Stefan Bode's research while affiliated with University of Melbourne and other places

Publications (141)

Article
Full-text available
Empathy enables human beings to understand and share the internal states of others. Studies show that empathy for pain is higher for in-group compared to out-group members. This might be driven by attitudes and biases towards out-groups. In a between subject design, N = 621 participants filled in questionnaires measuring xenophobia and trait empath...
Article
Full-text available
Multivariate classification analysis for event-related potential (ERP) data is a powerful tool for predicting cognitive variables. However, classification is often restricted to categorical variables and under-utilises continuous data, such as response times, response force, or subjective ratings. An alternative approach is support vector regressio...
Preprint
Selection bias in information-search contributes to the formation of polarized echo-chambers of beliefs. However, the role of valence in information source selection remains poorly understood. In Experiment 1, participants won financial rewards depending on the outcomes of a set of lotteries. They were not shown these outcomes, but instead could ch...
Article
Whether people change their mind after making a perceptual judgement may depend on how confident they are in their decision. Recently, it was shown that, when making perceptual judgements about stimuli containing high levels of ‘absolute evidence’ (i.e., the overall magnitude of sensory evidence across choice options), people make less accurate dec...
Article
Clayson et al. (2021) describe an innovative multiverse analysis to evaluate effects of data processing choices on event-related potential (ERP) measures. Based on their results, they provide data processing recommendations for studies measuring the error-related negativity and error positivity components. We argue that, although their data-driven...
Article
Full-text available
Every decision we make is accompanied by an estimate of the probability that our decision is accurate or appropriate. This probability estimate is termed our degree of decision confidence. Recent work has uncovered event-related potential (ERP) correlates of confidence both during decision formation and after a decision has been made. However, the...
Preprint
A bstract When localising a moving object, the brain receives outdated sensory information about its position, due to the time required for neural transmission and processing. The brain may overcome these fundamental delays through predictively encoding the position of moving objects using information from their past trajectories. In the present st...
Preprint
Full-text available
Accurate metacognitive judgements, such as forming a confidence judgement, are crucial for goaldirected behaviour but decline with older age. Besides changes in the sensory processing of stimulus features, there might also be changes in the motoric aspects of giving responses that account for age-related changes in confidence. In order to assess th...
Article
Full-text available
People are often cautious in delivering moral judgements of others' behaviours, as falsely accusing others of wrongdoing can be costly for social relationships. Caution might further be present when making judgements in information-dynamic environments, as contextual updates can change our minds. This study investigated the processes with which mor...
Article
Full-text available
Objective This study aimed to determine whether the visual response to flickering checkerboard patterns measured using electroencephalography (EEG) relate to excitatory or inhibitory metabolite levels measured using ultra-high (7Tesla/7T) magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Background Electrophysiological studies have shown altered visual corti...
Preprint
Clayson et al. (2021) describe an innovative multiverse analysis to evaluate effects of data processing choices on event-related potential (ERP) measures. Based on their results, they provide data processing recommendations for studies measuring the error-related negativity and error positivity components. We argue that, although their data-driven...
Article
Full-text available
We often need to rapidly change our mind about perceptual decisions in order to account for new information and correct mistakes. One fundamental, unresolved question is whether information processed prior to a decision being made (‘pre-decisional information’) has any influence on the likelihood and speed with which that decision is reversed. We i...
Article
Full-text available
Humans have a striking desire to actively seek new information, even when it is devoid of any instrumental utility. However, the mechanisms that drive individuals’ subjective preference for information remain unclear. Here, we used fMRI to examine the processing of subjective information value, by having participants decide how much effort they wer...
Preprint
Full-text available
Every decision we make is accompanied by an estimate of the probability that our decision is accurate or appropriate. This probability estimate is termed our degree of decision confidence. Recent work has uncovered event-related potential (ERP) correlates of confidence both during decision formation and after a decision has been made. However, the...
Article
Obesity has become a significant problem word-wide and is strongly linked to poor food choices. Even in healthy individuals, taste perceptions often drive dietary decisions more strongly than healthiness. This study tested whether health and taste representations can be directly decoded from brain activity, both when explicitly considered, and when...
Article
Full-text available
Self-reports are conventionally used to measure political preferences, yet individuals may be unable or unwilling to report their political attitudes. Here, in 69 participants we compared implicit and explicit methods of political attitude assessment and focused our investigation on populist attitudes. Ahead of the 2019 European Parliament election...
