# Sophia R. Sklan's research while affiliated with University of Colorado Boulder and other places

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## Publications (17)

Although topological materials have recently seen tremendous development, their applications have remained elusive. Simultaneously, there exists considerable interest in pushing the limits of topological materials, including the exploration of new forms of topological protection and the establishment of topologically protected order in non-electron...

Transformation media theory, which steers waves in solids via an effective geometry induced by a refractive material (Fermat's principle of least action), provides a means of controlling vibrations and elastic waves beyond the traditional dissipative structures regime. In particular, it could be used to create an elastic wave cloak, shielding an in...

The advances in geometric approaches to optical devices due to transformation optics has led to the development of cloaks, concentrators, and other devices. It has also been shown that transformation optics can be used to gravitational fields from general relativity. However, the technique is currently constrained to linear devices, as a consistent...

Typically, an object's structure is described in terms of the forces that affect its constitutive elements. By relating the changes in position of these elements and relating it to the structure, the mechanics of the object become. When the governing mechanics become nonlinear, however, this project proves challenging as the dynamics are dominated...

Although topological materials have recently seen tremendous development, their applications have remained elusive. Simultaneously, there exists considerable interest in pushing the limits of topological materials, including the exploration of new forms of topological protection and the establishment of topologically protected order in non-electron...

Recent research on the development of a thermal cloak has concentrated on engineering an inhomogeneous thermal conductivity and an approximate, homogeneous volumetric heat capacity. While the perfect cloak of inhomogeneous κ and inhomogeneous ρcp is known to be exact (no signals scattering and only mean values penetrating to the cloak’s interior),...

Controlled transport of energy and information is of paramount importance. It remains challenging, however, partially from the difficulty in controlling their physical carriers. Steering electrons and photons is now routine, yet atomic vibrations (quantized as phonons) are hard to control. This is partly due to the centrality of phonons in the diso...

We present a means of controlling phonons via optical tuning. Taking as a model an array of photoresponsive materials (photoswitches) embedded in a matrix, we numerically analyze the vibrational response of an array of bistable harmonic oscillators with stochastic spring constants. Changing the intensity of light incident on the lattice directly co...

Phonons, the quanta of mechanical vibration, are important to the transport of heat and sound in solid materials. Recent advances in the fundamental control of phonons (phononics) have brought into prominence the potential role of phonons in information processing. In this review, the many directions of realizing phononic computing and information...

Recent research on the development of a thermal cloak has concentrated on
engineering an inhomogeneous thermal conductivity and homogeneous volumetric
heat capacity. While the perfect cloak of inhomogeneous $\kappa$ and $\rho c_p$
is known to be exact (no signals scattering or penetrating to the cloak's
interior), no such analysis has been consider...

By sculpting the magnetic field applied to magneto-acoustic materials, phonons can be used for information processing. Using a combination of analytic and numerical techniques, we demonstrate designs for diodes (isolators) and transistors that are independent of their conventional, electronic formulation. We analyze the experimental feasibility of...

Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are used to study, in detail, the transfer of thermal (vibrational) energy between objects with discrete vibrational spectra to those with a semi-continuum of spectra. The transfer of energy is stochastic and strongly dependent on the instantaneous separation between the bodies. The insight from the MD simulation...

Phononic computing the use of (typically thermal) vibrations for
information processing is a nascent technology; its capabilities are
still being discovered. We analyze an alternative form of phononic
computing inspired by optical, rather than electronic, computing. Using
the acoustic Faraday effect, we design a phonon gyrator and thereby a
means o...

Phononic computing -- the use of (typically thermal) vibrations for
information processing -- is a nascent technology; its capabilities are still
being discovered. We analyze an alternative form of phononic computing inspired
by optical, rather than electronic, computing. Using the acoustic Faraday
effect, we design a phonon gyrator and thereby a m...

Through an appropriate change in variables, we find that the three-dimensional acoustic wave equation is subject to the transformation media interpretation. In particular, we determine that this interpretation can be extended beyond the pressure difference to also account for the momentum transported by the wave. The suitability of momentum transpo...

## Citations

... Metamaterials are structures with properties which are not, or only rarely, found in naturally occurring materials [1]. Depending on their working principle, they can be categorized as optical [2,3], acoustic [4,5], electromagnetic [6,7], thermal [8,9] or mechanical metamaterials [10][11][12]. Mechanical metamaterials gained a lot of research interest due to their unusual mechanical properties. ...

