Silvia Franceschi's research while affiliated with International Agency for Research on Cancer and other places

Publications (973)

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Certain infectious agents are recognised causes of cancer and other chronic diseases. To understand the pathological mechanisms underlying such relationships, here we design a Multiplex Serology platform to measure quantitative antibody responses against 45 antigens from 20 infectious agents including human herpes, hepatitis, polyoma, papilloma, an...
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Objective: We analyzed the pooled case-control data from the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE) consortium to compare cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption risk factors for head and neck cancer between less developed and more developed countries. Subjects and methods: The location of each study was categorized as eithe...
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Background: Age-specific data on anal, and corresponding cervical, human papillomavirus (HPV) infection are needed to inform female anal cancer prevention. Methods: We centrally re-analyzed individual-level data from 26 studies reporting HPV prevalence in paired anal and cervical samples by HIV status and age. For women living with HIV (WLWH) wi...
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In 2020, over 34 000 cases of Kaposi sarcoma (KS) were estimated globally, all attributable to KS herpesvirus (KSHV). Prior to the HIV epidemic, KS already existed in KSHV endemic regions, notably in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The HIV epidemic has vastly increased the KS burden. We developed a methodology to provide global estimates of KS burden acc...
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Background: The incidence of thyroid disease is generally increasing, and it is subject to major geographic variability, between and within countries. Moreover, the incidence rates and the proportion of overdiagnosis for thyroid cancer in Italy are among the highest worldwide. This study aimed to estimate population-based frequency and trends of t...
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Background The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between high-risk genotypes of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) and cancer of different subsites of the oral cavity. Material and methods A pooled analysis of five studies included on the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE) Consortium was conducted. HPV 16 and HP...
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Background Helicobacter pylori infection is a major cause of non-cardia gastric cancer (NCGC), but its causal role in cardia gastric cancer (CGC) is unclear. Moreover, the reported magnitude of association with NCGC varies considerably, leading to uncertainty about population-based H pylori screening and eradication strategies in high-risk settings...
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Background The number of patients living after a cancer diagnosis is increasing, especially after thyroid cancer (TC). This study aims at evaluating both the risk of a second primary cancer (SPC) in TC patients and the risk of TC as a SPC. Methods We analyzed two population-based cohorts of individuals with TC or other neoplasms diagnosed between...
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Objective: To investigate whether palatine tonsillectomy in youth influences the risk of oropharyngeal cancers (OPC) by assessing the association between history of tonsillectomy and risk of tonsillar, base of tongue (BOT) cancer, and other head and neck cancers (HNC). Materials and methods: RACKAM was a case-case study comparing frequency of to...
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Background There has been a considerable increase in thyroid cancer incidence among adults in several countries in the past three decades, attributed primarily to overdiagnosis. We aimed to assess global patterns and trends in incidence and mortality of thyroid cancer in children and adolescents, in view of the increased incidence among adults. Me...
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Background: Polyphenols are natural compounds with anticarcinogenic properties in cellular and animal models, but epidemiological evidence determining the associations of these compounds with thyroid cancer (TC) is lacking. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relations between blood concentrations of 36 polyphenols and TC risk...
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Background: Few studies have estimated the probability of being cured for cancer patients. This study aims to estimate population-based indicators of cancer cure in Europe by type, sex, age and period. Methods: 7.2 million cancer patients (42 population-based cancer registries in 17 European countries) diagnosed at ages 15-74 years in 1990-2007 wi...
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High coverage of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination is key to the eventual elimination of infection and cervical cancer. Monitoring coverage, in a digital vaccine registry, is therefore essential to detect problems. For example, misinformation about dangers from HPV vaccine generated in Denmark a decline in coverage among girls age 12–17, from...
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Background: Few studies have estimated the probability of being cured for cancer patients. This study aims to estimate population-based indicators of cancer cure in Europe by type, sex, age and period. Methods: 7.2 million cancer patients (42 population-based cancer registries in 17 European countries) diagnosed at ages 15-74 years in 1990-2007 wit...
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Background: Bhutan implemented a national program for human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in 2010 involving girls aged 12 to 18 years and achieving nearly 90% coverage. Objective: To estimate HPV vaccine effectiveness in a city in Bhutan. Design: 2 cross-sectional surveys, 2011-2012 and 2018. Setting: 2 hospitals in Thimphu, capital of Bh...
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Objectives: to assess the completeness and timeliness of Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programme in Friuli Venezia Giulia (FVG) Region (Northern Italy), notably by monitoring 2-dose coverage among girls before they turn 15 years old (referred to as "at 15") in each year between 2009 and 2018 and making a preliminary evaluation of coverage...
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Alcohol is a well-established risk factor for head and neck cancer (HNC). This study aims to explore the effect of alcohol intensity and duration, as joint continuous exposures, on HNC risk. Data from 26 case-control studies in the INHANCE Consortium were used, including never and current drinkers who drunk ≤10 drinks/day for ≤54 years (24234 contr...
