Stanley K. Henshaw's research while affiliated with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and other places

Publications (85)

Article
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The pregnancy rate for U.S. women in 2009 was 102.1 per 1,000 women aged 15-44, the lowest level in 12 years; only the 1997 rate of 101.6 has been lower in the last 30 years. Rates for women under age 30 fell during 1990-2009, while rates for women aged 30 and over increased. Rates for teenagers reached historic lows in 2009, including rates for th...
Article
Full-text available
This report presents detailed pregnancy rates for 1990-2008, updating a national series of rates extending since 1976. Tabular and graphical data on pregnancy rates by age, race, and Hispanic origin, and by marital status are presented and described. In 2008, an estimated 6,578,000 pregnancies resulted in 4,248,000 live births, 1,212,000 induced ab...
Article
Women whose abortions performed according to medical guidelines are at very low risk of complications. A significant proportion of women with unsafe abortions, however, are at substantial risk of morbidity and death. Unintended pregnancies occur in all societies, and women determined to avoid an unplanned birth will seek unsafe abortions if they ha...
Article
Background: Data of abortion incidence and trends are needed to monitor progress toward improvement of maternal health and access to family planning. To date, estimates of safe and unsafe abortion worldwide have only been made for 1995 and 2003. Methods: We used the standard WHO definition of unsafe abortions. Safe abortion estimates were based...
Article
Periodic assessments of abortion incidence are essential for monitoring trends in unintended pregnancy and gaps in contraceptive services and use. Statistics and estimates of legal induced abortions in 2008 were compiled for 64 of the 77 countries in which legal abortion is generally available; the 64 are home to 98% of women aged 15-44 who live in...
Article
Full-text available
Periodic assessments of abortion incidence are essential for monitoring trends in unintended pregnancy and gaps in contraceptive services and use. Statistics and estimates of legal induced abortions in 2008 were compiled for 64 of the 77 countries in which legal abortion is generally available; these 64 are home to 98% of women aged 15-44 who live...
Article
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n Overall rates of abortion in the United States peaked soon after the procedure was legalized in 1973, remained fairly constant through the 1980s, and have declined steadily since then. However, the overall rate masks large differences and varying patterns across time for demo- graphic subgroups. n A substantial drop in the abortion rates of teena...
Article
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This report presents detailed pregnancy rates for 1990-2005, updating a national series of rates extending since 1976. Tabular data on pregnancy rates by age, race and Hispanic origin, and by marital status are presented and briefly described. in 2005, an estimated 6,408,000 pregnancies resulted in 4.14 million live births, 1.21 million induced abo...
Article
The US abortion rate peaked soon after 1973, remained fairly constant through the 1980s, and began a steady decline to 2005. A substantial drop in the abortion rates of teenagers and women ages 20 to 24 accounts for much of the decline from 1989 to 2004. All race and ethnic groups experienced declines in abortion rates over the past 30 years, but t...
Conference Paper
Background: In addition to men's general attitudes and overall relationship characteristics, little is known about the partner- and relationship-specific characteristics that are related to a woman's decision to terminate a pregnancy. The proposed study examined male partner characteristics and perceptions of partner suitability as a long-term part...
Article
Full-text available
This report presents detailed pregnancy rates for 1990-2004, updating a national series of rates extending since 1976. Data from the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) are used to interpret trends in teenage pregnancy and in total pregnancy and fertility rates. Tabular and graphical data on pregnancy rates by age, race and Hispanic origin, and...
Article
Accurate information about abortion incidence and services is necessary to monitor levels of unwanted pregnancy and women's ability to access abortion services. All known abortion providers in the United States were contacted for information about abortion services in 2004 and 2005. This information, along with data from the U.S. Census Bureau, was...
Article
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Each year, thousands of Nigerian women have unintended pregnancies that end in illegal abortion. Many such procedures occur under unsafe conditions, contributing to maternal morbidity and mortality. In a 2002-2003 survey of women and their providers in 33 hospitals in eight states across Nigeria, 2,093 patients were identified as being treated for...
