Sherry Everett Jones's research while affiliated with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and other places

Publications (81)

Article
Background Concussions affect millions of youths in the United States each year, and there is concern about long-term health effects from this injury. Purpose To examine the association between sports- or physical activity–related concussion and health risk behaviors among middle and high school students in 9 states. Study Design Cross-sectional...
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Background: Sexting is common among adolescents and is associated with numerous health risk behaviors and negative psychosocial constructs. This study examined the relationships between high school students' experiences with sexual violence victimization, dating violence victimization, and engagement in risky sexual behaviors with experiences of r...
Article
Introduction The COVID-19 pandemic has had unprecedented socioeconomic and health impacts in the U.S. This study examined racial/ethnic and school poverty status differences in the relationship between parent job loss, experiences with hunger, and indicators of mental health problems among public high school students nationwide during the COVID-19...
Article
Disruptions and consequences related to the COVID-19 pandemic, including school closures, social isolation, family economic hardship, family loss or illness, and reduced access to health care, raise concerns about their effects on the mental health and well-being of youths. This report uses data from the 2021 Adolescent Behaviors and Experiences Su...
Article
Background: Exposure to injury and violence early in life increases the risk of experiencing injury and violence later in life. In 2019, the top 3 leading causes of death among 15- to 18-year-olds in the United States were unintentional injury, suicide, and homicide. This study examines the extent to which schools promote injury and violence preve...
Article
Mental health encompasses a range of mental, emotional, social, and behavioral functioning and occurs along a continuum from good to poor. Previous research has documented that mental health among children and adolescents is associated with immediate and long-term physical health and chronic disease, health risk behaviors, social relationships, edu...
Article
BACKGROUND Little is known about the effectiveness of school district concussion policies on reducing the concussion prevalence among students. METHODS Data from the 2016 School Health Policies and Practices Study and 2017 Youth Risk Behavior Survey for 10 school districts were linked. The outcome variable was having a sports- or physical activity...
Article
Introduction Teen motor vehicle crash fatality rates differ by geographic location. Studies assessing teen transportation risk behaviors by location are inconclusive. Therefore, we explored the role of census region and metropolitan status for driving prevalence and four transportation risk behaviors among U.S. public high school students. Methods...
Article
Purpose: This study examined associations between student sexual behaviors and both school-level socioeconomic status and metropolitan status. Methods: National Youth Risk Behavior Survey data from 2017 (N = 14,765, response rate = 60%) and 2019 (N = 13,677, 60%) were combined. School-level socioeconomic status (low-, mid-, and high-poverty base...
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Objectives To describe school district preparedness for school closures and other relevant strategies before the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods A stratified random sample of 957 public school districts from the 50 US states and the District of Columbia were surveyed between October 2015 and August 2016. The response rates for the questionnaires were a...
Article
History of concussion is associated with substance use. Data from the 2017 National Youth Risk Behavior Survey ( N = 14,765) were used in this study to examine associations between sports- or physical activity–related concussions and current cigarette, alcohol, and marijuana use among high school students, and whether other factors moderate those a...
Article
Background: Beginning in 2009, there was an increase in the number of states with laws addressing 3 different components of youth sports-related concussion prevention and management: concussion education, removal from play, and medical clearance requirements before allowing an athlete to return to play. Schools are an important setting to implemen...
Article
Background This study examined the association between sports- or physical activity–related concussions and having seriously considered attempting suicide, made a suicide plan, or attempted suicide (ie, suicidality), and tested potential moderators of the association. Hypothesis Risk factors such as persistent feelings of sadness or hopelessness,...
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Establishing healthy dietary and physical activity patterns among youths is an important public health strategy for improving health and preventing chronic diseases; however, few adolescents meet U.S. government recommendations for dietary or physical activity behaviors, and disparities by sex and race/ethnicity exist. CDC analyzed data from the 20...
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Tobacco product use is the leading cause of preventable disease, disability, and death in the United States. This report used data from the 2019 Youth Risk Behavior Survey to assess the following among U.S. high school students: ever use of cigarettes and electronic vapor products, current use (≥1 day during the 30 days before the survey) of tobacc...
