Shuzhuo Li's research while affiliated with Xi’an International Studies University and other places

Publications (116)

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It is well established that son preference is the crucial driver for sex ratio imbalance, and that there are risks stemming from such imbalance. Whether risks associated with a gender-imbalanced society may alter son preference will be explored in this study, which has so far received scant scholarly attention. Using data from the Consequences of G...
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Acculturation is of great interest in research on immigrants' health. However, few studies have addressed this association for internal migrants in developing countries. Using data from a survey of rural-urban migrants in 2015-2016 in Guangdong, China, this paper goes beyond examining the link between acculturation and mental health and explores po...
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Despite the vast literature on the socioeconomic status (SES) gradient of obesity among adult people, no study has investigated the relationship between institutional power and body mass index. Using national survey data from the “China Labor-force Dynamics Survey 2016” (CLDS 2016), multistage cluster-stratified probability proportional to size (PP...
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Governments in developing countries often consider relocation an effective way of fighting poverty. However, few studies have examined the impact of relocation on household livelihoods. This paper examines the impact of the largest relocation in modern Chinese history on migrants' well‐being from the dual perspectives of poverty and income inequali...
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The study investigates the impact of public participation on governance performance in a risk society. A trust-based participatory paradigm is proposed as a viable framework. Using data from a 2018 survey of family planning services in Hubei, China, this study develops hypotheses drawn from causal mechanisms of participatory governance. A structura...
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Family resilience is the capacity of a family to mitigate adversity using its resources, structure, and internal connections. In rural China, where sustainable livelihoods are changing rapidly because of urbanization and migration, it is not clear how family resilience interacts with sustainability of livelihoods. This study of rural Chinese famili...
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In the traditional system of Chinese families, individuals are embedded in the institution of the family with defined obligations to enhance family development. As a consequence of the male-biased sex ratio at birth in China since the 1980s, an increasing number of surplus rural males have been affected by a marriage squeeze becoming involuntary ba...
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The Five-pronged Poverty Alleviation Measures were first proposed at the National Conference on Poverty Alleviation and Development held in end-2015. One of the five prongs is resettling poor residents from inhospitable areas, the most challenging part of the poverty alleviation program. During the 13th Five-Year Plan period, a total of 9.81 millio...
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Poverty and environmental deterioration are the two major problems that many developing countries face. Population growth and rapid economic development in China have been often accompanied by the irrational use of natural resources, environmental deterioration, and shrinking biodiversity. The conflict between the population and economy on the one...
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In the following three chapters, we look at ecological compensation policies, a subject that has drawn great concern from academic circles, the government and the broader public in China and which are also practiced extensively in the country. There are many kinds of ecological compensation policies and implementation mechanisms. In this volume, we...
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Relations of households in poor mountainous areas to the environment are reflected on the one hand by households’ behavior of forest resource utilization and production, forestry-related production and direct utilization of forest resources—e.g., non-timber forest products and wildcrafting, and dependence for livelihood on forest resources, and on...
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Livelihood choices are one of the main topics in the study of rural livelihood. This chapter offers an empirical analysis of the livelihood choices of rural households in poverty-stricken mountainous areas in western China. As relative poverty has become an increasingly prominent problem among rural households in China, it is necessary for us to as...
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In this chapter, we use data from a survey of rural residents in Xi’an, Yan’an and other places undertaken by Xi’an Jiaotong University to perform an empirical analysis of the impact of ecological compensation policies on rural livelihoods and on the poverty alleviation efforts in the western mountainous areas.
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In the previous chapters, we have described rural livelihoods and their various components, and rural residents’ choice of livelihood activities and their strategies in this area, etc.; analyzed how forest resources are used in rural livelihoods and how rural households feel about forestry and ecological-protection policies, etc.; and examined the...
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In this chapter, we conduct an empirical analysis of the perceptions of rural household regarding the fairness of the Grain-for-Green program and of the welfare impact of the Grain-for-Green policy for rural households in the western mountainous regions based on the theoretical examination of evaluation standards for ecological compensation program...
Book
The book considers the challenge of poverty and deterioration of the ecological environment in China, particularly in rural areas. Examining key factors such as the overuse of natural resources and the loss of biodiversity in the face of an expanding population and rapidly developing economy. It focuses on examining the frameworks of rural househol...
