Sonali Garg's research while affiliated with University of Delhi and other places

Publications (70)

Article
Full-text available
Since the description of Charles Darwin’s frog as Rana charlesdarwini in 1998, its generic placement has been a taxonomic enigma. Subsequent studies first transferred this species to the dicroglossid genus Limnonectes , and then considered it as a ceratobatrachid of the genus Ingerana , which has since been moved to the family Dicroglossidae. Howev...
Article
Full-text available
Recent studies on frogs of the Microhyla heymonsi species complex have demonstrated that high genetic variation exists among its various known populations from regions across Asia. We assessed the taxonomic identity of the Nicobar population of Microhyla cf. heymonsi and compared it to the typical Microhyla heymonsi from Taiwan and the two recently...
Article
Full-text available
The genus Minervarya is among the most widely distributed, commonly occurring, and taxonomically confusing groups of dicroglossid frogs in India. Recent studies have provided evidence that this genus contains complexes of morphologically conserved but genetically divergent taxa—some widely distributed across South and Southeast Asia, and many parti...
Article
Full-text available
The genus Minervarya is among the most widely distributed, commonly occurring, and taxonomically confusing groups of dicroglossid frogs in India. Recent studies have provided evidence that this genus contains complexes of morphologically conserved but genetically divergent taxa—some widely distributed across South and Southeast Asia, and many parti...
Article
Full-text available
We rediscovered two species of toads, Bufo stomaticus peninsularis and Bufo brevirostris , which were described from Peninsular India 84 and 101 years ago, respectively, but have not been reported since. Because the name-bearing types of both species are either damaged or lost, we provide detailed redescriptions, morphological comparisons, and insi...
Article
A tiny new species of narrow-mouthed frog of the genus Microhyla is described from the island of Belitung and southeastern Sumatra, Indonesia. The most distinctive feature of the new frog is its diminutive adult size, snout-vent length ranging only from 12.3 to 15.8 mm in adult males. Phylogenetic analyses based a fragment of the mitochondrial 16S...
Article
Full-text available
The phylogenetic position of Amolops monticola, a cascade frog species known for over 150 years, remains unknown. Yet over the years new taxa have been frequently described in the ambiguously recognised A. monticola species group, based on morphology and presumed phylogenetic affinities. Here we report fresh collections of A. monticola from the Ind...
Article
Full-text available
The genus Raorchestes is a large radiation of Old World tree frogs for which the Western Ghats in Peninsular India is the major center for origin and diversification. Extensive studies on this group during the past two decades have resolved long-standing taxonomic confusions and uncovered several new species, resulting in a four-fold increase in th...
Article
Full-text available
The taxonomy of the Asian tree frog genus Feihyla has been in a state of flux ever since its proposal in 2006. Allocation of species to Feihyla remains confusing, particularly with respect to the closely related genus Chirixalus (formerly Chiromantis sensu lato). At the same time, several Chirixalus species are known only from cursory descriptions...
Article
A new frog species of the genus Microhyla (Anura, Microhylidae) is described from riparian mid-elevation (860 m asl) evergreen forest in Namdapha National Park, located in the eastern Himalayan state of Arunachal Pradesh, India. The new species can be morphologically distinguished from other congeners by a suite of characters such as adult size, do...
Article
Full-text available
We describe a new species of frog in the microhylid genus Micryletta Dubois, 1987 from Northeast India based on molecular and morphological evidence. The new species, formally described as Micryletta aishani sp. nov., is phenotypically distinct from other congeners by a suite of morphological characters such as brown to reddish-brown dorsum; dorsal...
Article
Micryletta inornata (Boulenger 1890), the type species of the genus Micryletta, was originally described from the island of Sumatra in Indonesia. Subsequently, this species has been widely reported from Sundaland (Sumatra and Malay Peninsula), Indo-China, Northeast India and South Andaman, up to southern China and Taiwan. However, since the origina...
