Shayne Rivers's research while affiliated with West Dean College and other places

Publications (9)

Article
Urushi is the Japanese term for the sap of the lacquer tree Toxicodendron vernicifluum, a natural crosslinking polymer that has been used for thousands of years as a durable decorative coating. Photodegradation combined with fluctuations in relative humidity cause the formation of microcracks that lead to a reduction in gloss and eventual loss of t...
Article
The purpose of this paper is to present a versatile clamping system to apply controlled pressure during the consolidation of objects or when adhering parts into position. Known as shimbari in Japan, this technique uses flexible fiberglass or bamboo sticks braced against a frame to provide clamping pressure. This paper describes readily available eq...
Article
The purpose of this paper is to present a versatile clamping system to apply controlled pressure during the consolidation of objects or when adhering parts into position. Known as shimbari in Japan, this technique uses flexible fiberglass or bamboo sticks braced against a frame to provide clamping pressure. This paper describes readily available eq...
Conference Paper
This paper describes the conservation of lifting shell decoration on the Mazarin Chest. The relative Bloom, shrinkage, tack, gloss and colour of 16 Japanese and European collagen adhesives were qualitatively ranked. The working properties and appearance of a range of natural and synthetic materials were compared using facsimile shell on lacquer boa...
Article
Moisture absorption and diffusion, dimensional response, as well as the related stress field in materials constituting lacquer furniture were investigated to support the conservation treatment of the Mazarin Chest, renowned as one of the finest pieces of Japanese export lacquer from around 1640 preserved at the Victoria and Albert Museum in London....
Article
An unusual green pigment was found on a seventeenth-century kuan cai (Coromandel) lacquer screen at the Victoria and Albert Museum, London. The particles are perfectly spherical and translucent, with the appearance of green fish roe. Analysis revealed that the pigment is a copper resinate, produced by reacting a copper salt with a resin, probably o...

Citations

... Because of such structures, Ju believes that the oxidation process mainly takes place in the side chains of urushiol, polysaccharides and glycoproteins outside urushiol aggregates [17]. Cracks and pits are morphological signs formed as a result of photo-degradation [12,18], which further cause a rougher surface, loss of gloss and mechanical strength [13,19]. Although the present investigations into the photo-degradation of lacquer films have provided much information, the degradation of lacquer films buried underground poses more challenges. ...
... Areas of delaminating lacquer surface were consolidated with 5-10% w/v Paraloid ® B-72 in xylene, with pressure applied to the surface using the shimbari method ( Fig. 6) (Bainbridge et al., 2015). Xylene was selected as the solvent used for consolidation as it is an efficient solvent for Paraloid ® B-72 and is less likely to swell or blanch the lacquer surface (McSharry et al., 2011). ...
... This causes the formation of pinholes, by decomposition and volatilization of the polymerized urushi (Kenjo, 1988), which initiate microcracking of the surface and associated loss of gloss (Vogl, 2000;Elmahdy et al., 2011;Liu et al., 2011;Thei, 2011). As damage proceeds, microcracks propagate both vertically and horizontally leading to incremental loss of the surface and associated decoration such as makie particles and nashiji flakes (Yamashita & Rivers, 2011a). Progressive photodegradation is also associated with increasing sensitivity to solvents and fluctuations in RH (Ogawa et al., 1998;Obataya et al., 1999Obataya et al., , 2002McSharry et al., 2007McSharry et al., , 2011. ...
... Artificial aging of the samples was carried out to determine whether the formula made a difference to behavior. It has been stated that pure urushi, without any addition of oil, is most resistant to light and the other affects of aging (Yamashita & Rivers, 2011). The choice of methods for artificial aging relied heavily on past research, particularly that conducted by Brenda Keneghan, Carolyn McSharry, and Judith Thei as part of the Mazarin Chest project, Victoria and Albert Museum, London, which was key in determining the protocols for aging. ...
... As damage proceeds, microcracks propagate both vertically and horizontally leading to incremental loss of the surface and associated decoration such as makie particles and nashiji flakes (Yamashita & Rivers, 2011a). Progressive photodegradation is also associated with increasing sensitivity to solvents and fluctuations in RH (Ogawa et al., 1998; Obataya et al., 1999 Obataya et al., , 2002 McSharry et al., 2007 McSharry et al., , 2011). Obataya et al. (2002) inferred that raw urushi is more susceptible to photodegradation than processed urushi. ...
... Even a minimal urushi-gatame treatment significantly improves the resistance of a lacquer surface to damage from water and organic solvents (Yamashita and Rivers 2008) and gives a greater range of options for subsequent cleaning and consolidation. ...
... Because of high demand, hastily produced lacquer objects made in China were shipped to Europe through the Coromandel coast of India, hence the name 'Coromandel' in early eighteenthcentury France. This decorative form is known kuan cai in Chinese, and was referred to as 'Bantam work' in late seventeenth-century Britain (Burgio et al., 2007). The manufacture of folding screens involved many steps, including the fabrication of wood panels (typically cypress/Cupressaceae) joined with pegs, the application of numerous preparation layers based on a range of materials including animal glue, blood or fat, rice paper, gesso, clay, pigments, as well as true lacquer (urushi/qi). ...
... The methodology to assess the mechanical decay varies with the artefact. For instance, while in wood sculptures the risk is assessed using an updated version of Jakiela et al. (2008) method, in furniture it is assessed using an updated version of Bratasz et al. (2008) method. The panel paintings are a particular case since the method used to assess the risk of mechanical decay in the wood substrate (Mecklenburg's et al., 1998) is different from the one used for the pictorial layer (Bratasz's et al., 2011). ...