Stathis N. Kalyvas's research while affiliated with Duke University and other places

Publications (56)

Article
In this essay, I decouple violent jihadism from both religion and terrorism and propose an alternative, nonexclusive understanding of jihadi groups as rebel groups engaged in civil wars. Arguing that jihadi groups can be profitably approached as the current species of revolutionary insurgents, I offer a comparison with an older species, the Marxist...
Article
Large-scale organized crime occupies a gray zone between ordinary crime and political violence. The unprecedented scale of drug-related crime in Mexico has led to its description as an insurgency or even a civil war, a conceptual move that draws on recent studies that have associated civil war with large-scale criminality. By questioning both the “...
Article
Militias are an empirical phenomenon that has been overlooked by current research on civil war. Yet, it is a phenomenon that is crucial for understanding political violence, civil war, post-conflict politics, and authoritarianism. Militias or paramilitaries are armed groups that operate alongside regular security forces or work independently of the...
Chapter
I take advantage of political and geographic variation to explore the underlying dynamics of rebel governance during the Greek Civil War. Two key findings emerge from this analysis. First, the political identity of rebel groups appears to have had a clear impact on the form of governance implemented. Communist rebels set up expansive institutions o...
Article
Does it matter whether a civil war is fought as a conventional, irregular, or sym- metric nonconventional conflict? Put differently, do ‘‘technologies of rebellion’’ impact a war’s severity, duration, or outcome? Our answer is positive. We find that irregular conflicts last significantly longer than all other types of conflict, while conventional o...
Article
Does it matter whether a civil war is fought as a conventional, irregular, or symmetric non-conventional conflict? Put differently, do “technologies of rebellion” impact on a war’s severity, duration, or outcome? We find that irregular conflicts last longer than all other types of conflict, while conventional ones tend to be more severe in terms of...
Article
The article reviews recent advances in the study of violence in civil wars. It provides a brief description of the baseline “control-collaboration” model, discusses alternatives to it, and reviews recent empirical studies that supply additions, corrections, extensions, and refinements to the baseline model. It highlights some of the assumptions tha...
Chapter
Research on civil wars has recently shifted from an almost exclusive emphasis on highly aggregate, crossnational research designs to more disaggregated, subnational research designs (Kalyvas 2008).1 Most of the recent crop has tended to disaggregate on the basis of geographic locations or events, but a few researchers have turned their attention to...
Article
Aerial bombardment has been an important component of counterinsurgency practice since shortly after it became a viable military technology in the early twentieth century. Due to the nature of insurgency, bombing frequently occurs in and around settled areas, and consequently it tends to generate many civilian casualties. However, the effectiveness...
Article
B ecause they are chiefly domestic conflicts, civil wars have been studied primarily from a perspective stressing domestic factors. We ask, instead, whether (and how) the international system shapes civil wars; we find that it does shape the way in which they are fought—their "technology of rebellion." After disaggregating civil wars into irregular...
Article
Because they are chiefly domestic conflicts, civil wars have been studied primarily from a perspective stressing domestic factors. We ask, instead, whether (and how) the international system shapes civil wars; we find that it does shape the way in which they are fought—their “technology of rebellion.” After disaggregating civil wars into irregular...
Article
Despite its centrality in European politics, Christian democracy came to be the object of systematic research only recently. We review the research that has emerged since the mid-1990s and pinpoint its contributions in specifying the origins, evolution, and broader impact of Christian democratic parties. We begin with a discussion of the origins of...
Article
We investigate one of the world's most pernicious forms of exploitation: child soldiering. Most theories can be captured by a principal-agent model that incorporates punishments, indoctrination, and age-varying productivity. For rebel leaders, we show it is almost always optimal to coerce rather than re-ward children, and that leaders will tend to...
Article
The authors analyze a unique data source to study the determinants of violence against civilians in a civil war context. During the Vietnam War, the United States Department of Defense pioneered the use of quantitative analysis for operational purposes. The centerpiece of that effort was the Hamlet Evaluation System (HES), a monthly and quarterly r...
Article
Stathis N. Kalyvas on The U.S. Army/Marine Corps Counterinsurgency Field Manual. By the U.S. Army and Marine Corps. Forward by David H. Petraeus, James F. Amos, and John A. Nagl. Introduction by Sarah Sewall. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007. 472p. $15.00.
Article
In this paper a particular strand of collaboration in occupied Greece is explored: military or armed collaboration. The available evidence is reviewed and several puzzles raised by armed collaboration in Greece are discussed: its geographical distribution, size, timing, relation to prewar politics and cleavages, and the motivations of officers and...
Article
The study of ethnicity is dominated by constructivist approaches, yet empirical studies of civil war have been oblivious to their insights. In this article, the author examines the relationship between ethnic identity and civil war and points to several empirical instances of fluidity in the behavioral expression of ethnic identities within civil w...
