Stefan Schwab's research while affiliated with Friedrich-Alexander-University of Erlangen-Nürnberg and other places

Publications (456)

Article
Background: Epilepsy is a common complication after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Information on risk factors is still scarce and the role of ICH evacuation remains uncertain. Methods: We retrospectively included patients with spontaneous ICH treated in our hospital in 2006-2019. Patients' medical records were analyzed. In addition, mailed que...
Article
Vestibular neuritis is a common neuro‐otological entity. Therapeutically, corticosteroids are advised, although the evidence is limited. The objective of this review is to update meta‐analyses of clinical trials that address the question of whether patients with vestibular neuritis treated with corticosteroids show better recovery than control pati...
Article
Background Although chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with worse stroke outcomes, data regarding the influence of CKD on intravenous thrombolysis outcomes are scarce. We sought to assess the efficacy and safety of intravenous thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke with unknown onset time in patients with CKD. Methods Patients with an acut...
Article
Importance: It is uncertain whether thrombectomy is associated with benefits in patients with prestroke disability. Objective: To evaluate the use of thrombectomy for patients with large vessel occlusion and prestroke disability. Design, setting, and participants: This cohort study included patients with large vessel occlusion stroke and prest...
Article
Objective: As resources are limited in modern healthcare systems, the decision on the allocation of expensive drugs can be supported by a public consent. This study examines how various factors influence subjectively perceived "fair" pricing of antiseizure medication (ASM) among four groups including physicians, persons with epilepsy (PWE), their...
Article
Full-text available
Background and aim To assess associations between clinical severity and possible dysfunction of autonomic cardiovascular modulation within the acute phase after spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Methods In this prospective observational study, in 51 patients with spontaneous SAH, Hunt-and-Hess scores (H&H) were assessed and cardiovascular...
Article
Full-text available
Background Stroke may compromise cardiovascular–autonomic modulation (CAM). The longitudinal post-stroke CAM alterations remain unclear as previous studies excluded patients with cardiovascular medication. This study evaluated whether CAM dysfunction improves after several months in patients under typical clinical conditions, i.e., without excludin...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Innovative automated perfusion software solutions offer support in the management of acute stroke by providing information about the infarct core and penumbra. While the performance of different software solutions has mainly been investigated in patients with successful recanalization, the prognostic accuracy of the hypoperfusion maps...
Article
Background: In patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) the presence of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) constitutes an important therapeutic target. Intraventricular fibrinolysis (IVF) reduces mortality, yet impact on functional disability remains unclear. Thus, we aimed to determine the influence of IVF on functional outcomes. Methods: This...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Neurocritical patients suffer from a substantial risk of extubation failure. The aim of this prospective study was to analyze if quantitative EEG (qEEG) monitoring is able to predict successful extubation in these patients. We analyzed EEG-monitoring for at least six hours before extubation in patients receiving mechanical ventilation (MV)...
Article
Full-text available
Background and purpose: Ischemic stroke may induce cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction. Yet, most previous studies included patients with anterior circulation ischemic stroke or brainstem stroke. It remains unclear whether posterior circulation ischemic stroke (PCIS) without brainstem involvement also compromises cardiovascular autonomic modulati...
Article
Full-text available
The human amygdala is involved in processing of memory, decision-making, and emotional responses. Previous studies suggested that the amygdala may represent a neurogenic niche in mammals. By combining two distinct methodological approaches, lipofuscin quantification and 14C-based retrospective birth dating of neurons, along with mathematical modell...
Article
Full-text available
Background Clinical characteristics, outpatient situation, and outcome in patients with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) remain to be elucidated. Methods Patients diagnosed with PNES after video‐electroencephalography (EEG) monitoring (VEM) 03/2000–01/2016 at the Erlangen Epilepsy Center were surveyed between June 2016 and February 2017. P...
Article
BACKGROUND There have been multiple efforts toward individual prediction of recurrent strokes based on structured clinical and imaging data using machine learning algorithms. Some of these efforts resulted in relatively accurate prediction models. However, acquiring clinical and imaging data is typically possible at provider sites only and is assoc...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Atrial fibrillation (AF) in stroke patients can be classified as either "known AF (KAF)", which was confirmed before stroke-onset, or "AF detected after stroke (AFDAS)", which was diagnosed after stroke-onset. While KAF is considered primarily cardiogenic, AFDAS includes patients with stroke-triggered neurogenic arrhythmias. This study...