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e18574 Background: Increases of thyroid cancer (TC) incidence emerged in the last decades in several countries. This study aimed to estimate time trends of TC incidence in India and the proportion of TC cases potentially attributable to overdiagnosis by sex, age, and area. Methods: TC cases aged 0-74 years reported to Indian cancer registries durin...
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Context/Objective Increases of thyroid cancer (TC) incidence emerged in the last decades in several countries. This study aimed to estimate time trends of TC incidence in India and the proportion of TC cases potentially attributable to overdiagnosis by sex, age, and area. Design TC cases aged 0-74 years reported to Indian cancer registries during...
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HPV16 causes half of cervical cancers worldwide; for unknown reasons, most infections resolve within two years. Here, we analyze the viral genomes of 5,328 HPV16-positive case-control samples to investigate mutational signatures and the role of human APOBEC3-induced mutations in viral clearance and cervical carcinogenesis. We identify four de novo...
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The study aim was to describe human papillomavirus (HPV)‐attributable cancer burden in Rwanda, according to anogenital cancer site, HPV type, age and HIV status. Tissue specimens of cervical, vulvar, vaginal, penile and anal cancer diagnosed 2012‐2018 were retrieved from three cancer referral hospitals and tested for high‐risk (HR) HPV DNA. Cervica...
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Rwanda and Bhutan, 2 low- and middle-income countries, implemented primarily school-based national human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in 2011 (Rwanda) and 2010 (Bhutan). We estimated vaccination effectiveness through urine-based HPV prevalence surveys in schools in 2013–2014 and 2017. In Rwanda, 912 participants from baseline surveys and 1,087...
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Purpose Coffee and tea constituents have shown several anti-carcinogenic activities in cellular and animal studies, including against thyroid cancer (TC). However, epidemiological evidence is still limited and inconsistent. Therefore, we aimed to investigate this association in a large prospective study. Methods The study was conducted in the EPIC...
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Background: Tobacco use is a well-established risk factor for head and neck cancer (HNC). However, less is known about the potential impact of exposure to tobacco at an early age on HNC risk. Methods: We analyzed individual-level data on ever tobacco smokers from 27 case-control studies (17,146 HNC cases and 17,449 controls) in the International...
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An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
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Polyphenols are bioactive compounds with several anticarcinogenic activities; however, human data regarding associations with thyroid cancer (TC) is still negligible. Our aim was to evaluate the association between intakes of total, classes and subclasses of polyphenols and risk of differentiated TC and its main subtypes, papillary and follicular,...
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Objectives: This study aimed at re-evaluating the strength and shape of the dose-response relationship between the combined (or joint) effect of intensity and duration of cigarette smoking and the risk of head and neck cancer (HNC). We explored this issue considering bivariate spline models, where smoking intensity and duration were treated as int...
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We compared invasive cervical cancer (ICC) incidence rates in Europe, South Africa, Latin and North America among women living with HIV who initiated antiretroviral therapy (ART) between 1996 and 2014. We analyzed cohort data from the International Epidemiology Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) and the Collaboration of Observational HIV Epidemiolo...
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Background: Cervical cancer screening might contribute to the prevention of anal cancer in women. We aimed to investigate if routine cervical cancer screening results-namely high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and cytohistopathology-predict anal HPV16 infection, anal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) and, hence, anal ca...
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Background: The incidence of cancer was determined by genetic and environmental factors and varied across the world. The discrepancies in cancer profile among Chinese people living in different regions remained obscure. Methods: Chinese people living in urban Shanghai, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Macau, Singapore, and Los Angeles were included in this st...
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Background: Incidence rates of thyroid cancer (TC) increased in the last decades worldwide. This study aimed to describe TC incidence in the Friuli Venezia Giulia (FVG) region, to estimate the quota of overdiagnosis, and to investigate the impact of surgery on long-term survival after TC diagnosis. Methods: TC cases reported to the FVG populatio...
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Quantifying the genetic correlation between cancers can provide important insights into the mechanisms driving cancer etiology. Using genome-wide association study summary statistics across six cancer types based on a total of 296,215 cases and 301,319 controls of European ancestry, here we estimate the pair-wise genetic correlations between breast...
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The prevalence of 13 polyomaviruses (PyVs) in the tonsil brushings and gargles of immunocompetent children and adults was assessed. Patients undergoing tonsillectomy for benign indications were recruited in 19 centres in France. After resection, the entire outer surface of the right and left halves of the tonsils was brushed extensively. Gargles we...
Preprint
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Quantifying the genetic correlation between cancers can provide important insights into the mechanisms driving cancer etiology. Using genome-wide association study summary statistics across six cancer types based on a total of 296,215 cases and 301,319 controls of European ancestry, we estimate the pair-wise genetic correlations between breast, col...
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Objective To assess the prevalence of all known human herpesviruses (HHV) in tonsils of an age‐stratified large sample of immunocompetent children and adults. Methods Patients undergoing tonsillectomy for benign indications were recruited in 19 French hospitals. After resection, the entire outer surface of right and left half tonsils were extensiv...