Article
Information on abortion levels and trends can inform research and policies affecting maternal and reproductive health, but the incidence of legal abortion has not been assessed in nearly a decade. Statistics on legal abortions in 2003 were compiled for 60 countries in which the procedure is broadly legal, and trends were assessed where possible. Da...
Conference Paper
Reliable information on abortion levels and trends worldwide, and on regional variations in incidence, are important in light of the implications for family planning programs and policies and because it can influence the discourse around abortion laws and policies. Moreover, these findings can inform estimates of the economic and health burdens of...
Article
Background: Information on incidence of induced abortion is crucial for identifying policy and programmatic needs aimed at reducing unintended pregnancy. Because unsafe abortion is a cause of maternal morbidity and mortality, measures of its incidence are also important for monitoring progress towards Millennium Development Goal 5. We present new...
Article
Many pregnancies are unintended, particularly in certain population groups. Determining whether unintended pregnancy rates and disparities in rates between subgroups are changing may help policymakers target reproductive health services to those women most in need. To calculate rates of unintended pregnancy and related outcomes, data on pregnancy i...
Article
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Time and value are related concepts that influence human behaviour. Although classical topics in human thinking throughout the ages, few environmental economic non-market valuation studies have attempted to link the two concepts. Economists have estimated non-market environmental values in monetary terms for over 30 years. This history of valuation...
Article
Full-text available
This report presents detailed pregnancy rates for 1990-2000, updating a national series of rates extending since 1976. Tabular data on pregnancy rates by age, race, and Hispanic origin, and by marital status are presented and briefly described. In 2000 an estimated 6,401,000 pregnancies resulted in 4.06 million live births, 1.31 million induced abo...
Article
Full-text available
This report presents detailed pregnancy rates for 1990-99. Rates for 1991-97 are revised using populations consistent with the April 1, 2000, census; the revised populations are also used for the new 1998-99 rates. Tabular and graphic data on pregnancy rates by age, race, and Hispanic origin, and by marital status are presented and described. In 19...
Article
Nearly half of unintended pregnancies and more than one-fifth of all pregnancies in the United States end in abortion. No nationally representative statistics on abortion incidence or on the universe of abortion providers have been available since 1996. In 2001-2002, The Alan Guttmacher Institute (AGI) conducted its 13th survey of all known U.S. ab...
Article
A woman's ability to obtain an abortion is affected both by the availability of a provider and by access-related factors such as cost, convenience, gestational limits and the provision of early medical abortion services. In 2001-2002, The Alan Guttmacher Institute surveyed all known abortion providers in the United States, collecting information on...
Article
Knowing the extent to which contraceptive nonuse, incorrect or inconsistent use, and method failure account for unintended pregnancies ending in abortion, as well as reasons for nonuse and imperfect use, can help policymakers and family planning providers support effective contraceptive use. Contraceptive use patterns among a nationally representat...
Article
Information about the socioeconomic characteristics of women obtaining abortions in the United States can help policymakers and family planning providers determine which groups of women need better access to contraceptive services. A representative sample of more than 10,000 women obtaining abortions from a stratified probability sample of 100 U.S....
Article
Full-text available
This report presents detailed pregnancy rates for 1996 and 1997 to update a recently published comprehensive report on pregnancies and pregnancy rates for U.S. women. Tabular and graphic data on pregnancy rates by age, race, and Hispanic origin, and by marital status are presented and described. In 1997 an estimated 6.19 million pregnancies resulte...
Article
State-level teenage pregnancy rates, birthrates and abortion rates are needed for state-specific programs and policies. Accurate and complete state-level data were last published in 1992. Teenage abortion rates according to state of residence, race and ethnicity were calculated from the results of The Alan Guttmacher Institute's survey of abortion...
Article
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This report presents national estimates of pregnancies and pregnancy rates according to women's age, race, and Hispanic origin, and by marital status, race, and Hispanic origin. Data are presented for 1976-96. Data from the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) are used to show information on sexual activity, contraceptive practices, and infertil...