Article
Full-text available
Background The “1-3-6-12-day rule” for starting direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation after acute ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack recommends timings that may be later than used in clinical practice. We investigated more practical optimal timing of DOAC initiation according to stroke severit...
Article
Background: Patients with atrial fibrillation have a relevant risk for ischemic stroke despite the recommended use of direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC). The risk correlates with the functional DOAC plasma levels in clinical trials, but the value of their measurement in community use remains undetermined. Objectives: We aim to investigate the cli...
Article
Full-text available
Objective This study determined the effect of amantadine treatment on consciousness in patients with non-traumatic brain injury. Methods We pooled individual patient data of five single-centre observational studies to determine the effect of amantadine treatment among patients with ischaemic stroke, intracerebral haemorrhage, subarachnoid haemorrh...
Article
Background and Purpose Several automated computed tomography perfusion software applications have been developed to provide support in the definition of ischemic core and penumbra in acute ischemic stroke. However, the degree of interchangeability between software packages is not yet clear. Our study aimed to evaluate 2 commonly used automated perf...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose Endovascular therapy (EVT) of large-vessel occlusion in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) may be performed in general anesthesia (GA) or conscious sedation (CS). We intended to determine the contribution of ischemic cerebral lesion sites on the physician’s decision between GA and CS using voxel-based lesion symptom mapping (VLSM). Methods In a p...
Article
Full-text available
Drug-resistant epilepsy can be most limiting for patients, and surgery represents a viable therapy option. With the growing research on the human connectome and the evidence of epilepsy being a network disorder, connectivity analysis may be able to contribute to our understanding of epilepsy and may be potentially developed into clinical applicatio...
Article
Full-text available
Objective To investigate the safety and effectiveness of direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC) versus vitamin-K-antagonists (VKA) after recent stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) aged ≥85 years. Methods Individual patient data analysis from 7 prospective stroke cohorts. We compared DOAC versus VKA treatment among patients with AF and rece...
Article
Background and Purpose It is unestablished whether andexanet alfa, compared with guideline-based usual care including prothrombin complex concentrates, is associated with reduced hematoma expansion (HE) and mortality in patients with factor-Xa inhibitor–related intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). We compared the occurrence of HE and clinical outcomes i...
Article
Full-text available
Background and Purpose: The optimal acute management of patients with large vessel occlusion (LVO) and minor clinical deficits on admission [National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) ≤ 4] remains to be elucidated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prognostic factors and therapeutic management of those patients. Methods: I...
Article
Full-text available
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) prognostication during the acute phase is often subjective among physicians and often affects treatment decisions. The present study explores objective imaging parameters using quantitative corticospinal tract (CST) fiber reconstruction during the acute phase of ICH and correlates these parameters with functional outc...
Article
Full-text available
Background: rt-PA for ischemic stroke in the unknown or extended time window beyond the first 4. 5 h after symptom onset is safe and effective for certain patients after selection by multimodal neuroimaging. However, the evidence for this approach comes mainly from patients with anterior circulation stroke (ACS), while the data on posterior circula...
Article
Background: For outcome assessment in patients surviving subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), the modified Rankin scale (mRS) represents the mostly established outcome tool, whereas other dimensions of outcome such as mood disorders and impairments in social life remain unattended so far. Objective: The aim of our study was to correlate 12-month funct...
Article
Full-text available
A Correction to this paper has been published: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10072-021-05355-3
Article
Full-text available
Importance: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) contributes significantly to the global burden of disease. Objective: To examine the association of ICH and secondary injury with disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for the individual patient. Design, setting, and participants: This cohort study was conducted using data from the Universitätsklinik...
Article
Introduction: Recent studies have shown that inflammatory processes might play a role in epileptogenesis. Their role in ictogenesis is much less clear. The aim of this study was to investigate peri-ictal changes of the innate immune system by analyzing changes of immune cells, as well as pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Methods: Patients wi...
