Stanley Lemeshow's research while affiliated with The Ohio State University and other places

Publications (301)

Article
Objective: This study investigated the effects of two temporal response properties of the auditory nerve (i.e., neural adaptation and recovery from neural adaptation) on speech perception performance in postlingually deafened adult cochlear implant (CI) users. Design: Study participants included 18 postlingually deafened adults who were Cochlear...
Article
Full-text available
PurposePersistent postoperative pain (PPP) is a prevalent complication after inguinal hernia repair. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a preoperative risk score for PPP.Methods We developed the risk score based on a cohort of 2,508 Danish men, who answered a questionnaire six months after inguinal hernia repair performed 2015–2016....
Article
Purpose: To estimate the prevalence of current and past COVID-19 in Ohio adults. Methods: We used stratified, probability-proportionate-to-size cluster sampling. During July 2020, we enrolled 727 randomly-sampled adult English- and Spanish-speaking participants through a household survey. Participants provided nasopharyngeal swabs and blood samples...
Article
Background Previous epidemiological studies have found positive associations between maternal infections and childhood leukaemia; however, evidence from prospective cohort studies is scarce. We aimed to examine the associations using large-scale prospective data. Methods Data were pooled from six population-based birth cohorts in Australia, Denmar...
Article
The global pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has resulted in more than 129 million confirm cases. Many health authorities around the world have implemented wastewater-based epidemiology as a rapid and complementary tool for the COVID-19 surveillance system and more recently for variants of concern emerg...
Preprint
The global pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has resulted in more than 129 million confirm cases. Many health authorities around the world have implemented wastewater-based epidemiology as a rapid and complementary tool for the COVID-19 surveillance system and more recently for variants of concern emerg...
Article
Objective The objective of this study was to create three point-of-care predictive models for very preterm birth using variables available at three different time points: prior to pregnancy, at the end of the first trimester, and mid-pregnancy. Study Design This is a retrospective cohort study of 359,396 Ohio Medicaid mothers from 2008 to 2015. The...
Preprint
Full-text available
Objective: The Community Awareness Resources and Education (CARE) project: Reducing Cervical Cancer in Appalachia is part of the NIH Centers for Population Health and Health Disparities initiative. It aims to increase screening rates for cervical cancer, to assist in tobacco cessation, and to determine the role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in cont...
Article
Evaluating the goodness of fit of logistic regression models is crucial to ensure the accuracy of the estimated probabilities. Unfortunately, such evaluation is problematic in large samples. Because the power of traditional goodness of fit tests increases with the sample size, practically irrelevant discrepancies between estimated and true probabil...
Article
Comparing outcomes across different levels of trauma centers is vital in evaluating regionalized trauma care. With observational data, it is critical to adjust for patient characteristics to render valid causal comparisons. Propensity score matching is a popular method to infer causal relationships in observational studies with two treatment arms....
Article
Objective: To summarize the published evidence regarding the association between maternal infection during pregnancy and childhood leukemia. Study design: In this systematic review and meta-analysis (PROSPERO number, CRD42018087289), we searched PubMed and Embase to identify relevant studies. We included human studies that reported associations...
Article
Background: Historically, cutoff points for childhood and adolescent overweight and obesity have been based on population-specific percentiles derived from cross-sectional data. To obtain cutoff points that might better predict overweight and obesity in young adulthood, we examined the association between childhood body-mass index (BMI) and young...
Article
Full-text available
When the treatment effect on the outcome of interest is influenced by a baseline/demographic factor, investigators say that an interaction is present. In randomized clinical trials (RCTs), this type of analysis is typically referred to as subgroup analysis. Although interaction (or subgroup) analyses are usually stated as a secondary study objectiv...
Article
Parental occupational exposure to pesticides, animals, and organic dust have been associated with an increased risk of childhood cancer based mostly on case‐control studies. We prospectively evaluated parental occupational exposures and risk of childhood leukemia and central nervous system (CNS) tumors in the International Childhood Cancer Cohort C...
Article
Background Childhood cancer is a rare but leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Established risk factors, accounting for <10% of incidence, have been identified primarily from case‐control studies. However, recall, selection and other potential biases impact interpretations particularly, for modest associations. A consortium of pregnancy and bi...
