Silviu Livescu's research while affiliated with Baker Hughes Incorporated and other places

Publications (39)

Conference Paper
Telemetry systems with coiled tubing (CT) have been extensively used in the last decade for many types of operations, such as stimulation and logging. Many studies, reporting improved safety, and efficiency and reduced cost, have been published about using CT-conveyed telemetry systems with electrical wires, optical fibers, and, in the last year, h...
Article
2020 is going to be remembered in oil and gas history for its unexpected free fall in oil prices in less than 2 months. This year’s severe supply-and-demand imbalance is going to have tremendous implications for adopting new business models, developing new technologies, and attracting new talent into the industry. Collaboration and automation are g...
Article
Acid tunneling is an acid-jetting method for stimulating carbonate reservoirs. Several case histories from around the world were presented in the past showing optimistic post-stimulation production increases in openhole wells compared with conventional coiled-tubing (CT) acid jetting, matrix acidizing, and acid fracturing. However, many questions a...
Conference Paper
The requirement for intervention operations in extended-reach wells continues to grow. It is estimated that globally around 30-40% of the end sections of the extended-reach wells are inaccessible by the current coiled tubing (CT) friction reduction technologies, such as lubricants, vibratory tools, and tractors. Although many of the extended-reach...
Conference Paper
Development of unconventional reservoirs in North America has increased significantly over the past decade. The increased activity in this space has provided significant data with respect to through-tubing drillouts which had previously not been attainable. This paper is focused on using the field data from the Montney and Duvernay formations along...
Conference Paper
Acid-tunneling is an acid jetting method for stimulating carbonate reservoirs. Several case histories from around the world were presented in the past showing optimistic post-stimulation production increases in open-hole wells, comparing to conventional coiled tubing (CT) acid jetting, matrix acidizing, and acid fracturing. However, many questions...
Article
Technology Focus Since the last Reservoir Performance feature in September 2018, complex supply- and-demand challenges have continued to shape our technology and business-innovation models. Under significant pressure from several angles, operators around the world are focusing on lowering their production costs for both conventional and unconventio...
Article
During the last three decades, a coiled tubing (CT) modeling software package has been continuously developed to assist in the planning and executing of global CT operations. The first models were steady state. In the past decade, these models have been extended to consider transient effects of operations as they are executed. The transient models...
Conference Paper
Distributed temperature sensing (DTS) data interpretation has been extensively used in the last 10 years for improving acid placement for matrix acidizing operations. The DTS data are used for injection profiling during or after the acid and diverter are pumped into the reservoir. This study proposes an improved treatment schedule option for optimi...
Article
Technology Focus Since the last Reservoir Performance and Monitoring feature in 2017, the industry has continued to advance with innovation in technology and business models to drive sustainable change. Operators around the world have continued lowering production costs aggressively, and oilfield service companies have continued to survive by makin...
Article
A coiled-tubing (CT)-acid-tunneling-stimulation technique has been successfully applied in the preceding 15 years on limestone and dolomite reservoirs around the world (the Middle East, southeast Asia, North America, South America, and Europe). Several case histories were presented in the past showing that this technique might bring significant ben...
Article
For more than 50 years, coiled tubing (CT) has been an intervention technology used primarily to maintain or increase production. In the last 10 years, CT telemetry systems have been used for such applications as milling, stimulation, well cleanouts, gas lifting, camera services, logging, and perforating. These systems have resulted in increased ce...
Conference Paper
During the last three decades a coiled tubing (CT) modeling software package has been continuously developed to assist in the planning and executing of global CT operations. The first models were steady-state. In the past decade these models have been extended to consider transient effects of operations as they are executed. These models will also...
Conference Paper
In the past few years, operators have been increasing the lateral lengths of horizontal wells to maximize the reservoir contact and production rates. However, the frictional forces between the coiled tubing (CT) and casing in those long lateral wells also increase, limiting the ability of conventional CT sizes to reach the end prior to lock-up occu...
Conference Paper
A new horizontal well in Asia was not capable of unassisted flow due to low gas production rates and a wellhead pressure below that required to enter the production gathering system. Two zones were identified at the heel that could increase the gas/oil ratio (GOR). Because these two zones had deviations greater than 80 degrees, coiled tubing (CT) w...