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Health risk behaviors practiced during adolescence often persist into adulthood and contribute to the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Youth health behavior data at the national, state, territorial, tribal, and local levels help monitor the effectiveness of public health interventions designed to promote adolescent he...
Article
For this study, we explored the association between high school students’ reported history of sport- or physical activity–related concussions and persistent feelings of sadness or hopelessness. Data from the 2017 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS; N = 14,765) was used for this analysis. YRBS is administered to high school students throughou...
Article
Objectives: To examine the association between school-level poverty status and students' persistent feelings of sadness or hopelessness, suicidality, and experiences with violence victimization among U.S. high school students. Methods: Public schools captured in the 2015 and 2017 national Youth Risk Behavior Surveys were categorized as high-, mi...
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Indoor tanning exposes users to high levels of ultraviolet radiation, increasing skin cancer risk. The risk is greatest for those who begin indoor tanning at a young age. The objective of this study was to assess changes in indoor tanning prevalence over time among U.S. high school students, by sex, age, and race/ethnicity. We used cross-sectional...
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Aim: Asthma has symptoms that can be exacerbated by using combustible products such as tobacco and marijuana. This study assessed the prevalence and trends in current use of cigarettes, cigars, and marijuana among U.S. high school students with and without asthma. Methods: The national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) is a biennial, school-based,...
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Ensuring safe, accessible drinking water in schools is a national health priority. The objective of this study was to identify whether there are differences in water quality, availability, and education- related practices in schools by demographic characteristics. In 2017–2018, we analyzed data from the 2014 School Health Policies and Practices Stu...
Article
BACKGROUND The Whole School, Whole Community, Whole Child (WSCC) model provides an organizing framework for schools to develop and implement school health policies, practices, and programs. The purpose of this study was to examine the presence of practices that support school health for each component of the WSCC model in US schools. METHODS Data...
Article
Objective: Current prevalence estimates of youth sports-related concussions are inconsistent because of variation in methodology and potentially unreported concussions. Methods: In 2013, Connecticut, Ohio, and Utah each added different questions that assessed self-reported concussions to the Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Two questions referenced r...
Article
BACKGROUND Schools are particularly vulnerable to pests, but integrated pest management (IPM) can address pest problems. This study describes IPM policies and practices and the extent to which they are associated with school characteristics. METHODS We analyzed data from the 2014 School Health Policies and Practices Study, a nationally representat...
Article
Radon is a naturally occurring, radioactive, colorless, odorless gas, and the second leading cause of lung cancer. The 1990–1991 National School Radon Survey estimated that more than 70,000 schoolrooms nationwide had “high short-term radon levels.” Using data from a nationally representative survey of schools in the United States (N = 568; response...
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Increased susceptibility to concussions and longer recovery times among high school athletes compared with older athletes (1) make concussions among youths playing a sport or being physically active an area of concern. Short-term and long-term sequelae of concussions can include cognitive, affective, and behavioral changes (1). Surveillance methods...
Article
Objectives: To examine the association between state indoor tanning laws and indoor tanning behavior using nationally representative samples of US high school students younger than 18 years. Methods: We combined data from the 2009, 2011, 2013, and 2015 national Youth Risk Behavior Surveys (n = 41 313) to analyze the association between 2 types o...
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Insufficient sleep among children and adolescents is associated with increased risk for obesity, diabetes, injuries, poor mental health, attention and behavior problems, and poor academic performance (1-4). The American Academy of Sleep Medicine has recommended that, for optimal health, children aged 6-12 years should regularly sleep 9-12 hours per...
Chapter
More data continues to emerge on teen use of eCigarettes that leads to smoking. Renowned AAP journal editors have created this new, first-in-series, Pediatric Collection with high-impact articles that address the public health trend among adolescents and young adults, and the unintended nicotine poisonings among younger children. https://shop.aap.o...
Article
Background. Sexual health education plays a vital role in preventing adverse consequences of sexual behavior. Data are limited on how professional development (PD) for teachers is associated with teaching sexual health content. Method. We used data from the 2014 School Health Policies and Practices Study, a cross-sectional survey that included a na...
Article
Importance: Indoor tanning and sunburns, particularly during adolescence and young adulthood, increase the risk of developing skin cancer. Objective: To examine the trends in the prevalence of indoor tanning and the association between indoor tanning and sunburn among US high school students. Design, setting, and participants: This study poole...