Article
Full-text available
Hypothermia and possible neuroprotective effects have been investigated in different conditions of acute ischemic stroke, including awake patients and patients with hemicraniectomy due to malignant middle cerebral artery infarction. Most of these were inconclusive and had the imminent problem of treatment delay. (1) Now at last, patients undergoing...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Early enteral nutrition (EEN) represents the current standard of care for patients treated in general intensive care units (ICU). Specific nutritional recommendations for patients receiving dedicated neurocritical care are not established. This study investigated associations of EEN with clinical outcomes for patients suffering from intr...
Article
Full-text available
Background and Purpose: Fever in the acute phase of stroke leads to an unfavorable clinical outcome and increased mortality. However, no specific form of effective fever treatment has been established, so far. We analyzed the effectiveness of our in-house standard operating procedure (SOP) of fever treatment. Methods: This SOP was analyzed for a pe...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Our aim was to assess the role of quantitative 1H and 23Na MRI methods in providing imaging biomarkers of disease activity and severity in patients with Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD). Methods: We imaged the lower leg muscles of 19 FSHD patients and 12 controls with a multimodal MRI protocol to obtain STIR-T2w images, fat...
Article
Objective In subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), transcranial Doppler/color-coded-duplex sonography (TCD/TCCS) is used to detect delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI). In previous studies, quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG) also predicted imminent DCI. This study aimed to compare and analyse the ability of qEEG and TCD/TCCS to early identify patients...
Article
Full-text available
Background The effects of the COVID‐19 pandemic on telemedical care have not been described on a national level. Thus, we investigated the medical stroke treatment situation before, during and after the first lockdown in Germany. Methods In this nation‐wide, multicenter study, data from 14 telemedical networks including 31 network centers and 155...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Although automated pupillometry is increasingly used in critical care settings, predictive value of automatically assessed pupillary parameters during different intracranial pressure (ICP) levels and possible clinical implications are unestablished. Methods This retrospective cohort study at the neurocritical care unit of the Universi...
Article
Full-text available
Objective Outcome prognostication unbiased by early care limitations(ECL) is essential for guiding treatment in patients presenting with intracerebral hemorrhage(ICH). This study aims to determine whether the max‐ICH Score provides improved and clinically useful prognostic estimation of functional long‐term outcomes after ICH. Methods This multice...
Article
Background Data regarding the influence of concomitant parenchymatous hematoma (PH) on long-term outcomes in patients with atraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) are scarce. Further, it is not established if these patients benefit from surgical intervention. Aim The aim of this study was to determine the influence of concomitant PH in SAH patien...
Article
Background Patients who have had a stroke with unknown time of onset have been previously excluded from thrombolysis. We aimed to establish whether intravenous alteplase is safe and effective in such patients when salvageable tissue has been identified with imaging biomarkers. Methods We did a systematic review and meta-analysis of individual pati...
Article
Introduction The number of patients with left ventricular assist devices (LVAD) is rapidly growing in industrialized countries. While cerebrovascular events comprise a significant complication, data on stroke etiology, clinical management and functional outcome are scarce. Methods Consecutive LVAD patients with ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke recei...
Article
Full-text available
Background Valproate (VPA) is a commonly prescribed antiepileptic drug for patients experiencing epileptic seizures due to brain tumors. VPA increases radiation sensitivity in various tumor cells in vitro due to complex mechanisms. This could make tumors more vulnerable to ionizing radiation or overcome radioresistance. Yet, clinical data on possib...
Article
Objective To investigate differences in procedure times, safety and efficacy outcomes comparing 2 different protocols to enable thrombolysis in the extended or unknown time window after stroke onset using either multimodal CT or MRI. Methods Patients with ischemic stroke in the extended or unknown time window, who received IV-thrombolysis between...
Article
Full-text available
PurposeVarious software applications offer support in the diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke (AIS), yet it remains unclear whether the performance of these tools is comparable to each other. Our study aimed to evaluate three fully automated software applications for Alberta Stroke Program Early CT (ASPECT) scoring (Syngo.via Frontier ASPECT Score P...