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With about 70% of its territory covered with mountains and hills, China faces the serious challenge of soil erosion. Its particular geographical features, socioeconomic conditions as well as improper ways of land development and utilization work together to exacerbate the problem, producing far-reaching and wide-ranging impacts.
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The term “shengji”, the Chinese term for “livelihood”, first appeared in the 1978 edition of the Modern Chinese Dictionary (Xiandai Hanyu Cidian). Two definitions for the term were given: (1) a means of sustaining life; and (2) a term used to describe living itself. Here, “living” encompasses elements such as clothing, food, housing, and travel/tra...
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During China's recent social transition, rural communities have experienced rapid changes in resources, organizational structure, and governance due to urbanization, rural industrialization, and rural-urban migration. How these communities react to social adversity and uncertainty can be assessed with an index of perceived community resilience. Usi...
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This study investigates associations between internal migration and health among middle-aged and older adults in China, including variations associated with type of migration (rural-to-urban, urban-to-rural, rural-to-rural, urban-to-urban). Data were drawn from China's Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (2011, 2013, 2015). Lagged panel and fi...
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In an effort to mitigate ecological environments and improve human well-being, the Chinese government’s largest-ever relocation and settlement programme is underway. Measuring livelihood resilience and further assessing its impact hold the key to strengthening adaptive capacity and well-being in poverty resettlements. Using a household survey of co...
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To evaluate the effect of China’s anti-poverty relocation and settlement program (ARSP) on both human well-being and ecosystem conservation, we divide the relationship between household well-being and ecosystem dependence into four modes and examine the impact of ARSP on these modes by using household survey data. It finds that relocated households...
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In many developing countries, including China, large numbers of internal migrants move to cities from rural areas in pursuit of an urban dream, but few studies have addressed acculturation of rural–urban migrants. We construct a multidimensional (in terms of components of acculturation such as practices, values, and identifications) and bicultural...
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Our study links the life satisfaction of internal migrants with assessment of their migration outcomes in relation to the people back home and their integration experience. Our research adds to a growing body of literature on the integration of internal migrants in three ways. First, we extend the understanding of the subjective dimension of integr...
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Based on survey data collected from five counties across southern Shaanxi, China, the present study employs a multinomial logistic model to explore the main factors related to the type of poverty of rural households, particularly focusing on the role of relocation time, reason for relocation, and type of relocation. The results showed that three ty...
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Many factors have contributed to the decline in China’s fertility level. Using China’s population census data from 1990, 2000 and 2010, the present study investigates the factors causing the decline in China’s fertility rate by decomposing changes in two fertility indices: the total fertility rate (TFR) and the net reproduction rate (NRR). The chan...
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Using data from a survey of rural–urban migrants conducted in Xiamen City, China, during 2009, this study explores determinants of anomie among unmarried rural male migrant workers in the context of China’s gender imbalance. Results indicate that the perceived marriage squeeze has exerted direct effects on anomie, and marriage aspiration has indire...
Article
Coupled with the social practice of female hypergamy, the male surplus within the never-married population means that today's Chinese marriage market is extremely tight in particular for men from a rural background and the least privileged socio-economic categories. Drawing on quantitative data from a survey conducted in 2014–2015, this article she...
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Using six waves of longitudinal data (2001–2015) collected in Anhui, China (N = 2,131) and generalized estimating equations (GEE) models, this study fulfilled several objectives. First, the study compared the widowed to the married to examine if the transition to and duration of widowhood contributes to changes in depression. Second, the study exam...
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To assess whether and to what extent the anti-poverty relocation and settlement program (APRSP) in China will be able to resolve the development dilemma of ecosystem conservation and human wellbeing, it is important to study the effects of policy on rural households in terms of the income generation from ecosystem services (ES). We constructed an i...
Chapter
Growth in human population and economic activity has dramatically transformed our planet since the Industrial Revolution. While driving significant improvements in human well-being, these forms of growth also deeply eroded the natural capital embodied in Earth’s lands, waters, and biodiversity. Rapid economic development has lifted hundreds of mill...
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Protecting and restoring natural capital—Earth’s lands, waters, and biodiversity, and the life-supporting goods and services that flow from these—have been promoted by many as the best hope for conserving biodiversity while also supporting sustainable, inclusive growth. Evidence is growing that illuminating the ways in which people depend on nature...