Article
Importance: Exposure to the sun's UV radiation is a leading cause of skin cancer. Positive attitudes and beliefs about sun safety behavior, which would make sun protective behavior more likely, could be promoted and supported by school policies and practices. Objective: To identify school characteristics associated with having adopted practices...
Article
Background: Adolescent use of tobacco in any form is unsafe; yet the use of electronic cigarettes and other electronic vapor products (EVPs) has increased in recent years among this age group. We assessed the prevalence and frequency of cigarette smoking and EVP use among high school students, and associations between health-risk behaviors and bot...
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Radon is a naturally occurring, colorless, odorless, and tasteless radioactive gas. Without testing, its presence is unknown. Using nationally representative data from the 2012 School Health Policies and Practices Study, we examined whether the prevalence of school district policies for radon testing and for radon-resistant new construction practic...
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Introduction: Active school transport, such as by walking or biking, increases physical activity levels, which has health and academic benefits for children. We examined school demographic and other characteristics to determine their association with the percentage of students who walk or bike to school. Methods: We analyzed data from the Center...
Article
Background: Substance use is associated with sexual risk behaviors among youth, but little is known about whether nonmedical prescription drug use, an increasingly common behavior, is associated with sexual risk behaviors. Methods: Data from the 2011 and 2013 national Youth Risk Behavior Surveys, cross-sectional surveys conducted among nationall...
Article
BACKGROUND Childhood exposure to adverse experiences has been associated with adult asthma, smoking, sexually transmitted disease, obesity, substance use, depression, and sleep disturbances. Conceptualizing bullying as an adverse childhood experience, 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) data were used to examine the relationship between in-perso...
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What is already known on this topic? Since 2010, the proportion of U.S. 12th grade students who reported using marijuana during the preceding 30 days (21.4%) has surpassed the proportion reporting use of cigarettes during the preceding 30 days (19.2%).What is added by this report? During 1997–2013, the proportion of white, black, and Hispanic high...
Article
Injection drug use is the most frequently reported risk behavior among new cases of hepatitis C virus infection, and recent reports of increases in infection are of great concern in many communities. This study assessed the prevalence and trends in injection drug use among U.S. high school students. Data were from CDC's Youth Risk Behavior Surveill...
Article
Nationally representative data from the 2012 School Health Policies and Practices Study examined whether state assistance on indoor air quality (IAQ) was associated with district-level policies and practices related to IAQ and integrated pest management (IPM). Districts in states that provided assistance on IAQ were more likely than districts not i...
Article
Joint use or shared use of public school facilities provides community access to facilities for varied purposes. We examined a nationally representative sample of school districts in the United States to identify characteristics associated with having a formal joint use agreement (JUA) and with the kinds of uses to which JUAs apply. We analyzed dat...
Article
One in five public school students is from an immigrant-headed household. We used Youth Risk Behavior Survey data from one state and four large urban school districts to examine whether length of time living in the US was associated with health risk behaviors. Logistic regression models, using weighted data, controlled for sex, race/ethnicity, and...
Article
Indoor tanning increases the risk of skin cancer, particularly among frequent users and those initiating use at a young age.¹,2 While previous research has demonstrated that indoor tanning is common among youth,³ to our knowledge, this study provides the first national estimates of indoor tanning trends among this population.
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Supportive school policies and well-prepared school nurses can best address the needs of students with chronic health conditions. We analyzed nationally representative data from the 2012 School Health Policies and Practices Study to examine whether districts with policies requiring that schools provide health services to students with chronic healt...
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BACKGROUND Cigarette and alcohol use are common among youth. We examined sources of cigarettes and alcohol among youth who were current cigarette and alcohol users.METHODS We analyzed nationally representative data from the 2009 and 2011 national Youth Risk Behavior Surveys—biennial, school-based surveys of high school students in the United States...
Article
Importance Indoor tanning is associated with an increased risk of skin cancer, including melanoma, and is particularly dangerous for younger and more frequent indoor tanners.Objective To examine the prevalence of indoor tanning and frequent indoor tanning (≥10 times during the 12 months before each survey) and their association with health-relate...