Article
Reliance on fairness norms is a core feature of moral behavior and judgment, and is conceptually and empirically linked with basic personality dimensions. However, the specific nature of these links is poorly understood. In this study ( N = 313, 68% female), we employed a novel third-party judgment paradigm, in which participants made moral judgmen...
Article
Metacognitive accuracy describes the degree of overlap between the subjective perception of one's decision accuracy (i.e. confidence) and objectively observed performance. With older age, the need for accurate metacognitive evaluation increases; however, error detection rates typically decrease. We investigated the effect of ageing on metacognitive...
Preprint
Full-text available
Whether people change their mind after making a perceptual judgement may depend on how confident they are in their initial decision. Recently, it was shown that, when making perceptual judgements about stimuli containing high levels of 'absolute evidence' (i.e., the overall magnitude of sensory evidence across choice options), people make less accu...
Article
Objectives Micronutrients, especially iron, play a critical role in the developing infant brain. Yet, the causal effects of iron supplementation on neurocognitive functioning in a low-income anemic population of children have not been examined. This study sought to evaluate the effects of supplementation with iron syrup and iron-containing multiple...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Multivariate classification analysis for event-related potential (ERP) data is a powerful tool for predicting cognitive variables. However, classification is often restricted to categorical variables and under-utilises continuous data, such as response times, response force, or subjective ratings. An alternative approach is Support Vecto...
Article
Full-text available
How we exert control over our decision-making has been investigated using conflict tasks, which involve stimuli containing elements that are either congruent or incongruent. In these tasks, participants adapt their decision-making strategies following exposure to incongruent stimuli. According to conflict monitoring accounts, conflicting stimulus f...
Preprint
Obesity has become a significant problem word-wide and is strongly linked to poor food choices. Even in healthy individuals, taste perceptions often drive dietary decisions more strongly than healthiness. This study tested whether health and taste representations can be directly decoded from brain activity, both when explicitly considered, and when...
Article
A recent theory proposes that the personality trait openness/intellect is underpinned by differential sensitivity to the reward value of information. This theory draws on evidence that midbrain dopamine neurons respond to unpredicted information gain, mirroring their responses to unpredicted primary rewards. Using a choice task modelled on this sem...
Article
Full-text available
Curiosity pervades all aspects of human behaviour and decision-making. Recent research indicates that the value of information is determined by its propensity to reduce uncertainty, and the hedonic value of the outcomes it predicts. Previous findings also indicate a preference for options that are freely chosen, compared to equivalently valued alte...
Poster
Full-text available
Many people eat specific foods to distract themselves from, or cope with, negative affect such as stress, anxiety, or fear, [1,2,3]. Most such “comfort” foods are indulgent, sweet, carbohydrate- and fat-rich and therefore provide immediate satisfaction. Negative emotions can also increase the salience of immediate, concrete goals, thereby increase...
Preprint
Full-text available
Metacognitive accuracy describes the degree of overlap between the subjective perception of one's decision accuracy (i.e., confidence) and objectively observed performance. With older age, the need for accurate metacognitive evaluation increases; however, error detection rates typically decrease. We investigated the effect of ageing on metacognitiv...
Article
Mate choice copying refers to an agent copying the choice for a potential sexual/romantic partner made by a relevant model and has been observed across many species. This study investigated the neural profiles of two copying strategies in humans - acceptance and rejection copying - using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Female particip...
Article
Establishing the real-time position of a moving object poses a challenge to the visual system due to neural processing delays. While sensory information is travelling through the visual hierarchy, the object continues moving and information about its position becomes outdated. By extrapolating the position of a moving object along its trajectory, p...
Article
To navigate the world safely, we often need to rapidly ‘change our mind’ about decisions. Current models assume that initial decisions and change-of-mind decisions draw upon common sources of sensory evidence. In two-choice scenarios, this evidence may be ‘relative’ or ‘absolute’. For example, when judging which of two objects is the brightest, the...
Article
Contemporary theoretical accounts of metacognition propose that action-related information is used in the computation of perceptual decision confidence. We investigated whether the amount of expended physical effort, or the ‘motoric sunk cost’ of a decision, influences perceptual decision confidence judgements in humans. In particular, we examined...
Article
Full-text available
When experiencing negative emotions, individuals often reach out for social support to help regulate their emotions. In times of an acute crisis, however, close friends might not be available, and physical closeness might be impossible. This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study investigated the effect of social proximity on the effect...