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The ability of the poor to participate gainfully in pro-poor tourism (PPT) projects is an important but understudied factor in determining poverty alleviation impact. This study aims to address this knowledge gap by exploring the relationship between participation, income, and livelihood capital at the household level using China as a case study. W...
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Poverty is increasingly stressed in Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES) schemes, from targeting to outcomes. As the world’s largest PES scheme of its kind, the Sloping Land Conversion Program in China started its new stage (NSLCP), aiming to convert another 2.9 million ha sloping croplands into forest or grasslands. This paper examines whether and...
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China’s largest-ever resettlement program is underway, aiming to restore ecosystems and lift ecosystem service providers out of the poverty trap and into sustainable livelihoods. We examine the impact of the relocation and settlement program (RSP) to date, reporting on an ecosystem services (ES) assessment and a 1400-household survey. The RSP gener...
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Using data from a survey conducted in Chaohu City among rural women, this study analyzes their subjective wellbeing, their marital relationships and livelihood strategy, and also analyzes how marital relationship and livelihood strategy affect the subjective wellbeing of left-behind women in comparison with non-left-behind women and temporary-left-...
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China’s middle-aged and older women suffer from poorer health than men. Using national baseline data from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS), a survey conducted from 2011 to 2012, this article applies logistic models to investigate the association between female fertility history (parity, early childbearing, late childbeari...
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China is facing a male marriage squeeze, as there are more men in the marriage market than potential female partners. As a consequence, some men may fail to ever marry. However, while some studies have suggested that most unmarried men affected by the marriage squeeze in rural China feel a sense of failure, the quality of life of the men who remain...
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Most research findings agree that women have higher levels of anomie than men; that is, socially derived feelings of depression and alienation that sometimes result in deviance. These conclusions are derived from general population samples in industrialized western countries and may or may not apply to China for various reasons. At present, Chinese...
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Ideally, both ecosystem service and human development policies should improve human well-being through the conservation of ecosystems that provide valuable services. However, program costs and benefits to multiple stakeholders, and how they change through time, are rarely carefully analyzed. We examine one of China's new ecosystem service protectio...
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The central challenge of the 21st century is to develop economic, social, and governance systems capable of ending poverty and achieving sustainable levels of population and consumption while securing the life-support systems underpinning current and future human well-being. Essential to meeting this challenge is the incorporation of natural capita...
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This is the accepted manuscript of a paper that will be published in PNAS. It is currently under an infinite embargo.
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The central challenge of the 21st century is to develop economic, social, and governance systems capable of ending poverty and achieving sustainable levels of population and consumption while securing the life-support systems underpinning current and future human well-being. Essential to meeting this challenge is the incorporation of natural capita...
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Most recent studies of marriage patterns in China have emphasized the male-biased sex ratio but have largely neglected age structure as a factor in China’s male marriage squeeze. In this paper we develop an index we call “spousal sex ratio” to measure the marriage squeeze, and a method of decomposing the proportion of male surplus into age and sex...
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Background This study described knowledge about HIV prevention and transmission among labor migrants in China and assessed the factors that associate with HIV knowledge. Methods The study is based on primary data collected in Xi’an city, China. The study includes 939 male rural-to-urban migrants aged 28 and older. The multivariate analysis used OL...
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China's economic reforms have led to millions of citizens being relocated to support infrastructure development, reduce poverty, and address ecological, disaster-related and other concerns. This study expands on previous research on the implications of relocation in China by examining the impact of rural elders' relocation on the perceived availabi...
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China currently has the world’s most skewed national sex ratio at birth. In this paper, we use data from China’s 2001 National Family Planning and Reproductive Health Survey and employ hierarchical logistic models to study how macro factors (mainly fertility policy and economic indicators, as represented by per capita GDP of the village units sampl...
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Using data from a survey in Ankang district of Shaanxi province of China in 2011, this paper examines the protective effect of the New Rural Social Pension (NRSP) on quality of life of rural elders, as well the moderating effect on association between family structure and quality of life. An instrumental variable approach is used. NRSP is shown sig...
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RÉSUMÉ Cette étude a examiné les corrélats de la prestation de soins de la fin de vie fournis par les enfants adultes à leurs parents âgés et le rôle du sexe des enfants adultes en soins familiaux dans la Chine rurale. Les données proviennent de cinq vagues de l'Étude longitudinale du bien-être des personnes âgées en milieu rural dans la province d...