Article
Full-text available
Anurans in Peninsular India exhibit close biogeographical links with Gondwana as well as Laurasia, often explainable by the geological history of the Indian subcontinent; its breakup from Gondwanan landmasses followed by long isolation that resulted in diversification of endemic lineages, and subsequent land connections with Asia that enabled dispe...
Article
Full-text available
This study presents a systematic revision of South Asian members of the taxonomically challenging genus Microhyla Tschudi, 1838. Species relationships and diagnostic characters are determined by integrating molecular, morphological, and acoustic approaches, through which we also recognize six groups of closely related species. In addition, a new sp...
Article
Full-text available
Microhyla ornata, a species originally described from the southwest coast of India in 1841, was long reported to be wide-ranging throughout South, Southeast, and East Asia. Although the name M. ornata is restricted to populations from South Asia, the species is still considered to occur widely in India and its neighboring regions. To clarify the id...
Article
Full-text available
Based on a recent molecular phylogenetic study, the South Asian microhylid genus Uperodon (subfamily Microhylinae) currently comprises of 12 valid species that are largely restricted to India and Sri Lanka. Considering the revised generic-level status of its various members, here we review the taxonomy of all known species in this genus and clarify...
Data
Neighbor-Joining (NJ) tree based on Kimura-2-parameter model for 16S mitochondrial gene sequences, representing all the 28 previously known Nyctibatrachus species, seven newly sampled populations from the Western Ghats and an outgroup taxa
Article
Full-text available
The Night Frog genus Nyctibatrachus (Family Nyctibatrachidae) represents an endemic anuran lineage of the Western Ghats Biodiversity Hotspot, India. Until now, it included 28 recognised species, of which more than half were described recently over the last five years. Our amphibian explorations have further revealed the presence of undescribed spec...
Data
Male advertisement calls of Nyctibatrachus beddomii, N. minimus and N. minor
Data
Uncorrected pairwise distances between 16S mitochondrial gene sequences of the new and phylogenetically related Nyctibatrachus species
Data
Factor loadings, eigenvalues and percent variance from Principal component analysis based on nine size-corrected morphometric variables
Data
Call descriptions for three previously known Nyctibatrachus species
Data
Diagnostic characters for the new and morphologically related Nyctibatrachus species
Data
Scores for Discriminant function analysis of principal components resulting from nine size-corrected morphometric variables of adult male specimens
Data
Call properties of seven Nyctibatrachus species measured from single calls
Data
Classification matrices from the discriminant function analyses
Data
Morphometric measurements (in mm) of the adult specimens of seven new Nyctibatrachus species described in the study
Article
Full-text available
The anuran family Ranixalidae is endemic to India, with a predominant distribution in the Western Ghats, a region that is home to several unique amphibian lineages. It is also one of the three ancient anuran families that diversified on the Indian landmass long before several larger radiations of extant frogs in this region. In recent years, ranixa...
Data
Ventral coloration and femoral glands in ranixalid species. (A, B) Indirana semipalmata, male (SDBDU 2015.3034) with femoral glands. (A) In life. (B) In preservation. (C) I. gundia, male (MNHN 1985.0633) with femoral glands (in preservation). (D) I. brachytarsus, male (SDBDU 2015.2931), without femoral glands (in life). (E) Sallywalkerana leptodact...