Article
Well intervention in long lateral-reach wells, i.e., wells with laterals 10,000-ft or longer, is predicted to become more common within the current low price oil environment. During drilling, the drill pipe can be rotated, significantly reducing its friction in the long lateral-reach wells comparing to coiled tubing (CT) that can only slide linearl...
Conference Paper
Since the mid-1980s, advances in coiled tubing (CT) modelling software have enhanced operational efficiency, reduced technical risks, expanded the acceptable operating envelope and improved well intervention success rates. Until relatively recently, models were the steady-state type. Since 2010 dynamic modelling for CT operations has been utilized....
Conference Paper
A coiled tubing (CT) acid tunneling stimulation technique has been successfully applied in the last 15 years on limestone and dolomite reservoirs around the world (Middle East, South East Asia, North America, South America, and Europe). Several case histories were presented in the past showing that this technique brings significant benefits over ot...
Conference Paper
For more than 50 years, coiled tubing (CT) has been an intervention technology primarily used to maintain or increase production. In the last 10 years, CT telemetry systems have been used for such applications as milling, stimulation, well cleanouts, gas lifting, camera services, logging and perforating, increasing certainty, improving safety and e...
Article
Technology Focus Since the last Reservoir Performance and Monitoring feature in September 2016, the industry trends of significantly improving efficiency and reducing operational costs have continued to be implemented. For instance, at the time of writing, in North America, the US oil rig count has risen impressively for 23 straight weeks and the b...
Article
Well interventions in long lateral-reach wells, i.e., wells with laterals 10,000-ft or longer, continues to challenge the oil and gas industry around the world. Without specialized friction reduction technologies, typical-size coiled tubing (CT), such as 2- or 2 ⅜-, 2 ⅝-, or even 2 ⅞-in., has enough rigidity to transfer weights-on-bit (WOBs) to the...
Conference Paper
A newly-developed 3 ½-in. coiled tubing telemetry (CTT) system has been used for the real-time operational optimization of such coiled tubing (CT) applications as milling, cleanout, logging, and perforation, in an offshore multi-well campaign in Norway. The CTT system consists of surface hardware and software, a dual-purpose wire inside the carryin...
Conference Paper
Well intervention operations in extended-reach wells with sand, proppant, or other fill or in openhole wells are becoming important especially in the Middle East, where many exiting long openhole laterals need to be stimulated to maintain existing production. New laboratory and field results with a lubricant and a 2 ⅛-in. fluid hammer tool are show...
Conference Paper
Real-time depth, pressure, and temperature data monitoring is currently available for well interventions with coiled tubing (CT). A recently-developed extension for real-time forces (i.e., tension and compression) and torque data monitoring has been added to a robust CT telemetry (CTT) system, allowing further optimizations in operations such as mi...
Article
Technology Focus Since the last Reservoir Performance and Monitoring feature, in September 2015, unfavorable market conditions have significantly constrained the operating cash flow of energy companies worldwide. This has prompted a response to delay or cancel capital-intensive projects, improve efficiency, and reduce operating costs. The response...
Article
The lateral reach and residual bottomhole-assembly (BHA) loads in extended-reach wells strongly depend on the coiled-tubing (CT) mechanical friction. Detailed CT-friction modeling becomes crucial in the prejob planning stage to ensure successful job predictability. However, current numerical simulators consider constant coefficients of friction (Co...
Conference Paper
Real-time monitoring of downhole location, pressure, and temperature is currently available for many coiled tubing (CT) operations. A newly-developed tension, compression, and torque (TCT) data monitoring capability in real-time improves operational efficiency and accelerates well recovery in all types of CT operations. From milling, stimulation, a...
Conference Paper
The lateral reach and residual bottom hole assembly (BHA) loads in extended-reach wells strongly depend on the coiled tubing (CT) mechanical friction. Detailed CT friction modeling becomes crucial in the pre-job planning stage to ensure successful job predictability. However, current numerical simulators consider constant coefficients of friction (...
Conference Paper
A recently developed 2 ?-in. intelligent coiled tubing (ICT) system combines real-time downhole data monitoring with the capability to simultaneously provide downhole power, significantly improving operational efficiency and accelerating well recovery in all types of CT operations. From milling, stimulation, and well cleanouts to gas lifting, camer...