Article
Rationale: In 2013, the New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH) began an initiative to improve recognition and treatment of severe sepsis and septic shock. Objectives: This study examines protocol initiation, 3-hour and 6-hour sepsis bundle completion, and hospital mortality among adult patients with severe sepsis and septic shock. Methods...
Article
The “delayed infection hypothesis” states that a paucity of infections in early childhood may lead to higher risks of childhood leukemia (CL), especially acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Using prospectively collected data from six population‐based birth cohorts we studied the association between birth order (a proxy for pathogen exposure) and CL...
Article
Our paper aims to describe firearm-related behavior among American households and to quantify the influence of household characteristics on the probability of firearms possession and storage practices. Applying logistic regression techniques to data from the 2004 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey (BRFSS), we use separate models to estimate...
Article
Importance The death of a pediatric patient with sepsis motivated New York to mandate statewide sepsis treatment in 2013. The mandate included a 1-hour bundle of blood cultures, broad-spectrum antibiotics, and a 20-mL/kg intravenous fluid bolus. Whether completing the bundle elements within 1 hour improves outcomes is unclear. Objective To determi...
Article
Full-text available
The adverse effects of multicollinearity and unusual observations are seen in logistic regression and attention had been given in the literature to each of these problems separately. However, multicollinearity and unusual observations can arise simultaneously in logistic regression. The objective of this paper is to propose the statistics for detec...
Chapter
This chapter provides a review of survey sampling concepts, designs, and analysis methods. Survey samples can be categorized into two very broad classes, namely probability samples and nonprobability samples. There are three major design components in probability sampling: simple random sampling, stratified sampling, and cluster sampling. The chapt...
Article
The calibration belt is a graphical approach designed to evaluate the goodness of fit of binary outcome models such as logistic regression models. The calibration belt examines the relationship between estimated probabilities and observed outcome rates. Significant deviations from the perfect calibration can be spotted on the graph. The graphical a...
Article
Objectives: In accordance with Rory's Regulations, hospitals across New York State developed and implemented protocols for sepsis recognition and treatment to reduce variations in evidence informed care and preventable mortality. The New York Department of Health sought to develop a risk assessment model for accurate and standardized hospital mort...
Article
Background In 2013, New York began requiring hospitals to follow protocols for the early identification and treatment of sepsis. However, there is controversy about whether more rapid treatment of sepsis improves outcomes in patients. Methods We studied data from patients with sepsis and septic shock that were reported to the New York State Depart...
Article
The calibration belt is a graphical approach designed to evaluate the goodness of fit of binary outcome models such as logistic regression models. The calibration belt examines the relationship between estimated probabilities and observed outcome rates. Significant deviations from the perfect calibration can be spotted on the graph. The graphical a...
Article
Full-text available
Background Evidence relating childhood cancer to high birthweight is derived primarily from registry and case–control studies. We aimed to investigate this association, exploring the potential modifying roles of age at diagnosis and maternal anthropometrics, using prospectively collected data from the International Childhood Cancer Cohort Consortiu...
Article
Several antihypertensive drugs are photosensitizing and may therefore act as cocarcinogens with ultraviolet radiation. To examine whether antihypertensive drug use is associated with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), basal cell carcinoma (BCC), and malignant melanoma (MM). We used population-based databases to conduct a case-control study including al...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: To determine the association between compliance with the Surviving Sepsis Campaign (SSC) performance bundles and mortality. Design: Compliance with the SSC performance bundles, which are based on the 2004 SSC guidelines, was measured in 29,470 subjects entered into the SSC database from January 1, 2005, through June 30, 2012. Compliance wa...
Article
Full-text available
Background & objective: Recreational waters impacted by fecal contamination have been linked to gastrointestinal illness in swimmer populations. To date, few epidemiologic studies examine the risk for swimming-related illnesses based upon simultaneous exposure to more than one microbial surrogate (e.g. culturable E. coli densities, genetic markers...
Article
Purpose: To determine the association between compliance with the Surviving Sepsis Campaign (SSC) performance bundles and mortality. Design: Compliance with the SSC performance bundles, which are based on the 2004 SSC guidelines, was measured in 29,470 subjects entered into the SSC database from January 1, 2005 through June 30, 2012. Compliance...