Article
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This report presents key findings from a comprehensive report on pregnancies and pregnancy rates for U.S. women. The study incorporates birth, abortion, and fetal loss data to compile national estimates of pregnancy rates according to a variety of characteristics including age, race, Hispanic origin, and marital status. Summary data are presented f...
Article
Context: Legal abortion rates vary widely among countries with nonrestrictive laws. Data on trends in legal induced abortion may provide insight for policymakers into factors that influence rates of legal induced abortion and the levels of abortion that might be achievable in their own countries and in other parts of the world. Methods: Numbers of...
Article
Full-text available
Accurate measurement of induced abortion levels has proven difficult in many parts of the world. Health care workers and policymakers need information on the incidence of both legal and illegal induced abortion to provide the needed services and to reduce the negative impact of unsafe abortion on women's health. Numbers and rates of induced abortio...
Article
Full-text available
Context: Although abortion is illegal in Nigeria except to save the life of the woman, thousands of women resort to if each year. Information on the incidence of abortion and on the consequences of abortion outside the health care system is needed to develop policies and programs that will address the problem. Methods: Experienced physicians conduc...
Article
In the 1980s, the number of abortion providers in the United States began to decline, and more recently, so has the number of abortions performed. Whether the decline in service providers, which was last documented in 1992, is continuing and whether this influences the availability and number of abortions is of public interest. In 1997, the Alan Gu...
Article
The legal status of induced abortion helps determine the availability of safe, affordable abortion services in a country, which in turn influences rates of maternal mortality and morbidity. It is important, therefore, for health professionals to know both the current status of abortion laws worldwide and the extent to which those laws are changing....
Article
Induced abortions are often severely underreported in national surveys, hampering the estimation and analysis of unintended pregnancies. To improve the level of abortion reporting, the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) incorporated new interview and self-report procedures, as well as a monetary incentive to respondents. The weighted numb...
Article
Current debates on how to reduce the high U.S. abortion rate often fail to take into account the role of unintended pregnancy, an important determinant of abortion. Data from the 1982, 1988 and 1995 cycles of the National Survey of Family Growth, supplemented by data from other sources, are used to estimate 1994 rates and percentages of unintended...
Article
In 1992, 112 pregnancies occurred per 1,000 U.S. women aged 15-19; of these, 61 ended in births, 36 in abortions and 15 in miscarriages. Black teenagers' rates of pregnancies, births and abortions were 2-3 times those of whites; Hispanic teenagers had rates of births and abortions between those of blacks and whites. While similar proportions of pre...
Article
In Canada, 20% of women who obtained an abortion between 1975 and 1993 had had at least one previous abortion. An analysis of data on 1.2 million abortions shows that the proportion of abortion patients undergoing repeat procedures increased from 9% to 29% over the 19-year period. The proportion was above average (22-28% for all years combined) amo...
Article
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Results of a 1994-1995 national survey of 9,985 abortion patients reveal that women who live with a partner outside marriage or have no religious identification are 3.5-4.0 times as likely as women in the general population to have an abortion. Nonwhites, women aged 18-24, Hispanics, separated and never-married women, and those who have an annual i...
Article
Mississippi data for 1993 indicate that the state's new parental consent requirement had little effect on the abortion rate among minors. In a comparison of Mississippi residents who had abortions during the five months before and the six months after the law went into effect, the ratio of minors to adults who sought abortions in the state declined...
Article
Although abortion services are readily available in large urban areas to those able to pay, a 1993 survey of U.S. abortion providers shows that access to service is still problematic for many women because of barriers related to distance, gestation limits, costs and harassment. Among women who have nonhospital abortions, an estimated 24% travel at...
Article
According to a survey by The Alan Guttmacher Institute, 1,529,000 abortions were performed in 1992, the lowest number of abortions since 1979. The abortion rate has gradually declined, from a high of 29 per 1,000 women of reproductive age in 1981 to 26 per 1,000 in 1992. The number of hospitals, clinics and physicians' offices that provide abortion...