Article
Objectives: Recently, several state indoor tanning laws, including age restrictions, were promulgated to reduce indoor tanning among minors. We examined the effects of these laws on adolescent indoor tanning. Methods: We used nationally representative data from the 2009 and 2011 national Youth Risk Behavior Surveys (n = 31 835). Using multivaria...
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We describe the prevalence of behaviors that put American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) high school students at risk for teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and the relationships among race/ethnicity and these behaviors. We analyzed merged 2007 and 2009 data from the national Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a biennial, self-adm...
Conference Paper
This session will provide an overview of the findings from the 2012 School Health Policies and Practices Study (SHPPS). Sponsored and conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), SHPPS is the largest, most comprehensive assessment of school health programs in the United States. SHPPS also was conducted in 1994, 2000, and 2006....
Conference Paper
Background: Increases in reports of hepatitis C in the eastern US have been linked to injected drug use (IDU) among youth. We examined correlates of IDU and trends in national prevalence since 1995. Methods: The national Youth Risk Behavior Survey is conducted biennially and uses independent, three-stage cluster sample designs to obtain cross-sec...
Article
When used appropriately, sunscreen decreases the amount of ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure to the skin and is recommended to prevent skin cancer. This study examined the association between annual average UV index and sunscreen use among White, non-Hispanic youth. The 2007 and 2009 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) data were analyzed....
Article
Limited research shows an inconclusive association between soda intake and asthma, potentially attributable to certain preservatives in sodas. This cross-sectional study examined the association between regular (nondiet)-soda intake and current asthma among a nationally representative sample of high school students. Analysis was based on the 2009 n...
Conference Paper
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Background: American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/AN) have disproportionately high rates of STDs and teen pregnancy. There is limited information describing the associated risk behaviors among AI/AN adolescents. Objectives: To examine the prevalence of behaviors that put AI/AN students at risk for teen pregnancy and STDs and how those rates differ...
Article
Indoor tanning is a risk factor for developing melanoma. Although in 2009, 6.7% of male high school students reported using an indoor tanning device, compared with 25.4% of female students (Eaton DK, Kann L, Kinchen S, et al, MMWR Surveill Summ 2010;59:1-142), it is also less well characterized in male than in female adolescents. The associations b...
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To examine trends in sunscreen use during 1999-2009 among U.S. high school students. Data from the 1999-2009 national Youth Risk Behavior Surveys were analyzed. The surveys used a three-stage cluster sample design to produce nationally representative samples of students in grades 9-12 attending public and private schools. Student participation in t...
Article
According to the World Health Organization, the 10 leading risk factor causes of death in high-income countries are tobacco use, high blood pressure, overweight and obesity, physical inactivity, high blood glucose, high cholesterol, low fruit and vegetable intake, urban air pollution, alcohol use, and occupational risks. We examined the prevalence...
Article
Introduction: According to the World Health Organization, the 10 leading risk factor causes of death in high-income countries are tobacco use, high blood pressure, overweight and obesity, physical inactivity, high blood glucose, high cholesterol, low fruit and vegetable intake, urban air pollution, alcohol use, and occupational risks. We examined...
Article
School health policies and programs provide the framework for a safe and supportive environment for students with asthma. School Health Policies and Programs Study 2006 data were examined to assess whether schools nationwide have policies and programs consistent with the "How Asthma-Friendly Is Your School?" checklist from the National Asthma Educa...
Article
Seventy percent of unintentional injury-related fatalities--the leading cause of death among youth in the United States--are motor vehicle traffic related. Examining traffic-related safety, therefore, is crucial to public health. This study examines trends in traffic safety issues among US high school students: helmet use while riding a bicycle, se...
Article
Background: This study explores the relationship between self-reported physical disabilities or long-term health problems and health risk behaviors or adverse health conditions (self-reported engagement in violent behaviors, attempted suicide, cigarette smoking, alcohol and other drug use, sexual activity, physical activity, dietary behaviors, sel...
Article
Policies set at the state, district, and school levels can support and enhance a healthy and safe school environment. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention conducts the School Health Policies and Programs Study every 6 years. In 2006, computer-assisted telephone interviews or self-administered mail questionnaires were completed by state ed...