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Thyroid cancer incidence varies greatly between and within high‐income countries (HICs), and overdiagnosis likely plays a major role in these differences. Yet, little is known about the situation in low‐ and middle‐income countries (LMICs). We compare up‐to‐date thyroid cancer incidence and mortality at national and subnational levels. 599,851 thyr...
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Background: Evidence from observational studies of telomere length (TL) has been conflicting regarding its direction of association with cancer risk. We investigated the causal relevance of TL for lung and head and neck cancers using Mendelian Randomization (MR) and mediation analyses. Methods: We developed a novel genetic instrument for TL in c...
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Introduction The incidence of thyroid carcinomas has been rapidly increasing over the last 20–30 years in many Westernized countries. Large part of the increase is due to diagnostic improvements, however other changes may be involved. The only well-established risk factors for differentiated thyroid carcinomas (TC) (the most common forms of TC) are...
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Background: A pilot screening campaign in Rwanda, based on careHPV-testing followed by visual inspection with acetic acid triage (careHPV+VIA triage), was evaluated against other WHO-recommended screening options, namely HPV screen-and-treat and VIA screen-and-treat. Methods: 764 women aged 30-69 underwent at visit 1: i) VIA, and cervical cell c...
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Human papillomaviruses (HPV) cause infections that are responsible for diverse clinical manifestations from benign conditions to invasive cancer. As different HPV types are associated with variable pathogenic potential, minor genetic variations within a given high-risk HPV type might also be associated with distinct oncogenic capacities, through va...
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International variations in the prevalence of HPV infection derive from differences in sexual behaviors, which are also a key factor of the basic reproductive number (R0) of HPV infection in different populations. R0 affects the strength of herd protection and hence the impact of a vaccination program. Similar vaccination programs may therefore gen...
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Based on existing evidence for efficacy, savings, and advantages in delivery, some countries may elect to pilot or roll out single-dose human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination (instead of, or in combination with, two-dose) in advance of a WHO policy decision. Accelerated evidence of population-based effectiveness (hereafter referred to as overall ef...
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Aims: In Italy, incidence rates of thyroid cancer (TC) are among the highest worldwide with substantial intracountry heterogeneity. The aim of the study was to examine time trends of TC incidence in Italy and to estimate the proportion of TC cases potentially attributable to overdiagnosis. Methods: Data on TC cases reported to Italian cancer reg...
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The aim of our study was to assess the association between HIV infection and cancer risk in Rwanda approximately a decade after the introduction of antiretroviral therapy (cART). All persons seeking cancer care at Butaro Cancer Center of Excellence (BCCOE) in Rwanda from 2012 to 2016 were routinely screened for HIV, prior to being confirmed with or...
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High-quality data on liver cancers by probable cause are scarce in many regions of the world. The United Nations recently set a goal of eliminating viral hepatitis as a major public health threat by 2030. We aimed to estimate the number of new cases of cancers attributable to hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) at a global, regional...
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Cervical cancer screening will rely, increasingly, on HPV testing as a primary screen. The requirement for triage tests which can delineate clinically significant infection is thus prescient. In this EUROGIN 2017 roadmap, justification behind the most evidenced triages is outlined, as are challenges for implementation. Cytology is the triage with t...
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Other than the influence of ionizing radiation and benign thyroid disease, little is known about the risk factors for differentiated thyroid cancer (TC) which is an increasing common cancer worldwide. Consistent evidence shows that body mass is positively associated with TC risk. As excess weight is a state of chronic inflammation, we investigated...
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Background: Data on carcinogenicity of human papillomavirus (HPV) types in the anus are needed to inform anal cancer prevention through vaccination and screening. This is particularly the case for people infected with HIV, who are at an increased risk of anal cancer. Methods: We did a systematic review of studies published from January, 1986, to...
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Background: We compared Kaposi sarcoma (KS) risk in adults who started antiretroviral therapy (ART) across the Asia-Pacific, South Africa, Europe, Latin, and North America. Methods: We included cohort data of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–positive adults who started ART after 1995 within the framework of 2 large collaborations of observational...
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Although most cervical human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) infections become undetectable within 1–2 years, persistent HPV16 causes half of all cervical cancers. We used a novel HPV wholegenome sequencing technique to evaluate an exceptionally large collection of 5,570 HPV16- infected case-control samples to determine whether viral genetic variati...
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To evaluate the performance of existing versus alternative cervical cancer screening protocols in Bhutan, cervical exfoliated cells were collected for cytology and high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) testing among 1,048 women aged 30-69 years. Conventional smears were prepared and read locally. HR-HPV was tested by GP5+/6+ polymerase chain reac...
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Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination is still not reaching many high-risk populations. HPV16/18 vaccines offer cross-protection against other types, for example, HPV45. Both direct vaccine efficacy and indirect herd protection contribute to vaccination effectiveness. Methods: We used a dynamic transmission model, calibrated to cerv...