Article
Background: Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a frequent cerebrovascular disorder and still associated with high mortality and poor clinical outcomes. The purpose of this review was to update a 15-year-old former meta-analysis on randomized clinical trials (RCTs) addressing the question of whether ICH patients treated with dexamethason...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: To describe three coronavirus disease 2019 patients suffering from acute respiratory distress syndrome under venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy and tight anticoagulation monitoring presenting a novel pattern of multifocal brain hemorrhage in various degrees in all cerebral and cerebellar lobes. Design: Clinical ob...
Article
Purpose To evaluate psychosocial long-term outcome in patients diagnosed with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) and to predict outcome of PNES, economic status, and quality of life (QoL) at follow-up. Methods Patients diagnosed with PNES in the video-EEG-monitoring unit at our Epilepsy center between 2002-2016 were contacted by phone 1-16 y...
Article
Background and Purpose Data on long-term survival and recurrence after stroke are lacking. We investigated time trends in ischemic stroke case-fatality and recurrence rates over 20-years stratified by etiological subtype according to the Trial of ORG 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment classification within a population-based stroke register in Germany...
Article
Full-text available
Background and Purpose: Although outcome in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) patients is generally not improved by surgical intervention, the use of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) has shown promising results. However, vitamin K antagonist (VKA)-related ICH patients are underrepresented in surgical treatment trials. We therefore assessed the safety...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a rare prion disease characterized by rapidly progressive dementia. Case report: A 76-year-old woman exhibited pronounced signs and symptoms of dressing apraxia for about seven weeks before the disease progressed and probable CJD was diagnosed supported by imaging and CSF findings. Discussion: Dre...
Article
Full-text available
Background Oral Factor Xa inhibitors for the prevention of stroke in atrial fibrillation require dose adjustment based on certain clinical criteria, but the off-label use of the reduced doses is common.Methods Data from an observational registry including patients admitted with acute cerebral ischemia while taking oral Factor Xa inhibitors for atri...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction To investigate the impact of a mismatch between diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) on functional outcome in patients with acute stroke in a prolonged time window or unknown time of symptom onset randomized to intravenous thrombolysis or placebo. Patients and Methods We performed a post-hoc...
Article
Full-text available
IntroductionNoninvasive temperature modulation by localized neck cooling might be desirable in the prehospital phase of acute hypoxic brain injuries. While combined head and neck cooling induces significant discomfort, peripheral vasoconstriction, and blood pressure increase, localized neck cooling more selectively targets blood vessels that supply...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Hematoma enlargement (HE) is associated with clinical outcomes after supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). This study evaluates whether HE characteristics and association with functional outcome differ in deep versus lobar ICH. Methods: Pooled analysis of individual patient data between January 2006 and December 2015 from a G...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: It is unknown whether patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) with ischaemic stroke despite oral anticoagulant therapy are at increased risk for further recurrent strokes and how ongoing secondary prevention should be managed. Methods: We conducted an individual patient data pooled analysis of seven prospective cohort studies which rec...
Article
Background Idarucizumab is a monoclonal antibody fragment with high affinity for dabigatran reversing its anticoagulant effects within minutes. Thereby, patients with acute ischemic stroke who are on dabigatran treatment may become eligible for thrombolysis with recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA). In patients on dabigatran with i...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Aneurysmatic Subarachnoid Haemorrhage (aSAH) is typically caused by extravasated blood in the subarachnoid space due to a ruptured aneurysm. aSAH is often life-threatening in the acute stage, but may also cause secondary brain damage due to delayed cerebral ischaemia (DCI) and other complications in the days and weeks after the initi...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Given an ageing population the incidence of both patients suffering from intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and those requiring oral anticoagulation will increase. Up to now there are no results from randomized trials available whether or not, and when, ICH survivors should resume OAC. This review summarizes the most important observationa...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose In patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) caused by large vessel occlusion (LVO), endovascular treatment (EVT) is highly effective for emergency revascularization. However, data on functional outcome are lacking for patients, which show no or minimal mismatch between ischemic core and penumbra. Methods Forty-five patients with AIS due t...
Article
Background: Whether time of hospital admission-during or outside regular working hours-affects functional outcome in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is unestablished as previous analyses have focused on mortality only. We here investigate whether on- versus off-hour hospital admission in ICH is associated with levels of invasiveness and clinical ou...