Conference Paper
A recently developed 2 ⅛-in. intelligent coiled tubing (ICT) system combines real-time downhole data monitoring with the capability to simultaneously provide downhole power, significantly improving operational efficiency and accelerating well recovery in all types of CT operations. From milling, stimulation, and well cleanouts to gas lifting, camer...
Article
Technology Focus Recent months have been very challenging for the oil and gas industry. When the previous Reservoir Performance and Monitoring feature appeared in JPT in September 2014, Brent was trading at approximately USD 105/bbl. At the end of June 2015, when this statement was written, its price was 41% lower, at just above USD 62/bbl. In addi...
Article
More operators are seeing the production benefits of targeted horizontal annular fracturing. The most active method of annular fracturing in the USA involves ported sleeves installed with the completion and activated via an isolation packer. Initial operations were in lateral lengths of 2,000 to 3,000 ft. However, current operations are planned for...
Conference Paper
The requirement for well intervention operations in laterals longer than 10,000 ft continues to grow. The current industry trend for servicing long laterals is to increase the coiled tubing (CT) diameter and use fluid hammer or tractor tools. While increasing the CT diameter remains a theoretical option to improve reach, practically, it creates log...
Conference Paper
Karachaganak Petroleum Operating b.v. (KPO), the operator of the giant Karachaganak gas-condensate field in Kazakhstan, drills long horizontal wells and then stimulates them with acid. A variety of acid stimulation techniques have been used, progressing from simple acid washes to high-rate matrix acid treatments and hydraulic fracturing with gelled...
Conference Paper
The requirement for intervention operations in long laterals continues to grow. For instance, in North America and North Sea, it is required to run 2 and 2 3/8-in coiled tubing (CT) in 12,000 and 25,000 ft laterals, respectively. One of the most critical well intervention problems nowadays is that many extended reach wells that need to be serviced...
Article
Water hammer tools (WHTs) are used in coiled tubing (CT) operations for postponing a potential helical lock-up and running deeper into the hole. By rapidly opening and closing a valve in the tool, pressure pulses are created and the axial vibrating force is overcoming the friction between the CT and the wellbore. The pressure pulses depend on the C...
Article
The detailed modeling of temperature and friction for coiled tubing (CT) operations is especially important in extended-reach wells. Although the fluid flow through the CT and annulus, downhole temperature, and the CT mechanical friction inside the well are crucial during CT operations, a mathematical model that captures all these effects does not...
Article
The requirement for intervention operations in long lateral-reach wells continues to grow. In US, it is not uncommon to be asked to run coiled tubing (CT) in 10,000-ft laterals. In general terms, a 2-in CT typically has enough weight reserves to perform work to about half such a lateral. While increasing the CT diameter remains a theoretical option...

Citations

... Among the twenty two largest gas fields based on recoverable reserves worldwide, six are located in North American shale reservoirs with average recovery factors of approximately 20% (Rogers, 2011). At present, innovations in horizontal well drilling and completion supported by 3-D seismic, microseismic, formation microimager (FMI)/formation microscanner (FMS), and other measurements are unlocking supplies of shale oil and natural gas throughout North America for the decades ahead Rutqvist et al., 2013;Soeder and Borglum, 2019;Soeder, 2018;Curtis et al., 2011Curtis et al., , 2014Kang et al., 2020;Sharma and Livescu, 2020;Dindoruk et al., 2020;Pan et al., 2015;Eren and Suicmez, 2020;Wang and Li, 2017). Fig. 1 shows the technically proven shale hydrocarbon resources worldwide whereas Fig. 2 shows the shale oil and natural gas producing plays in the United States; the major shale plays are the Antrim, Barnett, Haynesville and Marcellus Shales. ...
... The result of acid treatment directly affects the extended inflow filtration channels (wormholes) in the bottom hole zone (Fredd and Miller, 2000;Nasr-El-Din et al., 2007;Livescu et al., 2018;Kiani et al., 2021). To maximize stimulation efficiency of the field, it is necessary to obtain thin and long wormholes that provide a larger well drainage radius and incremental (additional) oil (Daccord et al., 1993;Fredd and Miller, 2000;Yoo et al., 2021). ...
... The coiled tubing technique is suitable for the mechanical sliding sleeve (Livescu et al. 2017;Livescu et al. 2019;Sharma and Livescu. 2020). ...