Article
The study of civil war ranks among the most notable developments in political science during the last decade. Several important papers have been published in this period and the field has witnessed an important shift toward cross-national, large-N econometric studies (e.g. Collier and Hoeffler 2004; Fearon and Laitin 2003), following a previous shi...
Article
The conflict in Iraq has been portrayed as "ethnic" civil war, a radically different conflict from "ideological" wars such as Vietnam. We argue that such an assessment is misleading, as is its theoretical foundation, which we call the "ethnic war model. " Neither Iraq nor Vietnam conforms to the ethnic war model's predictions. The sec-tarian confli...
Article
That rebels face a collective action problem is one of the most widely shared assumptions in the literature on civil wars. The authors argue that the collective action paradigm can be both descriptively inaccurate and analytically misleading when it comes to civil wars. They question both pillars of the paradigm as applied to the study of civil war...
Article
Cambridge Core - Comparative Politics - The Logic of Violence in Civil War - by Stathis N. Kalyvas
Article
The Remnants of War. By John Mueller. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2004. 272p. $29.95. Rarely does a cover convey with such accuracy a book's central argument as in John Mueller's The Remnants of War. Shot by Ron Haviv, maybe the most iconic photographer of the Yugoslav wars of the 1990s, the cover picture shows a Serb soldier celebrating...
Article
The chapter is divided into two parts. The first part examines why organizations may be unwilling to resort to suicide missions (SMs). It considers five possible reasons: cognitive accessibility, normative preferences, counterproductive effects, constituency costs, and technological costs. The second part explores the factors that affect individual...
Article
We distinguish between four types of warfare (conventional, irregular, symmetric non-conventional, and urban) and disaggregate civil wars accordingly. We find that while irregular war is the most common type of civil war, it is not the only one. Conventional war turns out to be less exceptional than previously thought, while symmetric non-conventio...
Article
A great deal of violence in civil wars is informed by the logic of terrorism: violence tends to be used by political actors against civilians in order to shape their political behavior. I focus on indiscriminate violence in the context of civil war: this is a type of violence that selects its victims on the basis of their membership in some group a...
Article
I discuss several conceptual problems raised by current understandings of political violence, especially as they pertain to actions, motivations, and identities in civil wars. Actions often turn out to be related to local and private conflicts rather than the war's driving (or ) cleavage. The disjunction between dynamics at the top and at the botto...
Article
This article questions the prevalent argument that civil wars have fundamentally changed since the end of the cold war. According to this argument, "new" civil wars are different from "old" civil wars along at least three related dimensions--they are caused and motivated by private predation rather than collective grievances and ideological concern...
Article
The empirical puzzle at the heart of this book is the diverging postwar behavior of the Catholic Church in France and Italy (1944-58). Why did the French church, which needed far more political help to recover lost ground after World War II, link only superficially with a political party before aban- doning it altogether, whereas the Italian church...
Article
Methodological aspects of research on massacres: the case of the Greek civil war The violence of civil wars – the main form of mass political violence – has not yet been subjected to systematic analysis. The author studies a particular aspect of this violence, massacres, through data collected during recent research into the Greek civil war. He pro...
Article
Democratization processes involving religious parties are risky, particularly when these parties are on the verge of winning mandates in critical elections. Religious parties face a commitment problem. Even when willing to comply with the emerging democratic order, they find it difficult to signal credibly that, once in power, they will subject the...
Article
I use a rationalist framework to explore an issue typically framed and understood as irrational: large-scale violence against civilians in the context of civil wars. More specifically, I focus on the massacres of civilians in Algeria and seek to uncover the logic that drives such actions. The main thesis is that these massacres are not irrational i...
Article
The failure to anticipate the collapse of communist one-party systems stands in striking contrast to the determinism of retrospective accounts. This essay reviews accounts of the decay and breakdown of one-party systems in order to uncover the causes behind political science's inability to both anticipate these developments and provide satisfactory...
Article
This article questions a widely shared assumption that posits the incompatibility of religious politics and democracy. Using evidence from an analytically significant case, Belgium, it explores the political and institutional conditions under which religiously motivated aliberal political actors integrate successfully into democratic institutions....
Article
Were rebel movements that adopted a Marxist ideological agenda different from those that did not? We find that a Marxist profile made a difference, both in civil wars featuring Marxist rebels (compared to those with non-Marxist ones), but also (and maybe more surprisingly) for nationalist or ethnic insurgents that adopted a Marxist political agenda...
Article
Full-text available
for helpful comments and suggestions on earlier drafts. Thanks to Abraham Parrish and Stacey Maples of the Yale Map Collection for their assistance.
Article
The victory of the Panhellenic Socialist Movement (PASOK) in 1981 was a crucial test for the young Greek democracy for at least two reasons. First, this new party, founded only seven years earlier in 1974, was up to 1977, a "semi-loyal" party (Diamandouros 1991) critical of the country's new institutions and of its general orientation. Even after 1...