Article
Approximately 2,614 agencies are providing family planning services in at least 5,460 clinics throughout the nation, a slight increase over the 2,462 agencies and 5,174 clinics that were estimated to be providing such services in 1983. Health departments operate an estimated 52% of clinic sites; Planned Parenthood affiliates, 15%; hospital, 6%; and...
Article
During the middle and later years of the twentieth century, a movement to liberalize laws governing induced abortion swept the industrialized world and some of the major developing countries. The changes have generated an increasingly visible reaction among groups that seek to block further liberalization and re-institute restrictions on abortion....
Article
The report provided updated estimates of teenage abortion by state in the United States for 1988 as well as pregnancy and birth rates. Teenagers were grouped at the age of pregnancy outcome. The findings revealed 400,000 women pregnant under the age of 18 years and 600,000 pregnant women aged 18-19 years. About 66% of the 1,034,000 teenagers were W...
Article
Half of the 6.4 million pregnancies annually in the US are unintended and half of these result in 1.6 million abortions/year. When abortion was legalized in 1973 it was assumed that hospitals would provide the service. In fact only 1040 of the nations 5401 non-Catholic hospitals currently offer abortions (a decline from 1687 in 1976). By 1988 64% o...
Article
Full-text available
In a 1991 study based on a nationally representative sample of more than 1,500 unmarried minors having an abortion, 61% of the respondents said that one or both of their parents (usually the mother) knew about the abortion. Only 26% of the respondents said their father knew about the abortion; furthermore, 57% of the mothers who knew about their da...
Article
Abortion statistics are flawed by the lack of consistency in reporting gestational age. Several methods are generally used, and the number of abortions occurring before 12 weeks changes considerably depending upon the method used to determine gestational age. Pregnancy can be measured from the beginning of last menstruation or from fertilization, w...
Article
Abortion services are provided in hospitals, doctors' offices and various types of clinics, but about two-thirds of procedures are performed in specialized abortion clinics. While this system appears to work well for most women, some women seeking abortion face obstacles related to distance, cost, harassment and special medical conditions. Nine per...
Article
In 1987, as in earlier years, women having abortions were predominantly white (65 percent), younger than 25 (59 percent), and unmarried (82 percent). A majority had no previous live births (53 percent), and most had no previous abortions (58 percent). About half the abortions were performed before nine weeks of gestation, and 97 percent were curett...
Article
A 1989 survey by The Alan Guttmacher Institute shows that 1.6 million abortions were performed in the United States in 1988, a number that has remained relatively unchanged since 1980. More than 98 percent of abortions in 1987-1988 were performed in metropolitan areas. Although 51 percent of metropolitan counties have no provider of abortion servic...
Article
The worldwide trend toward liberalization of abortion laws has continued in the last four years with changes in Canada, Czechoslovakia, Greece, Hungary, Romania, the Soviet Union and Vietnam. Forty percent of the world's population now lives in countries where induced abortion is permitted on request, and 25 percent lives where it is allowed only i...
Chapter
For two reasons, the effect of new contraceptives on abortion is a relevant topic for discussion considering the demographic impact of new contraceptive methods: the level of abortion is an indicator of the efficiency with which fertility is being controlled through control of pregnancy and, in times and places where it is not available in safe, le...
Article
Hispanic women are 60 percent more likely than non-Hispanics to have an unintended pregnancy that they terminate by abortion, but they are less likely than nonwhites to do so. Women who profess no religion have a higher abortion rate than do women who report some religious affiliation; among the latter, Catholics are about as likely to obtain an ab...
Article
The family planning clinic systems in Ontario and Quebec are better able to focus their efforts on counseling women of all social classes because they don't need to provide basic services to large numbers of low-income women.
Article
The U.S. system for delivering family planning services differs from the systems of other Western countries in ways that make it less conducive, on the whole, to the promotion of highly effective contraceptive methods.
Article
In 1984 and 1985, the number of abortions, the abortion rate and the abortion ratio stayed at approximately the same levels as in the previous three years. Just under 1.6 million abortions were performed, about three percent of women of reproductive age obtained an abortion, and about 30 percent of pregnancies (excluding those ending in stillbirths...