Chapter
China’s sex ratio at birth has been increasing since the 1980s, and the resulting male surplus in China’s marriage market has been widely discussed. In this chapter we first review the sex ratio at birth by province in the four Chinese censuses and calculate the proportion of single males and females and their ratio. Using the 2010 census data, we...
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This chapter uses an ecological approach to assess whether village development and county demographics have direct or indirect effects on the relative likelihood of married women having a reproductive health (RH) checkup in rural China. The analysis uses multilevel models and data from the National Population and Reproductive Health Survey and the...
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The study applies the stress process model to investigate the relationship between state-organized relocation (mass internal migration) and depression among older people in a rural region of Central China. The study is based on primary data that our research team collected on 613 respondents from 25 villages in November-December 2011 and 507 respon...
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Background: The highly male-biased sex ratio at birth has produced a severe male 'marriage squeeze' in China. However, with an imbalanced sex ratio, the marriage-squeezed or involuntary bachelors can meet their sexual needs only through ways other than marriage. Methods: To investigate the commercial sex behaviours of involuntary bachelors, we c...
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The economic reforms of the past two decades have initiated a major social transition in China, characterized by unprecedented social mobility and stratification. Meanwhile, the privatization of health care has increased costs to the consumer. While such changes would logically affect individuals' psychological well-being, little attention has been...
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This study examined gender differences in the influence of marital status and marital quality on life satisfaction. The roles of intergenerational support and perceived socioeconomic status in the relationship between marriage and life satisfaction were also explored. The analysis was conducted with data from the Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS...
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China is and will be characterized by a large number of men who are unable to marry: these men are often referred to as "bare branches." In this paper we define the bare branch family and divide its life cycle into three stages: the unmarried co-resident with both parents, co-resident with a surviving parent, and living alone. Using life tables and...
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In the present context of the Chinese male marriage squeeze, commercial sex is becoming an important way for bachelors to meet their sexual needs. Using data from a survey conducted in a rural district of Anhui province, China, this study analyzes commercial sex experiences and condom use among involuntary bachelors and compares usage in this popul...
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Using data from a village survey in rural China, this study explores the relationships between current prevalence of involuntary bachelorhood and its causes and social consequences at the village level. We find that bachelors, intercounty marriage, and marriage fraud exist in all regions, and are expected to become more serious with the increasing...
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Using data from a survey of rural–urban migrants in a city in China, this paper investigates the relationships between migrant–resident ties and migrant integration. Migrant integration is assessed with respect to three dimensions: acculturation, socioeconomic integration and psychological integration. Migrant networks are divided into three catego...
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The objectives of this study are to develop a scale of gender role ideology appropriate for assessing Quality of Care in family planning services for rural China. Literature review, focus-group discussions and in-depth interviews with service providers and clients from two counties in eastern and western China, as well as experts' assessments, were...
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China's sex ratio imbalance and the surplus of males have received a great deal of attention, but measures of the extent of the marriage squeeze do not take into account the marital status of population. In this paper, we devise an index of the marriage squeeze for the never-married population and use it to project the male marriage squeeze from 20...
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The number of elderly in China's population is projected to grow well beyond the capacity of the nation's social security system. Meanwhile, family care is being challenged by a decline in fertility and an increase in migration from rural to urban areas. This article examines the short-term, mid-term, and long-term effects of family support on elde...
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Purpose ‐ The aim of this paper is to address a local separability character partly identified by non-farm participation behaviors in the context of multiple market imperfections. Design/methodology/approach ‐ The paper develops a model to analyze agricultural household's non-farm participation based on heterogeneous asset endowments. The model is...
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China’s total fertility rate fell below replacement level in the 1990s. From the 1970s the fertility rate declined dramatically, mainly as a consequence of the national population policy whose aim has been to limit birth numbers, control population growth and boost economic growth. Having achieved such a low fertility rate, how will China’s popu...
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The phenomenon of "missing women" has existed throughout the twentieth century in China. Using data from five censuses, with appropriate adjustments, we estimate the numbers and percentage of missing women from the period 1900-2000. The analysis is broken down into historically important periods, and the consequences of missing women, particularly...
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The strictly implemented fertility policy that has been in force in China since 1980 has led to a continuously increasing sex ratio at birth and in turn to a large number of missing girls. Based on China's four recent censuses, we find that the number of missing girls accounted for 2.93 percent of all girls expected to have been born during 1980 to...