Chapter
This article deals with the use of logistic regression to model data, where the response variable is binary and there are potentially numerous explanatory or predictor variables. Methods of estimating the coefficients in the model and procedures for hypothesis testing are considered. The correspondence of the coefficients of the logistic regression...
Article
The goal of the current manuscript was to replicate published data that show intrathecal infusions of Taxol ® (paclitaxel), an anti-neoplastic microtubule stabilizing agent, reduce fibrogliotic scarring caused by a dorsal spinal hemisection (DHx) injury and increase functional recovery and growth of serotonergic axons after moderate spinal contusio...
Article
This article deals with the use of logistic regression to model data, where the response variable is binary and there are potentially numerous explanatory or predictor variables. Methods of estimating the coefficients in the model and procedures for hypothesis testing are considered. The correspondence of the coefficients of the logistic regression...
Article
As the Surviving Sepsis Campaign was assessing patient-level data over multiple countries, we sought to evaluate the use of a pragmatic and parsimonious severity-of-illness scoring system for patients with sepsis in an attempt to provide appropriate comparisons with practical application.
Article
Full-text available
Poor quality relationships between mothers and toddlers have been associated with higher risk for childhood obesity, but few prospective studies of obesity have assessed maternal-child relationship quality in infancy. In addition it is not known whether the increased risk is associated with the mother's or the child's contribution to the relationsh...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Swimming-related illnesses have been linked to increasing culturable E. coli densities and various genetic markers; however, there are no epidemiological studies evaluating swimming-related illness associations with multiple bacterial and viral genetic markers occurring together in single models. To address this knowledge gap, we investigated illne...
Article
The association between cognitive scores in young adulthood and long-term cardiometabolic risks remains unclear. Using population-based registries, we followed 6502 military conscripts from their 22nd birthday until death, emigration, or 55 years of age. We calculated risks and hazard ratios (HRs) associating quartiles of cognitive scores (very hig...
Article
Full-text available
To examine the association between body mass index (BMI) in young adulthood and cardiovascular risks, including venous thromboembolism, before 55 years of age. Cohort study using population-based medical databases. Outcomes registered from all hospitals in Denmark from 1977 onwards. 6502 men born in 1955 and eligible for conscription in Northern De...
Data
Additional tables. Three tables presenting the results for the secondary analyses and stratification by age.
Data
ATC and ICD codes. A table presenting all ATC and ICD codes used in the study.
Article
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Background Experimental data suggest that catecholamine hormones are involved in stimulating the aggressiveness of ovarian cancer, but few population-based studies have examined this association. We therefore conducted a population-based cohort study to examine whether ß-blockers affect mortality following ovarian cancer diagnosis. Methods We used...
Article
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Epistatic gene-gene interactions could contribute to the heritability of complex multigenic disorders, but few examples have been reported. Here, we focus on the role of aberrant dopaminergic signaling, involving the dopamine transporter DAT, a cocaine target, and the dopamine D2 receptor, which physically interacts with DAT. Splicing polymorphism...
Article
The Hosmer-Lemeshow test is a commonly used procedure for assessing goodness of fit in logistic regression. It has, for example, been widely used for evaluation of risk-scoring models. As with any statistical test, the power increases with sample size; this can be undesirable for goodness of fit tests because in very large data sets, small departur...
Article
Full-text available
A defined diagnostic panel differentiated patients who had been diagnosed with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), based upon Fukuda/Carruthers criteria. This diagnostic panel identified an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) subset of patients (6), excluding for the first time other similar "clinical" conditions such as cytomegalovirus (CMV), human herpesvirus 6...
Article
Background: Mortality from severe sepsis and septic shock differs across continents, countries, and regions. We aimed to use data from the Surviving Sepsis Campaign (SSC) to compare models of care and outcomes for patients with severe sepsis and septic shock in the USA and Europe. Methods: The SSC was introduced into more than 200 sites in Europ...