Data
Indirana beddomii group in preservation. From left to right: Dorsal view, ventral view, lateral view of head, ventral view of hand, ventral view of foot. (A–E) Holotype of Rana leithii (= Indirana leithii), NHM 69.8.28.50 (ex BMNH 1947.2.28.17), female. (F–J) Indirana sarojamma, SDBDU 2002.516, female. (PDF)
Data
Indirana semipalmata group in preservation. From left to right: Dorsal view, ventral view, lateral view of head, ventral view of hand, ventral view of foot. (A–E) Indirana chiravasi, SDBDU 2015.3087, female. (F–J) Indirana duboisi, SDBDU 2003.1086, male. (PDF)
Data
Indirana beddomii group in preservation. From left to right: Dorsal view, ventral view, lateral view of head, ventral view of hand, ventral view of foot. (A–E) Indirana tysoni, SDBDU 2012.73, female. (F–J) Indirana yadera, SDBDU 2012.2744, male. (PDF)
Data
Uncorrected interspecific pairwise distances between 16S mitochondrial gene sequences. The table gives mean and standard deviation values over all pairwise comparisons of individuals sequenced from the two taxa being compared. N is the number of pairwise comparisons. N1 and N2 represent number of individuals for Taxon 1 and Taxon 2, respectively. T...
Data
Taxonomic accounts of previously known ranixalid species. (PDF)
Data
Collection localities of ranixalid species reported in this study. Localities are arranged by State. (PDF)
Data
Lateral view of head in ranixalid species. (A–G) Indirana beddomii group. (A) I. beddomii, male (SDBDU 2010.225) and female (SDBDU 2011.961). (B) I. bhadrai, female (ZSI/WGRC/V/A887). (C) I. brachytarsus, male (SDBDU 2015.2931) and female (SDBDU 2012.814). (D) I. leithii, male (SDBDU 2014. 2515) and female (SDBDU 2014.2514). (E) I. sarojamma, male...
Data
List of DNA sequences included in the study. (PDF)
Data
Indirana beddomii group in preservation. From left to right: Dorsal view, ventral view, lateral view of head, ventral view of hand, ventral view of foot. (A–E) Lectotype of Polypedates beddomii (= Indirana beddomii), NHM 74.4.29.208 (ex BMNH 1947.2.27.72), female. (F–J) Lectotype of Polypedates brachytarsus (= Indirana brachytarsus), NHM 74.4.29.13...
Data
Dorsal (left) and ventral (right) views of head in ranixalid species. (A–G) Indirana beddomii group. (A) I. beddomii, female (SDBDU 2011.961). (B) I. bhadrai, female (ZSI/WGRC/V/A887). (C) I. brachytarsus, female (SDBDU 2002.4091). (D) I. leithii, female (SDBDU 2002.2010). (E) I. sarojamma, female (SDBDU 2002.516). (F) I. tysoni, female (SDBDU 2012...
Data
Uncorrected intraspecific pairwise distances between 16S mitochondrial gene sequences. The table gives mean and standard deviation values over all pairwise comparisons among individuals or populations of a species. N is the number of individuals for each species. The original p-distances are shown in percentage. (PDF)
Data
Indirana semipalmata group in preservation. From left to right: Dorsal view, ventral view, lateral view of head, ventral view of hand, ventral view of foot. (A–E) Holotype of Ranixalus gundia (= Indirana gundia), MNHN 1985.0633, male. (F–J) Indirana salelkari, SDBDU 2011.1330, female. (K–O) Lectotype of Rana semipalmata (= Indirana semipalmata), NH...
Data
Genus Sallywalkerana in preservation. From left to right: Dorsal view, ventral view, lateral view of head, ventral view of hand, ventral view of foot. (A–E) Lectotype of Ixalus diplostictus (= Sallywalkerana diplosticta), NHM 74.4.29.1412 (ex BMNH 1947.2.2.21), female. (F–J) Lectotype of Rana leptodactyla (= Sallywalkerana leptodactyla), NHM 74.4.2...
Article
Full-text available
Anurans show the highest diversity in reproductive modes of all vertebrate taxa, with a variety of associated breeding behaviours. One striking feature of anuran reproduction is amplexus. During this process, in which the male clasps the female, both individuals’ cloacae are juxtaposed to ensure successful external fertilization. Several types of a...
Article
Full-text available
Anurans show the highest diversity in reproductive modes of all vertebrate taxa, with a variety of associated breeding behaviours. One striking feature of anuran reproduction is amplexus. During this process, in which the male clasps the female, both individuals’ cloacae are juxtaposed to ensure successful external fertilization. Several types of a...