Citations

... The Colombian conflict cannot be understood from the angle of proletariat versus bourgeoisie: although the Marxism-Leninism of the Colombian rebels cannot be treated as a deceptive and irrelevant ideological artifact (see Ferro and Uribe 2002, Gutiérrez-Sanín 2003, guerrillas, with the exception of the region of Urabá (García 1996, Ortiz 2007, Carroll 2011, had scarce, if any, support among the proletariat to which Marxism-Leninism primarily aimed at. It had, instead, significant support among the smallholding peasantry in areas of colonisation (Gutiérrez-Sanín 2019), a situation which was not unique to Colombia (Shanin 1966, Popkin 1979, Skocpol 1982, Kalyvas 2015. ...
... A common source of concern is the persistence of their ideological commitments, as if these groups' ideologies necessarily explain their behavior and as if their behavior could not change without ideological revisions. 8 There is growing research on armed groups' ideologies and cross-factional competition Hafez, 2019), effectiveness at war (Ahmad, 2016;Walter, 2017), mobilization (Wood, 2003) and recruitment (Kalyvas, 2018;Mironova, 2019), normative change (Ahmad, 2019), organizational survival (e.g., della Porta, 2013), support structure (Toft & Zhukov, 2015), ties to the business community (Ahmad, 2017), and resort to repertoires of violence such as suicide bombing (Moghadam, 2008). 9 Despite a growing consensus that ideology guides and restrains armed groups' choices (Sanin & Wood, 2014), more research on how these groups institutionalize their ideologies and its impact on their longterm trajectories is still lacking. ...
... In rural contexts, a lack of access to land appears to be a particularly powerful predictor and motivator (Wickham-Crowley 1992), although some scholars have argued that a certain level of wealth is necessary to be susceptible to ideology (Wolf 1969). Microlevel research among former rebels has further challenged the notion that ideology is relevant, arguing instead that rebels and opposing paramilitaries often show very similar patterns of ideologies and desires for a better life (Arjona and Kalyvas 2012;Humphreys and Weinstein 2008). Young people may also join rebel groups in search of higher social status, freedom from authority, and protection for family members, as shown by ethnographic research. ...
... Similarly, researchers concur that criminal organizations differ from other violent nonstate organizations by virtue of being non-ideological and primarily profit-driven (Abadinsky, 2012;Kalyvas, 2015;Varese, 2010). Nonetheless, evidence from Mexico suggests that political and ideological elements are pivotal to the country's criminal organizations. ...
... They also indicate that for many recruits, economic concerns outweigh ideological ones, not only in choosing whether to fight, but also which side to fight for. That militias and insurgents often compete for recruits and material support from within the same civilian populations, as they do in Region VIII of the Philippines and elsewhere, reinforces this point (Jentzsch, Kalyvas, and Schubiger, 2015). ...
... 9 Un altre llibre de publicació recent sobre la democràcia cristiana europea és European Christian Democracy: Historical Legacies and Comparative Perspectives, de Thomas Kselman i Joseph Buttigieg (2003), on recullen treballs politològics i historiogràfics sobre maneres diferents d'abordar el fenomen referit. Els temes centrals 9. Respecte a aquest darrer punt (característica comuna de la moderació interna o consociativa en tots els partits polítics democratacristians), Stathis Kalyvas (2007) sosté que n'hem d'observar els efectes al llarg del temps i en les diferents societats nacionals europees en les quals la DC té presència. ...
... The decisive influence of the group's leadership for moderation is also recognized in an influential article by Stathis Kalyvas (2000) in which the author compares the Catholic party in late-nineteenth-century Belgium with the Islamic Salvation Front (FIS) in Algeria in the early 1990s. In both Belgium and Algeria, moderate actors were willing to compromise with incumbent reformers and abide by the existing rules. ...
... However, he added that subsequent interdisciplinary empirical research has seriously challenged many of the claims of the new-war thesis. For example, with reference to Kalyvas, (2001Kalyvas, ( , 2006, Malesevic (2012) opines that sometimes inter-state and intra-state wars share similar features of destruction and looting. This argument challenges the characteristics of the new war as presented by Kaldor. ...
... Conflict displaces people, making it difficult to capture an accurate snapshot of 3 Our analysis pertains to ethnic civil war intensity, specifically whether ethnically diverse areas experience more deaths. It also deals with "irregular" or "guerrilla" civil wars, as opposed to "conventional" civil wars with distinct front lines (Balcells and Kalyvas, 2014). demographic settlement patterns that have not already been shaped by violence. ...
... Political analyses of the past decades of Greek history often focus on the enormous impact of the ascendancy of PASOK to power on the way politics has been conducted since the 1980s. They underline that PASOK instituted a new politics of "bureaucratic clientelism" (Mavrogordatos 1997), "populist democracy" (Pappas 2013), and mass polarization (Kalyvas 1997). What has received less explicit attention, however, is how PASOK's policies in the 1980s transformed the socioeconomic bases of Greek politics using state resources and European funds to nurture large constituencies of state spending, while allowing groups dependent on markets to protect themselves from mounting fiscal pressure. ...