Sharon L. R. Kardia's research while affiliated with University of Michigan and other places

Publications (794)

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Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is recognized as an important public health challenge. However, its genomic mechanisms are poorly understood. To identify rare variants for DKD, we conducted a whole-exome sequencing (WES) study leveraging large cohorts well-phenotyped for chronic kidney disease (CKD) and diabetes. Our two-stage whole-exome sequencing...
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SNPs in ABCA7 confer the largest genetic risk for Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) in African Americans (AA) after APOE ε4. However, the relationship between ABCA7 and cognitive function has not been thoroughly examined. We investigated the effects of five known AD risk SNPs and 72 CpGs in ABCA7, as well as their interactions, on general cognitive function...
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Recent studies have identified > 40 genetic variants robustly associated with ischemic stroke, most identified through genome wide association studies and primarily marking common variants in non-coding regions presumed to have regulatory roles on gene and protein expression. To evaluate the contribution of coding variants, which are mostly rare, t...
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Mosaic mutations in blood are common with increasing age and are prognostic markers for cancer, cardiovascular dysfunction and other diseases. This group of acquired mutations include megabase-scale mosaic chromosomal alterations (mCAs). These large mutations have mainly been surveyed using SNP array data from individuals of European (EA) or Japane...
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Purpose Genetic researchers’ selection of a database can have scientific, regulatory, and ethical implications. It is important to understand what is driving database selection such that database stewards can be responsive to user needs while balancing the interests of communities in equitably benefiting from advances. Methods We conducted 23 semi...
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The epigenome likely interacts with traditional and genetic risk factors to influence blood pressure. We evaluated whether 13 previously reported DNA methylation sites (CpGs) are associated with systolic (SBP) or diastolic (DBP) blood pressure, both individually and aggregated into methylation risk scores (MRS), in 3070 participants (including 437...
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Common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are predicted to collectively explain 40–50% of phenotypic variation in human height, but identifying the specific variants and associated regions requires huge sample sizes¹. Here, using data from a genome-wide association study of 5.4 million individuals of diverse ancestries, we show that 12,111 inde...
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Blood lipids are heritable modifiable causal factors for coronary artery disease. Despite well-described monogenic and polygenic bases of dyslipidemia, limitations remain in discovery of lipid-associated alleles using whole genome sequencing (WGS), partly due to limited sample sizes, ancestral diversity, and interpretation of clinical significance....
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Background: The epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) is intrinsically linked to fluid volume homeostasis and blood pressure. Specific rare mutations in SCNN1A, SCNN1B, and SCNN1G, genes encoding the α, β, and γ subunits of ENaC, respectively, are associated with extreme blood pressure phenotypes. No associations between blood pressure and SCNN1D, which e...
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Large-scale whole-genome sequencing studies have enabled analysis of noncoding rare-variant (RV) associations with complex human diseases and traits. Variant-set analysis is a powerful approach to study RV association. However, existing methods have limited ability in analyzing the noncoding genome. We propose a computationally efficient and robust...
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Left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy (LVH) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and African Americans experience a disparate high risk of LVH. Genetic studies have identified potential candidate genes and variants related to the condition. Epigenetic modifications may continue to help unravel disease mechanisms. We used methylatio...
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Background: Precision oncology is one of the fastest-developing domains of personalized medicine and is one of many data-intensive fields. Policy for health information sharing that is informed by patient perspectives can help organizations align practice with patient preferences and expectations, but many patients are largely unaware of the comple...
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Although physical activity and sedentary behavior are moderately heritable, little is known about the mechanisms that influence these traits. Combining data for up to 703,901 individuals from 51 studies in a multi-ancestry meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies yields 99 loci that associate with self-reported moderate-to-vigorous intensit...
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Background and Objectives Current genome-wide association studies of ischemic stroke have focused primarily on late onset disease. As a complement to these studies, we sought to identifythe contribution of common genetic variants to risk of early onset ischemic stroke. Methods We performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of earl...
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Understanding the genomic basis of memory processes may help in combating neurodegenerative disorders. Hence, we examined the associations of common genetic variants with verbal short-term memory and verbal learning in adults without dementia or stroke (N = 53,637). We identified novel loci in the intronic region of CDH18, and at 13q21 and 3p21.1,...