... High friction can pose a challenge in many ongoing technologies such as the clean-out process of coiled tubing applications in extendedreach wells [1,2]. The curvature in coiled tubing maximizes the friction between the tubing and the wellbore, resulting in lower fluid flow rate and higher drag in the lateral portion of the coiled tubing [1]. ...
... Well stimulation is a technique that can be used to improve the flow of oil or gas from a reservoir by dissolving the plugging materials or creating new pathways near the wellbore (Aljawad et al., 2019(Aljawad et al., , 2020Assem et al., 2019;Carvalho et al., 2019;Crowe et al., 1992;Economides and Nolte, 2000;Economides et al., 2013;Livescu et al., 2018;Rabbani et al., 2018;Schechter, 1993). The most commonly applied stimulation techniques are acidizing and hydraulic fracturing (Bing et al., 2019;Livescu and Craig, 2017;Nitters et al., 2016;Yuan et al., 2019;Zhang et al., 2019). Worldwide, acidizing is the most common method because a majority of the reservoirs have moderate to very good permeability and the need to conduct acid stimulation arises when the initial rates of the wells are below expectation or when the productivity of the reservoir significantly drops. ...
... High friction can pose a challenge in many ongoing technologies such as the clean-out process of coiled tubing applications in extendedreach wells [1,2]. The curvature in coiled tubing maximizes the friction between the tubing and the wellbore, resulting in lower fluid flow rate and higher drag in the lateral portion of the coiled tubing [1]. ...
... CT application can be divided into two general categories, fluid pumping and mechanical applications. CT is frequently affected by failures due to various causes [3,4]. Therefore, knowledge of different nomenclatures is required to diagnose the causes of failure. ...
... The insulated electrical wired CTT system transfer electrical power through its electrical conductor while optical fiber CTT system requires BHA batteries to power its downhole sensors. The common insulated electrical conductor BHA sizes include 2 1 / 8 -, 2 7 / 8 -, and 3 1 / 2 -inches designed with several single-point sensors for real-time measurements of downhole pressure, temperature, and location (Blanco et al. 2017). CTT systems field test with depth, pressure, and temperature data in real-time increased the job efficiency and well intervention control operations without mobilizing the crew, wireline and tractor equipment, saving an estimated of six (6) days minimum per well wireline logistics and work. ...
... To tackle these issues, many technologies are used or considered. The most commonly used three methods include: vibration (Ahn, 2015;Baez and Barton, 2011;Barton et al., 2011;Benson et al., 2016;Carey et al., 2015;Castaneda et al., 2011;Dhufairi et al., 2013;Duthie et al., 2017;Eddison and Hardie, 2001;Eddison and Hardie, 2003;Elrashidi et al., 2016;Fu et al., 2018;Guo et al., 2013;Hilling et al., 2012;Kolle et al., 2016;Macdonald et al., 2013;Maidla et al., 2005;McCarthy et al., 2009;McIntosh et al., 2016;Newman et al., 2014;Newman, 2007;Newman et al., 2009;Parra et al., 2014;Rasheed, 2001;Robertson et al., 2004;Schneider et al., 2011;Sola and Lund, 2000;Walter, 2005;Wicks et al., 2012;Wicks et al., 2014;Zhang et al., 2019a,b), lubricants (Barraez et al., 2014;Castro et al., 2015;Craig, 2003;Elrashidi et al., 2016;Griffin and Nichols, 2012;Hilling et al., 2012;Kaarstad et al., 2009;Ke and Foxenberg, 2010;Parra et al., 2014) and tractors (Al-Buali et al., 2015;Al Shehri et al., 2007;Arukhe et al., 2012;Bhalla, 1995;Hallundbaek, 1994;Hashem et al., 2005;Livescu and Craig, 2018;Livescu and Misselbrook, 2016;Mannil et al., 2017;Nasr-El-Din et al., 2004;Rajamani and Schwanitz, 2017). There are also some other methods, e.g., geometry changes, rollers, straightening and rotation (Bhalla, 1995;Newman, 2007). ...
... The coiled tubing technique is suitable for the mechanical sliding sleeve (Livescu et al. 2017;Livescu et al. 2019;Sharma and Livescu. 2020). ...