Article
In 1985, 47 percent of abortion providers experienced antiabortion harassment. The approximately 1,250 facilities that were affected served 83 percent of all abortion patients. Nonhospital facilities performing 400 or more abortions a year were the most likely targets of antiabortion activity; 88 percent reported at least one type of harassment dur...
Article
In 1982 and 1983, as in previous years, the majority of abortions in the United States were obtained by young women (62 percent), white women (70 percent) and unmarried women (81 percent). Half of all abortions were performed eight or fewer weeks after the last menstrual period, and 91 percent, at 12 weeks or earlier. The proportion of abortions th...
Article
In 1981, as in 1980, most abortions in the United States were obtained by young women, unmarried women and white women, and were performed in the first eight weeks following the last menstrual period (approximately six weeks after conception). The proportion of abortions obtained by unmarried women has increased slightly, and the fraction obtained...
Article
Since 1977, the Hyde Amendment's restrictions on federal funding of abortions have prevented poor women from obtaining abortions through the federal Medicaid program. This article describes research undertaken to determine the impact of these restrictions on low-income women. Patients who had Medicaid-funded abortions at a clinic in St. Louis, Miss...
Article
The U.S. abortion rate remained essentially stable in 1981 and 1982, after rising each year between 1973 and 1980. The increases had been due to widening availability of abortion services and rising unintended pregnancy rates caused by several factors, among them a shift from use of the pill and the IUD to use of less effective methods. The stabili...
Article
Researchers comparing 1st and repeat abortion patients directly, have found that the latter were using methods that are only slightly or no more effective than those used by 1st-abortion patients at the time they became pregnant. It is here argued that such direct comparisons are not appropriate because repeat patients are not typical of all women...
Article
An analysis of the characteristics of women who obtained abortions in 1980 indicates that as in previous years, they were mainly young, white and unmarried. Thirty percent were under age 20 and one percent were under 15; 70 percent were white; 79 percent were unmarried; 58 percent were childless; and 67 percent had had no previous abortions. Ninety...
Article
In 1981, The Alan Guttmacher Institute (AGI), in collaboration with the National Abortion Federation (NAF), conducted a survey of 240 abortion clinics to update information about clinic structure and the relationship of structural characteristics to services, policies and fees. The clinics surveyed were a stratified random sample of all non-hospita...
Article
Reports results of the 7th national survey by the Alan Guttmacher Institute of all known providers of abortion in the US. There were 1.55 million abortions in 1980, about 1/4 of all pregnancies and 1/2 of unintended ones. About 3% of women of childbearing age obtained an abortion. The rate increased by 2% from 1979 to 1980, compared to an increase...
Article
During the 1970s, there was a decline in adolescent childbearing in the United States and, among teenagers who were sexually active, there was a decline in pregnancy rates as well. To what extent was increased enrollment by teenagers in federally funded family planning clinics responsible for these declines? Areal multivariate analysis reveals that...
Article
The total number of legal abortions in the US continues to rise; it was 1.5 million in 1979. Since 1967 when the 1st abortion reform laws were passed, some 7.4 million women have obtained legal abortions -- about 15% of all US women of reproductive age. Nevertheless, some 641 thousand women in need of abortion services in 1979 were unable to obtain...

Citations

... The unintended pregnancy rate in the United States is higher than other developed countries [1,2], with 49% of the 6.3 million annual pregnancies being unintended [3]. With a failure rate of less than 1% [4], the intrauterine device (IUD) ...
... Evidence abounds that a high proportion of women become pregnant unintentionally, in both developed and developing countries. In the United States and in some Eastern European countries for which data are available, about one-half to three-fifths of all pregnancies are unintended, and a large proportion of these are resolved through abortion (Jones, 1999). In many developing countries, the proportion of recent births that are unintended exceeds 40%; even in regions where most couples still want large families, 10-20% of births are unplanned (Alan Guttmacher Institute [AGI], (1997). ...