Article
As society continues to focus on the importance of academic achievement, the physical environment of schools should be addressed as 1 of the critical factors that influence academic outcomes. The School Health Policies and Programs Study (SHPPS) 2006 provides, for the first time, a comprehensive look at the extent to which schools have health-promo...
Article
Approximately 10-25% of child and adolescent injuries occur at school. Little is known about school-related injuries to teachers and other adults or about the direct cost of injuries to schools. This study examined the characteristics of cases involving injuries resulting in lawsuits against schools, compared cases in which schools paid awards with...
Article
Underage drinking contributes to the 3 leading causes of death (unintentional injury, homicide, and suicide) among persons aged 12 to 20 years. Most adverse health effects from underage drinking stem from acute intoxication resulting from binge drinking. Although binge drinking, typically defined as consuming > or = 5 drinks on an occasion, is a co...
Article
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Asthma is a leading chronic illness among children and adolescents in the United States. This study examined the relationship between asthma and both overweight and physical activity levels. Results are based on data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's 2003 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a cross-sectional survey of health ri...
Article
The 2003 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey data were analyzed to compare drug use among high school students with and without asthma. High school students with current asthma used cigarettes, cigars, marijuana, and inhalants (huffing) at rates equal to or greater than high school students without current asthma.
Article
The purpose of this paper was to examine sunscreen use among US high school students. Data were derived from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's 1999, 2001, and 2003 national Youth Risk Behavior Surveys, which are cross-sectional surveys of health risk behaviors among high school students in the United States. In 2003, 1 in 7 (14.2%) h...
Article
By better understanding differences in health-risk behaviors among youth in rural, suburban and urban communities, health educators and other public health practitioners can more appropriately focus prevention and health care programs. In this study, we examined data from the national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) to determine whether alcohol-r...
Article
Students who possess and self-administer their asthma medications can prevent or reduce the severity of asthma episodes. In many states, laws or policies allow students to possess and self-administer asthma medications at school. In the absence of a state or local law or policy allowing public school students to possess inhalers and selfmedicate to...
Article
Suicide represents the second-leading cause of death among American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) youth aged 15-24 years. Data from the 2001 Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) Youth Risk Behavior Survey were used to examine the association between attempted suicide among high school students and unintentional injury and violence behaviors, sexual risk b...
Article
This analysis examined differences in health instruction among teachers of required health education classes or courses who had received or wanted staff development on health topics, teachers who had a degree in health education, and teachers who were Certified Health Education Specialists. Classroom-level data were collected from teachers of a nat...
Article
We examined the extent to which schools in the United States have health-promoting policies, programs, and facilities. We analyzed data from the School Health Policies and Programs Study 2000. We found that public schools (vs private and Catholic schools), urban schools (vs rural and suburban schools), and schools with larger enrollments (vs smalle...
Article
To understand the relationship between demographic characteristics of schools and school health policies and programs, this study analyzed data from the School Health Policies and Programs Study (SHPPS) 2000. SHPPS 2000 provides nationally representative data on eight components of school health. Data were collected from school faculty and staff us...
Article
To monitor behaviors that place adolescents at increased risk for premature morbidity and mortality, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention developed the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS). This system measures six categories of behaviors, including behaviors that contribute to violence and unintentional injuries; tobacco use;...
Article
The authors examined the relationship between binge drinking and other substance use among US college students, using nationally representative data from the 1995 National College Health Risk Behavior Survey implemented by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Compared with nonbinge drinkers, current binge drinkers were significantly more...

Citations

... The adoption of containment measures has contributed to the occurrence of several stress-related conditions [19] and the deterioration of pre-existing mental conditions [20,21]. The onset of the pandemic was especially stressful for some high-risk groups, such as people with previous severe mental disorders [22,23], migrants [24][25][26], people belonging to ethnic [27,28] or sexual minorities [29][30][31], healthcare professionals, adolescents [32][33][34][35] and pregnant women [36][37][38]. ...
... Within the first six months, however, its detrimental effects were increasingly apparent, with strong associations between pandemic-related experiences and symptoms of depression, anxiety, sleep disturbances, and aggression in adolescents (Kuhlman et al., 2021). Increasing mental health problems, including suicidality, continued to be reported by adolescents in early to mid-2021 (Jones et al., 2022). More than two years later, the pandemic has turned into a chronic stressor; as it continues, its sustained impact on mental health may have repercussions on these adolescents' physical and psychological well-being into their adulthood and beyond. ...