Article
Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSBs) consumption is associated with obesity and other severe negative health consequences. The present study examined the effectiveness of two types of health warning labels (HWLs) in modulating dietary choices for SSBs: specific HWLs, presenting health consequences associated with consuming SSBs, and general HWLs, presen...
Preprint
Full-text available
People are often cautious in delivering moral judgments of others' behaviours, as falsely accusing others of wrongdoing can be costly for social relationships. Caution might further be present when making judgements in information-dynamic environments, as contextual updates can change our minds. This study investigated the processes with which mora...
Article
The ability to distinguish between commonplace and unusual sensory events is critical for efficient learning and adaptive behaviour. This has been investigated using oddball designs in which sequences of often-appearing (i.e., expected) stimuli are interspersed with rare (i.e., surprising) deviants. Resulting differences in electrophysiological res...
Preprint
Full-text available
We often need to rapidly change our mind about perceptual decisions in order to account for new information and correct mistakes. One fundamental, unresolved question is whether information processed prior to a decision being made (‘pre-decisional information’) has any influence on the likelihood and speed with which that decision is reversed. We i...
Preprint
We often need to rapidly change our mind about perceptual decisions in order to account for new information and correct mistakes. One fundamental, unresolved question is whether information processed prior to a decision being made (‘pre-decisional information’) has any influence on the likelihood and speed with which that decision is reversed. We i...
Preprint
People are often cautious in delivering moral judgments of others’ behaviours, as falsely accusing others of wrongdoing can be costly for social relationships. Caution might further be present when making judgements in information-dynamic environments, as contextual updates can change our minds. This study investigated the processes with which mora...
Article
A key visual neuronal property that is mirrored in human behaviour is centre-surround contrast suppression, which is orientation-dependent. When a target is embedded in a high-contrast surround, the centre appears reduced in contrast, the magnitude of which depends on the relative orientation between centre and surround. Previous reports demonstrat...
Article
Aversion to uncertainty about the future has been proposed as a transdiagnostic trait underlying psychiatric diagnoses including obsessive-compulsive disorder and generalized anxiety. This association might explain the frequency of pathological information-seeking behaviors such as compulsive checking and reassurance-seeking in these disorders. Her...
Article
Full-text available
In everyday life we are constantly updating our moral judgements as we learn new information. However, this judgement updating process has not been systematically studied. We investigated how people update their moral judgements of fairness-related actions of others after receiving contextual information regarding the deservingness of the action re...
Preprint
Adherence to fairness norms is a core feature of moral behaviour and judgment, and is conceptually and empirically linked with basic personality dimensions. However, the specific nature of these links is poorly understood. In this study (N = 313, 68% female) we employed a novel third-party judgement paradigm, in which participants made moral judgem...
Article
The ability to exert control over emotions, termed emotion regulation (ER), is vital for everyday functioning. ER success may be influenced by processes relating to the anticipation (prior to active regulation) and implementation (during active regulation) of ER strategy use. We investigated whether brain activity patterns recorded using electroenc...
Preprint
Full-text available
The ability to distinguish between commonplace and unusual sensory events is critical for efficient learning and adaptive behaviour. This has been investigated using oddball designs in which sequences of often-appearing (i.e. expected) stimuli are interspersed with rare (i.e. surprising) deviants. Resulting differences in electrophysiological respo...
Article
Full-text available
The consumption of indulgent, carbohydrate-and fat-rich foods is often used as a strategy to cope with negative affect because they provide immediate self-reward. Such dietary choices, however, can severely affect people's health. One countermeasure could be to improve one's emotion regulation ability. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging...
Preprint
Contemporary theoretical accounts of metacognition propose that action-related information is used in the computation of perceptual decision confidence. We investigated whether the amount of expended physical effort, or the ‘motoric sunk cost’ of a decision, influences perceptual decision confidence judgements in humans. In particular, we examined...
Article
Full-text available
Depending on the lesion site, a stroke typically affects various aspects of cognitive control. While executing a task, the performance monitoring system constantly compares an intended action plan with the executed action and thereby registers inaccurate actions in case of any mismatch. When errors occur, the performance monitoring system signals t...
Article
Full-text available
Preferences can change as a consequence of making hard decisions whereby the value of chosen options increases and the value of rejected options decreases. Such choice‐induced preference changes have been associated with brain areas detecting choice conflict (anterior cingulate cortex, ACC), updating stimulus value (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex,...