... While the fall in unintended pregnancy rates in developed regions matched with a reduction in abortion rates, the decline in low-income countries concurred with a fall in ectopic pregnancy rates. In 2010-14, 59% of unintended pregnancies ended in abortion in developed regions, whereas 55% of unintended pregnancies happened in developing countries [9,12]. ...
... Worldwide, approximately 25 million abortions occur annually in unsafe settings, and Asian countries account for 50% of total unsafe abortions [11]. Moreover, India accounts for 6.5 million abortions, with two-thirds of abortions ending in unsafe settings [12,13]. Furthermore, the National Family and Health Survey (2017) suggested that the prevalence of unsafe abortion is higher in rural India than in urban areas. ...
... such studies cannot reliably collect data on incidence because, in response to the stigma associated with terminating a pregnancy, women typically underreport their abortions in face-to-face interviews, a problem that may be exacerbated if women believe abortion to be illegal. [15][16][17][18][19][20] The most recent and most commonly cited national estimates of abortion in India placed incidence at 6.4 million abortions in 2002, corresponding to a rate of 26 abortions per 1,000 women of reproductive age. [21][22][23] To arrive at this estimate, researchers applied the average number of abortions per provider (based on a survey of a small sample of 95 public and 285 private providers) to an estimated total number of abortion providers in the country, which in turn was based on the ratio of population to facility in the limited sample areas. ...
... At the individual level, access to contraception increases spacing between births, reduces unintended pregnancies and pregnancy complications, reduces unmet need, helps to realise the desired family size and improves the overall health of mothers and children [3,[16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27]. Research also suggests that the use of contraception is associated with increasing household income, savings and women participation in paid employment [2,6,[28][29][30][31]. ...
... Au Canada, l'ESCC 2009-2010(Norman et al., 2013 montre que 15,4 % des Canadiens âgés de 15 à 24 ans souhaitant éviter une grossesse n'avaient pas utilisé de contraception lors de leur dernière relation sexuelle ; cette proportion étant de 28 % dans les Territoires, 20 % en Colombie-Britannique et en Ontario, 13 % à 17 % dans les provinces de l'Atlantique et les Prairies et 7 % au Québec. Ce faible taux de non-utilisation de la contraception lors de la dernière relation sexuelle rapporté au Québec pourrait être en lien avec le coût abordable des contraceptifs au Québec, la facilité d'accès aux cliniques jeunesse, scolaires et de planification des naissances (Henshaw et Jones, 1988), et l'implantation de l'ordonnance collective de contraception hormonale et du stérilet dans les cliniques jeunesse et scolaires du Québec en 2007 (Guilbert et al., 2013 ;Guilbert et al., 2014), utilisé jusqu'à la fin mars 2018 et progressivement remplacé par les activités liées l'approbation de droits de prescription de la contraception pour les infirmières survenues en 2014 (Guilbert et al., 2016). Les données de PIXEL confirment d'ailleurs qu'une cégépienne sur trois (30,4 %) et une universitaire sur cinq (22,0 %) obtiennent leurs prescriptions de contraceptifs d'une clinique jeunesse en CLSC ou en milieu scolaire. ...
... van deKaa (1987) , "Europe's Second Demographic Transition":9. 3 Population ReferenceBureau (1987) , World Population Data Sheet.4 Elise F.Jones et al. (1986) , Teenage Pregnancy in Industrialized Countries.Notes1 See Robert Erikson (1984) , "Uppväxtvillkor under 1900-talet," pp. 334-349 in Robert Erikson and Rune Åberg, (eds.), ...
... Sterilization, pill, intrauterine, injection, diaphragm, and condom were classified as reliable contraception. (7) Henshaw et al. (1999). Data may be incomplete (underestimated) for Spain, France, Italy, and Lithuania; ...
... Pregnancy rates are lower among females with CF compared with the general population: approximately 35 vs 100 pregnancies per 1,000 females per year [45,46]. Subfertility is seen in animal models of CF as well: mice with CFTR gene mutations have fewer pregnancies and fewer offspring per pregnancy; 29% experienced infertility over a 5-month study period [47]. ...