... ADHD is a commonly diagnosed in childhood but can continue into adulthood (Weibel et al., 2020) and is often comorbid with other externalizing disorders (Faraone et al., 2003;Palacio et al., 2004;Frick and Nigg, 2012;Hansen et al., 2018). Based on the 2016 National Parent Survey, about 9.8% of children are diagnosed with ADHD and 6 in 10 children with ADHD had at least one other mental, emotional, or behavioral disorder (Bitsko et al., 2022). ...
... This study examined 11 ventilation improvement strategies in schools and on school-based transportation. The percentage of students eligible for free or reduced-priced meals during 2019-20 served as a proxy for school poverty level (7). Low-, mid-, and high-poverty schools were defined as schools with ≤25%, 26%-75%, and ≥76% of students, respectively, eligible for free or reduced-priced meals. ...
... Among a sample of 600 public K-12 districts, the majority offered distance learning and continued provision of subsidized meal programs [546 (91%) and 474 (79%), respectively] during the closures. These high rates of substitution for normal in-school education delivery and routine school-based meals occurred despite of the fact that, prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, less than 50% of school districts had plans in place for ensuring continuity of education or feeding of students during closure [44]. Additionally, while these services were frequently offered, further study could assess whether students were consistently and effectively able to receive them and related outcomes. ...
... Empirical research on the short-and long-term consequences of SPACs is well-documented (Beauchamp et al., 2011;Eyolfson et al., 2020;Muscara et al., 2009;Wahlquist & Kaminski, 2021). In recent years, however, scholars have focused their attention on the prevalence of SPACs sustained by athletes during sporting events, especially among adolescents (Baillargeon et al., 2012;DePadilla et al., 2020;Guerriero et al., 2012;Halstead et al., 2018;Lowry et al., 2021;Veliz et al., 2019). ...
... Students commonly experienced parent job loss (28.5%) and hunger (23.8%) during the pandemic (Krause et al., 2022). Economic insecurity in the form of a high concentration of families with low-income or living in poverty within a school has been found to be associated with sexual violence and physical and sexual dating violence among high school students at that school (Jones et al., 2020). Adolescents who have experienced housing or food insecurity have a greater likelihood of engaging in sex in order to receive food, money, housing or other tangible items compared with adolescents who have not experienced housing or food insecurity (Head et al., 2021). ...
... In addition, two recent population-based observational studies of adolescent high school students found that SPAC was associated with depression and suicidal behaviors (Wangnoo et al., 2020;Yang et al., 2019). While a large body of earlier research has focused on the impact of SPAC on mental health outcomes among adults (Anderson & Jordan, 2021;Doroszkiewicz et al., 2021;Finkbeiner et al., 2016;Kerr et al., 2021), recent attention has turned to mental health outcomes among adolescents who experienced SPAC, particularly SPAC sustained through contact or collision during school sports (Mantey et al., 2020;Marar et al., 2012;Miller et al., 2021;Yang et al., 2019). There are 1.1 to 1.9 million cases of SPAC among adolescents in the U.S. per year, and research suggests the number of SPAC among adolescents is rising (Bryan et al., 2016;Veliz et al., 2017;Veliz et al., 2019). ...
... 48 The YRBS employs a 2-stage, cluster sample design to reflect a representative sample of students in the 9th through 12th grades. 49 The first sampling stage identifies schools in the state of Ohio with probability proportional to school enrollment size, and the second sampling stage selects required classes at random. Surveys with response rates over 70% are weighted based on characteristics of other students in the jurisdiction, such as grade, race, and gender identity. ...
... Although "e-cigarette use" or "vaping" is typically interpreted as nicotine vaping, and is counted as part of overall "tobacco use" figures in NYTS and secondary reports, [3][4] [5] the NYTS and YRBS definitions of e-cigarette use introduce uncertainty about the substance being vaped. NYTS 2021 provides the following instructions at the beginning of the section on e-cigarette use: "The next several questions are about electronic cigarettes or e-cigarettes, such as JUUL, SMOK, Suorin, Vuse, blu, Puff Bar, or STIG. ...