can be efficiently detected without obscuring background information. We also need to design hierarchies of notifications, from most severe to benign. Thus, we present in this paper a first experimental evaluation, in te...
Article
Résumé La modernisation des postes de travail des contrôleurs aériens est une opération délicate, car les besoins sont parfois très spécifiques. En particulier, l'efficacité de l'interaction est primordiale, car l'activité des contrôleurs est intensive. Des travaux ont été menés ces dernières années pour appliquer des techniques classiques d'intera...
Article
RESUME Cet article présente l'évaluation que nous avons faite d'un nouveau style d'interaction temporelle utilisant les modalités visuelle et auditive. Nous décrivons ce nouvel interacteur rythmique et le comparons aux menus contex-tuels traditionnels. Cette étude montre que les temps de sélection en utilisant les menus rythmiques sonorisés sont in...

Citations

... Others use traditional object-oriented constructs to describe state-based behavior [1]. Conceptual frameworks, syntaxes and tools have been proposed for user interface development [49], natural programming [50], interaction-oriented programming [40], or web programming [4]. Still, most approaches rely on code split over different source files, each dedicated to the description of interactive behavior at a local level. ...
... Using graphic semiology, we carried out ideation workshops with product designers, graphic designers, engineers and researchers to produce ideas in the form of sketches (~ 200 sketches). We selected 2 ideas that we implemented as scenarios (see Table 1) using the Smala event programming language based on the djnn framework [14] [15]. We conducted 3 series of 1 hour workshops with 5 professional pilots. ...
... The touch layer was based on resistive technology, from EloSystem Inc. We already used a similar hardware setup in a previous experiment on pen-based interaction for ATC [2]. We used a video camera above the touch screen and a microphone to record both the interactions on the screen and the subjects comments. ...
... The resulting design space (Table 1) is thus composed of requirements (columns), design properties (rows) and design principles (cells). Requirements for an interactive cockpit have been identified, drawn from activity analyses during several research projects Conversy et al. (2014), Letondal et al. (2018), Letondal et al. (2015), Vinot and Athenes (2012)]. This includes 1) usability requirements that apply individually to each pilot, such as "direct localization perception" (RU1), "operational performance" (RU4), or that relate to crew and collaboration between pilots, such as "mutual awareness" (RU3); 2) industrial requirements, such as "dynamicity & adaptability" (RI1), related to software development costs and hardware adaptability; and 3) safety requirements, such as "availability" (RS3) or "resilience" (RS2), that include certification processes or resilience in degraded contexts, also including the avoiding mobile elements that may constitute dangerous projectiles. ...
... Avec l'intégration progressive des écrans tactiles dans les postes de pilotage, nous craignions au regard de la littérature scientifique, une diminution de la qualité de la conscience mutuelle entre les pilotes en cas de remplacement totale des contrôleurs physiques. En effet, de nombreuses études montrent que les interactions tactiles sont moins compréhensible dans un contexte de travail collaboratif co-localisé (Cohen and McGee 2004;Vinot et al. 2016;Speelpenning et al. 2011;Eckstein 2019) et impliquent une attention cognitive plus importante (Buxton, Hill, and Rowley 1985;Noy et al. 2004;Tory and Kincaid 2013). Néanmoins, parce que nous sommes favorables à leurs intégrations du fait de leurs atouts à la fois pour les pilotes (e.g. ...
... C'est le cas par exemple des relations A s'exécute après B et A s'exécute si v change. Une exception notable est le binding de djnn [36], qui lie deux processus à l'aide d'un objet intermédiaire, mais peut néanmoins s'implémenter à l'aide d'une troisième Entité. Lorsque les Composants des Systèmes ont été définis, des Méta-Systèmes (Systèmes exécutant des Systèmes) les parcourent, les ordonnent, et les exécutent. ...
... Celui-ci explore un espace de solution visant à résoudre une situation critique d'un problème de vol non identifié. L'activité que doivent conduire les pilotes dans ces situations critiques ou dégradées correspond à un processus d'abduction [10], c'est-à-dire un raisonnement permettant d'expliquer la situation à partir de faits observés et de formulation d'hypothèses, en rassemblant, testant, éliminant , cherchant la cohérence d'un ensemble de signifiants. Ceci implique une forte adaptativité de l'espace interactif permettant de contrôler les représentations et liaisons entre structures d'information, pour supporter une réflexion collaborative des pilotes, la programmation de l'action, et une résolution rapide du problème. ...
... These factors affect the productivity, accuracy, and integrity of the software system. Figure 1 represents the programmer's strength which is divided into three major categories called personnel factors, process factors and user community factors [1][2][3][4][5]. ...
... In the MAMMI project [50,171,173], the authors' assumption is that improving collaboration will have a positive impact on the safety of the air traffic and its capacity. The system follows 3 design guidelines which can inspire us to build the design principles for a computerized tool to support surgical flow management: ...
... Previous studies focused primarily on the design and user evaluation of rhythmic synchronization techniques (e.g., [1,2,4,11]), while another focused on improving matching by modeling user behavior [3]. However, none of the above studies were conducted evaluating whether any external auditory stimulus rhythmically contrasting with the visual rhythm can somehow alter users' ability to synchronize. ...