Article
Full-text available
The Indian Purple frog, Nasikabatrachus sahyadrensis, occupies a basal phylogenetic position among neobatrachian anurans and has a very unusual life history. Tadpoles have a large ventral oral sucker, which they use to cling to rocks in torrents, whereas metamorphs possess adaptations for life underground. The developmental changes that underlie th...
Article
Full-text available
Tadpoles of the monotypic Indian dancing frog family Micrixalidae have remained obscure for over 125 years. Here we report the discovery of the elusive tadpoles of Micrixalus herrei from the sand beds of a forested stream in southern Western Ghats, and confirm their identity through DNA barcoding. These actively burrowing tadpoles lead an entirely...
Data
Fossorial tadpoles recorded from five of the anuran families—Arthroleptidae, Centrolenidae, Megophryidae, Microhylidae and Ranidae—and their corresponding references. (DOCX)
Article
Full-text available
Despite renewed interest in the biogeography and evolutionary history of Old World tree frogs (Rhacophoridae), this family still includes enigmatic frogs with ambiguous phylogenetic placement. During fieldwork in four northeastern states of India, we discovered several populations of tree hole breeding frogs with oophagous tadpoles. We used molecul...
Data
Lectotype of Polypedates jerdonii (= Frankixalus jerdonii), NHM 1947.2.7.84 (ex BMNH 1872.4.17.189). (A) dorsal view, (B) ventral view, (C) lateral view of head, (D) ventral view of hand, (E) ventral view of foot, (F) schematic illustration of webbing on foot. (PDF)
Data
Morphometric measurements (in mm) of the specimens used in this study. Status of specimens is given after the Museum number: LT- Lectotype, PL-Paralectotype, RS- Referred specimens. (DOC)
Data
Bayesian consensus phylogram of the total dataset showing phylogenetic relationships among 86 taxa representing all known rhacophorid genera and one outgroup species. Numbers above and below the branches represent Bayesian Posterior Probabilities obtained for the nuclear and mitochondrial datasets, respectively. (PDF)
Data
Snout shapes of Frankixalus and Kurixalus eiffingeri. A–C, K. eiffingeri (AMNH A14498, an adult female from Taiwan). (A) rounded in dorsal view, (B) rounded and protruding in ventral view, (C) rounded in lateral view; D–F, Frankixalus jerdonii (SDBDU 2009.1163). (D) truncate in dorsal view, (E) non-protruding semi-circular in ventral view, (F) vert...
Data
Abbreviations. (A) Material and methods adult morphology, (B) Material and methods larval morphology, (C) Museum and people. (DOC)
Data
Description of the lectotype of Polypedates jerdonii (= Frankixalus jerdonii), NMH 1947.2.7.84 (ex BMNH 1872.4.17.189), and additional specimens of F. jerdonii examined. (A) Description of lectotype (all measurements in mm), (B) Specimens of Frankixalus jerdonii examined. (DOC)
Article
Full-text available
Species boundaries of Microhyla rubra of India and Sri Lanka were assessed using the following criteria: genetic barcoding, morphology, and vocalization. We use a ca. 500 bp fragment of the 16S rRNA mitochondrial gene and show that there is an uncorrected pairwise distance of 2.7−3.2% between the Indian and Sri Lankan populations of M. rubra. We sh...
Article
Full-text available
Patterns of reproductive-mode evolution in Old World tree frogs (Anura, Rhacophoridae). —Zoologica Scripta, 00, 000–000. The Old World tree frogs (Anura: Rhacophoridae), with 387 species, display a remarkable diversity of reproductive modes – aquatic breeding, terrestrial gel nesting, terrestrial foam nesting and terrestrial direct development. The...