Article
Objective: The Surviving Sepsis Campaign (SSC) developed guidelines and treatment bundles for the administration of steroids in adult septic shock. However, it is not clear how this has affected clinical practice or patient outcome. Design and setting: The SSC has developed an extensive database to assess the overall effect of its guidelines on...
Article
To determine the association between excess weight and processes of care and outcomes for critically ill adults. Prospective cohort study. Three medical intensive care units at two hospitals. Five hundred eighty mechanically ventilated adult patients admitted between February 1, 2006 and January 31, 2008. None. After adjusting weight based on the r...
Article
The Surviving Sepsis Campaign developed guidelines for the administration of recombinant human activated protein C in adult severe sepsis. However, it is not clear how these impacted clinical practice or patient outcome. The Surviving Sepsis Campaign has developed an extensive database to assess the efficacy of the overall effect of its guidelines...
Article
Current approaches for assessing human health risks associated with cyanotoxins often rely on the quantification of microcystin. Significant limitations of current approaches are cost and time to obtain a result. To address these challenges, a numerical index for screening microcystin risks above the World Health Organization's (WHO) low-risk thres...
Article
The goal of this study was to determine whether obesity in adolescence is related to the quality of the early maternal-child relationship. We analyzed data from 977 of 1364 participants in the Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. Child attachment security and maternal sensitivity were assessed by observing mother-child interaction at 15...
Chapter
Introduction Estimating the Survival Function Using the Estimated Survival Function Comparison of Survival Functions Other Functions of Survival Time and Their Estimators
Chapter
Introduction Purposeful Selection of Covariates Stepwise, Best-Subsets and Multivariable Fractional Polynomial Methods of Selecting Covariates Numerical Problems
Chapter
Introduction Residuals Assessing the Proportional Hazards Assumption Identification of Influential and Poorly Fit Subjects Assessing Overall Goodness-of-Fit Interpreting and Presenting Results From the Final Model
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Introduction Recurrent Event Models Frailty Models Nested Case-Control Studies Additive Models Competing Risk Models Sample Size and Power Missing Data
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Introduction Nominal Scale Covariate Continuous Scale Covariate Multiple-Covariate Models Interpreting and Using the Estimated Covariate-Adjusted Survival Function
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Introduction The Stratified Proportional Hazards Model Time-Varying Covariates Truncated, Left Censored and Interval Censored Data
Chapter
World Health Organization EPI Surveys: A Modification of PPS Sampling for Use in Developing CountriesQuality Assurance SamplingSample Sizes for Longitudinal StudiesEstimation of Prevalence of Diseases from Screening StudiesEstimation of Rare Events: Network SamplingEstimation of Rare Events: Dual SamplesEstimation of Characteristics for Local Areas...
Chapter
Steps Required for Performing a Design-Based AnalysisAnalysis Issues for “Typical” Sample SurveysSummary
Chapter
Motivation for Not Sampling Clusters with Equal ProbabilityTwo General Classes of Estimators Valid for Sample Designs in Which Units Are Selected with Unequal ProbabilityProbability Proportional to Size SamplingFurther Comment on PPS SamplingSummary
Chapter
The PopulationThe SampleSampling Measurements and Summary StatisticsSampling DistributionsCharacteristics of Estimates of Population ParametersCriteria for a Good Sample DesignSummary
Chapter
Situation in Which all Clusters Have the Same Number N1 of Enumeration UnitsSituation in Which Not All Clusters Have the Same Number Ni of Enumeration UnitsSystematic Sampling as Cluster SamplingSummary
Chapter
What Is Cluster Sampling?Why Is Cluster Sampling Widely Used?A Disadvantage of Cluster Sampling: High Standard ErrorsHow Cluster Sampling Is Treated in This BookSummary
Chapter
What Is a Stratified Random Sample?How to Take a Stratified Random SampleWhy Stratified Sampling?Population Parameters for StrataSample Statistics for StrataEstimation of Population Parameters from Stratified Random SamplingSummary
Article
Full-text available
To study whether use of β-blockers increases survival in patients with malignant melanoma because experimental data suggest that catecholamine hormones may be involved in stimulating the aggressiveness of malignant melanoma. A total of 4,179 patients diagnosed with malignant melanoma in Denmark with a median follow-up of 4.9 years and identified in...