Article
The transmission of sensory information through the visual system takes time. As a result of these delays, the visual information available to the brain always lags behind the timing of events in the present moment. Compensating for these delays is crucial for functioning within dynamic environments, since interacting with a moving object (e.g., ca...
Article
Full-text available
Voluntary actions rely on appropriate flexibility of intentions. Usually, we should pursue our goals, but sometimes we should change goals if they become too costly to achieve. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated the neural dynamics underlying the capacity to change one's mind based on new information after action onset. Mu...
Article
Background: Research using the event-related potential (ERP) method to investigate cognitive processes has usually focused on the analysis of either individual peaks or the area under the curve as components of interest. These approaches, however, do not analyse or describe the substantial variation in size and shape across the entire individual w...
Preprint
Full-text available
How we exert control over our decision making has been investigated using conflict tasks, which involve stimuli containing elements that are either congruent or incongruent. In these tasks, participants adapt their decision making strategies following exposure to incongruent stimuli. According to conflict monitoring accounts, conflicting stimulus f...
Article
Full-text available
Emotion regulation impacts the expected emotional responses to the outcomes of risky decisions via activation of cognitive control strategies. However, whether the regulation of emotional responses to preceding, incidental stimuli also impacts risk-taking in subsequent decisions is still poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the interpl...
Preprint
In everyday life we are constantly updating our moral judgements of people and actions as we learn new information. We developed a novel paradigm to investigate how people update their moral judgements of fairness-related actions upon receiving contextual information regarding the deservingness of the action recipient. Participants (N = 313) observ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Aversion to uncertainty about the future has been proposed as a transdiagnostic trait underlying psychiatric diagnoses including obsessive-compulsive disorder and generalised anxiety. This association might explain the frequency of pathological information-seeking behaviours such as compulsive checking and reassurance-seeking in these disorders. He...
Preprint
To navigate the world safely, we rely heavily on our ability to make accurate perceptual judgements. However, errors do inevitably occur. In these situations, rapid ‘changes of mind’ are required to correct or abandon ongoing actions. A shared assumption of computational models developed to describe the mechanisms underlying perceptual judgements a...
Article
Belief updating entails the incorporation of new information about the environment into internal models of the world. Bayesian inference is the statistically optimal strategy for performing belief updating in the presence of uncertainty. An important open question is whether the use of cognitive strategies that implement Bayesian inference is depen...
Article
Objectives: The majority of global health studies use behavioural assessments to measure early child development. Few studies have examined neural indices of cognition using electroencephalography (EEG) in low-income settings. Using data from the Benefits and Risks of Iron Supplementation in Children (BRISC) trial, we examined cognitive developmen...
Article
Food product health warnings may be a valuable intervention strategy for helping reduce obesity rates and the negative health outcomes associated with consuming an unhealthy diet. Research into the efficacy of food product health warnings has shown promising effects on consumers’ beliefs and behaviour, but existing research has typically featured a...
Article
Accurate force production is an essential motor function which, in most cases, requires continuous performance monitoring. Unlike choice-response tasks with two response alternatives, the accuracy in a force production paradigm is defined as an area between an upper and lower limit on the force continuum. In the present study, we investigated the n...
Preprint
Full-text available
Belief updating entails the incorporation of new information about the environment into internal models of the world. Bayesian inference is the statistically optimal strategy for performing belief updating in the presence of uncertainty. An important open question is whether the use of cognitive strategies that implement Bayesian inference is depen...
Article
Full-text available
In recent years, neuroimaging research in cognitive neuroscience has increasingly used multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) to investigate higher cognitive functions. Here we present DDTBOX, an open-source MVPA toolbox for electroencephalography (EEG) data. DDTBOX runs under MATLAB and is well integrated with the EEGLAB/ERPLAB and Fieldtrip toolbox...
Article
Full-text available
Hard decisions between equally valued alternatives can result in preference changes, meaning that subsequent valuations for chosen items increase and decrease for rejected items. Previous research suggests that this phenomenon is a consequence of cognitive dissonance reduction after the decision, induced by the mismatch between initial preferences...
Article
Full-text available
Obese individuals discount future rewards to a higher degree than lean individuals, which is generally considered disadvantageous. Moreover, their decisions are altered more easily by decision-irrelevant cues. Here, we investigated neural correlates of this phenomenon using functional MRI. We tested 30 lean and 26 obese human subjects on a primed d...