Article
Full-text available
A systematic revision of the genus Hylarana in the Western Ghats-Sri Lanka biodiversity hotspot is presented. Species de-lineation in Hylarana is complicated due to a lack of distinct colour differences or striking morphological characters, leading to potential misidentification. We conducted extensive surveys throughout the Western Ghats-Sri Lanka...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, we investigate species level diversity in the monotypic frog family Micrixalidae, which is endemic to the Western Ghats of Peninsular India. Attempting the first nearcomplete taxon sampling of Indian dancing frogs from the entire Western Ghats, we use 138 tissue samples collected from 70 localities over the last 12 years for DNA barc...
Article
Full-text available
A taxonomic revision of the Western Ghats species from the genus Rhacophorus is presented. Based on museum studies and new collections from localities spanning the known range of Western Ghats Rhacophorus, we review the four known species of this genus, their type specimens, current taxonomic status and their geographic distribution on the basis of...

Citations

... The Andaman and Nicobar Archipelago are home to about 21 species of amphibians, although knowledge on the fauna of these islands remains incomplete (Harikrishnan and Vasudevan 2018;Garg et al. 2022). In particular, the species-level delimitation and identities, or their higher-level taxonomic placements remain doubtful and often uninvestigated for several known taxa (e.g., Das 1998;Harikrishnan and Vasudevan 2018;Chandramouli et al. 2020aChandramouli et al. , 2020bChandramouli and Prasad 2020;Biju et al. 2020;Garg et al. 2022). ...
... adolfi, E. cyanophlyctis), suggesting high historical connectivity in the last thousands of years. In particular, the Indus and Gangetic plains feature massive wetlands in Pakistan, northern India and Bangladesh, which probably favored the spread of other amphibian lineages, such as Duttaphrynus Frost et al., 2006, Microhyla Tschudi, 1838and Sphaerotheca G€ unther, 1859(Bisht et al., 2021Jablonski et al., 2020Jablonski et al., , 2021. ...
... Herpetofauna discoveries began primarily in Java in the 19th century (Boulenger 1890;de Rooij 1917;van Kampen 1923;Kopstein 1930;de Haas 1941) and expedited our understanding of Indonesia's species diversity. Recent decades have seen a rapid increase in the number of newly described herpetofauna species, particularly for amphibians, e.g., Megophrydae (Hamidy & Matsui 2010;Hamidy et al. 2012;Eto et al. 2018;Munir et al. 2018;2021b), Rhacophoridae (Matsui et al. 2014;Hamidy & Kurniati 2015;Wostl et al. 2017b;Mediyansyah et al. 2019;Munir et al. 2021a), Microhylidae (Matsui et al. 2013;Atmaja et al. 2019;Munir et al. 2020;Eprilurahman et al. 2021), Bufonidae (Smart et al. 2017;Hamidy et al. 2018;Sarker et al. 2019), Ranidae (Matsui & 92 Hamidy 2012;Arifin et al. 2018), Dicroglossidae (Iskandar et al. 2011a;Mcleod et al. 2011); and reptiles, e.g., Gekkonidae including Cyrtodactylus (Iskandar et al. 2011b;Riyanto et al. 2018a;2018b;, Cnemaspis (Amarasinghe et al. 2015a;Riyanto et al. 2017;Iskandar et al. 2017), Hemiphyllodactylus (Grismer et al. 2014), and Lepidodactylus (Stubbs et al. 2017); Agamidae (Harvey et al. 2014;2018;, Colubridae (Vogel et al. 2014;Amarasinghe et al. 2015b;Wostl et al. 2017a), and Cylindrophiidae ; which highlight the fact that many enigmatic, elusive, and cryptic species are waiting to be discovered. Although the region of Sumatra, Borneo, Celebes, Moluccas and Java has been extensively surveyed (David & Vogel 1996;Inger et al. 2005;de Lang & Vogel 2006;Kurniawan et al. 2021;Kusrini et al. 2021), the primary focus has been on areas with relatively high diversity. ...