... To perform logic operations and build useful thermal circuitry, additional operational function for phonons is desired. So far, the toolkit for phononics includes thermal diodes, [3][4][5][6][7][8] thermal transistor, [9][10][11][12][13][14] thermal logic gates, [15,16] thermal memories, [17,18] thermal regulators, [19,20] thermal switches, etc. [21,22] In addition to the phononic/thermal information processing, these devices are capable of manipulating and controlling heat energy. [22,23] The last decade, namely, from 2012 to 2022, has wit-nessed increasing research activities both from scientific and engineering communities, aiming at achieving better performance of these thermal devices. ...

Reference: Advances of phononics in 2012-2022

... Controlling surface waves with architected materials is an open challenge in several engineering applications, ranging from microdevices for electronic components (Jin et al., 2021), like surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices, to meter-sized barriers (Huang & Shi, 2013;Liu, Qin, & Yu, 2020;Liu & Yu, 2022;Meng, Cheng, & Shi, 2020;Muhammad, Lim, & Kamil Żur, 2021;Palermo, Krödel, Marzani, & Daraio, 2016;Pu & Shi, 2018 and seismic cloaks (Sklan, Pak, & Li, 2018) for ground-borne vibrations. In the latter context, two large-scale experiments recently demonstrated that one can reflect (Brûlé, Javelaud, Enoch, & Guenneau, 2014) or even focus (Brûlé, Javelaud, Enoch, & Guenneau, 2017) surface Rayleigh waves in structured sedimentary soils. ...

... In addition, other methods can also be utilized to design invisibility cloaking, such as solving Laplace equation [3], numerical methods [4], and optimizations [5,6]. Among these methods, linear transformations (LT) are commonly used, which is mathematically simpler than the non-linear transformation (NLT) [7] and have been extended to design invisibility cloaking for other physics (e.g., electric, thermal, acoustic, etc.) [8][9][10]. Most of the early studies on invisibility cloaking are based LT, such as the experimental demonstration of the first microwave invisibility cloaking [3], conformal electromagnetic cloaking for arbitrarily shaped objects [11], open cloaking [12], elliptical acoustic/ cloaking [13], cylindrical/spherical cloaking for static fields [14,15], thermal cloaking [16], and a light-controlled tunable DC cloak [17]. ...

... Since flexible and diverse manipulation of thermal energy is essential for various aspects of human life and macroscopic thermal control significantly influences the thermal rectification effect of many thermal management problems, achieving the on-demand domination of thermal energy has long been an urgent research direction. This topic has acquired breakthroughs in recent years, given the promotion and extension of space transformation technology in the thermal field [4][5][6][7][8][9], which originated from the concept of transformation optics [10]. Transformation optics is a mathematical tool for geometric interpretation of field governing equations. ...

... In contrast to standard (nano-scale) electronic computing devices, thermodynamic neurons are not based on building blocks such as transistors; instead they can directly implement a desired logic gate. This also differentiates our model from other alternative models of computation, notably the phononbased computation [67][68][69][70][71], spintronics [72][73][74] or superconducting circuits [75]. ...

... Due to the inherent transport similarity among electrons, photons, and phonons, constructions of analog acoustic integrated circuits have received increasing attention inspired by their electronic and electromagnetic counterparts [10], which may have giant potential applications, such as adaptive noise barrier, high-resolution biomedical imaging, and large-scale acoustic information parallel processing [11][12][13]. At present, several elementary analog acoustic functional devices, e.g., acoustic diodes [14][15][16][17][18], acoustic transistors [19][20][21][22][23], acoustic modulators [24][25][26][27][28][29], acoustic switches [30][31][32][33][34][35][36], and acoustic demultiplexers [37][38][39][40][41], have been proposed to realize acoustic nonreciprocal transmissions, acoustic logic gates, and acoustic digital encoders in subwavelength scales. Note that, in analog/digital electronic integrated circuits, as a crucial device, the electroelectronic field effect transistor (EE-FET), e.g., the metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET), exerts an augmented electric field to control the current flow from the source terminal to the drain terminal. ...

... field surrounds the interior domain. Since the elastic wave equations depend upon a Laplacian, they obey the mean value theorem, implying that such a uniform energy buildup is able to penetrate through any cloak, even a perfect one [43][44][45][46]. However, for a perfect cloak, the penetration would merely imply η = 0, the presence of a negative efficiency implies that our SEC is still underperforming. ...