... To reveal the phylogenetic evolution of T. erecta, we constructed a ML phylogenetic tree based on 16 cp genomes from Acanthaceae and 3 cp genomes as outgroups from 2 taxa (Pedaliaceae, Linderniaceae). The sequence aligment by MAFFT (Rozewicki et al. 2019), IQTREE (Garg and Biju 2021) was used to perform maximum Likelihood (ML) tree with the TVM þ FþR4 model. The bootstrap method was used to test the reliability of phylogeny with 1000 replicates. ...
... Amolops Cope, 1865 is the most species-rich genus in the family Ranidae, containing 73 recognised species with a wide distribution from Nepal and northern India eastwards to China and southwards to Peninsular Malaysia (Frost, 2022). Based on molecular data, Patel et al. (2021) divided A. ricketti group, A. ricketti and A. cremnobatus (Nguyen et al., 2009;Pham et al., 2022), one from the A. martzorum group, A. ottorum (Pham et al., 2019b), and two from the A. monticola group, A. cf. compotrix and A. vitreus (Le et al., 2015b;Pham, 2016). ...
... The Western Ghats of India, the world's 8 th hottest hotspot of biological diversity (Myers et al. 2000), has been getting attention for the last decade due to the discoveries of life across a wide range of flora and fauna (Vijayakumar et al. 2014, Garg et al. 2021, including prokaryotic algae (Maltsev et al. 2021). Among algae, diatoms have been documented across various habitats of the Western Ghats, such as rivers, streams, plateaus, swamps, and aerophilic habitats (Vigneshwaran et al. 2019, Thacker et al. 2019, Lokhande et al. 2020. ...
... This approach can help explain the patterns in species assemblages based on climatic, vegetational, and anthropogenic variables from the family Rhacophoridae. This family of Asian tree frogs in India primarily consists of 14 different genera, namely Beddomixalus, Chirixalus, Feihyla, Ghatixalus, Kurixalus, Mercurana, Nasutixalus, Philautus, Polypedates, Pseudophilautus, Raorchestes, Rhacophorus, Rohanixalus, Theloderma, andZhangixalus (until April 2020 as per Dinesh et al., 2020;Biju et al., 2020). From these, the genus Beddomixalus, Feihyla, Mercurana, and Nasutixalus have only a single species present in India and thus are not considered for the analysis. ...
... The finding underscores the importance of pristine evergreen forests of Namdapha and Eastern Himalayas in general for conservation of herpetofauna. This is further illustrated by the discovery of several endemic reptile and amphibian species from the region in recent past (Bhosale et al., 2019;Biju et al., 2019;Captain et al., 2019;Mirza et al., 2020). However, fauna of the region is severely underexplored and needs urgent attention, particularly in light of rising conservation threats posed by developmental activities such as Hydropower projects (Sheth et al., 2020). ...
... Paddy frogs of the genus Micryletta Dubois, 1987 are a little-known group of microhylids, with 10 nominal species currently recognized: i.e., M. aishani Das, Garg, Hamidy, Smith & Biju, 2019;M. dissimulans Suwannapoom, Nguyen, Pawangkhanant, Gorin, Chomdej, Che & Poyarkov, 2020;M. ...
... Due to morphological similarities with other species of Micryletta, M. inornata was historically considered a widespread species that occurred in Sumatra and throughout the Malay Peninsula and Indochina. However, a recent study by Alhadi et al. (2019) restricted the distribution of M. inornata to the island of Sumatra, resulting in numerous unnamed lineages occurring elsewhere that were eventually described as new species by other authors (Das et al. 2019, Munir et al. 2020, Suwannapoom et al. 2020, Liu et al. 2021). Subsequently, a disjunct distribution of M. inornata sensu stricto (s.s.) was discovered in the Tanintharyi Region of southern Myanmar (confirmed using genetic data), where it is sympatric with another species, M. lineata (Miller et al. 2021). ...