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Cerebral white matter hyperintensities on MRI are markers of cerebral small vessel disease, a major risk factor for dementia and stroke. Despite the successful identification of multiple genetic variants associated with this highly heritable condition, its genetic architecture remains incompletely understood. More specifically, the role of DNA meth...
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Common genetic variants explain less variation in complex phenotypes than inferred from family-based studies, and there is a debate on the source of this ‘missing heritability’. We investigated the contribution of rare genetic variants to tobacco use with whole-genome sequences from up to 26,257 unrelated individuals of European ancestries and 11,7...
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Integrating genetic information with metabolomics has provided new insights into genes affecting human metabolism. However, gene-metabolite integration has been primarily studied in individuals of European Ancestry, limiting the opportunity to leverage genomic diversity for discovery. In addition, these analyses have principally involved known meta...
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The genetic determinants of fasting glucose (FG) and fasting insulin (FI) have been studied mostly through genome arrays, resulting in over 100 associated variants. We extended this work with high-coverage whole genome sequencing analyses from fifteen cohorts in NHLBI’s Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) program. Over 23,000 non-diabetic i...
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Background: The availability of whole-genome sequencing data in large studies has enabled the assessment of coding and noncoding variants across the allele frequency spectrum for their associations with blood pressure. Methods: We conducted a multiancestry whole-genome sequencing analysis of blood pressure among 51 456 Trans-Omics for Precision...
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Cerebral small vessel disease is a leading cause of stroke and a major contributor to cognitive decline and dementia, but our understanding of specific genes underlying the cause of sporadic cerebral small vessel disease is limited. We report a genome-wide association study and a whole-exome association study on a composite extreme phenotype of cer...
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Low socioeconomic status (SES) and living in a disadvantaged neighborhood are associated with poor cardiovascular health. Multiple lines of evidence have linked DNA methylation to both cardiovascular risk factors and social disadvantage indicators. However, limited research has investigated the role of DNA methylation in mediating the associations...
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We assembled an ancestrally diverse collection of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in 180,834 affected individuals and 1,159,055 controls (48.9% non-European descent) through the Diabetes Meta-Analysis of Trans-Ethnic association studies (DIAMANTE) Consortium. Multi-ancestry GWAS meta-analysis identified 237 loci atta...
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Estimates from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of unrelated individuals capture effects of inherited variation (direct effects), demography (population stratification, assortative mating) and relatives (indirect genetic effects). Family-based GWAS designs can control for demographic and indirect genetic effects, but large-scale family datase...
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Human genetic studies support an inverse causal relationship between leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and coronary artery disease (CAD), but directionally mixed effects for LTL and diverse malignancies. Clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential (CHIP), characterized by expansion of hematopoietic cells bearing leukemogenic mutations, predispose...
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We conduct a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of educational attainment (EA) in a sample of ~3 million individuals and identify 3,952 approximately uncorrelated genome-wide-significant single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). A genome-wide polygenic predictor, or polygenic index (PGI), explains 12–16% of EA variance and contributes to risk predi...
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Quality care requires collaborative communication, information exchange, and decision-making between patients and providers. Complete and accurate data about patients and from patients are especially important as high volumes of data are used to build clinical decision support tools and inform precision medicine initiatives. However, systematically...
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Integrative analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWASs) and gene expression studies in the form of a transcriptome-wide association study (TWAS) has the potential to better elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying disease etiology. Here we present a method, METRO, that can leverage gene expression data collected from multiple genetic a...
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Analyses of data from genome-wide association studies on unrelated individuals have shown that, for human traits and diseases, approximately one-third to two-thirds of heritability is captured by common SNPs. However, it is not known whether the remaining heritability is due to the imperfect tagging of causal variants by common SNPs, in particular...
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African Americans (AAs) experience a high burden of hypertension but have been underrepresented in genetic studies of blood pressure. We performed common and rare variant genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure, pulse pressure and hypertension in 95,457 AAs from the Million Veteran Program and Con...
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Background While large genome-wide association studies have identified nearly one thousand loci associated with variation in blood pressure, rare variant identification is still a challenge. In family-based cohorts, genome-wide linkage scans have been successful in identifying rare genetic variants for blood pressure. This study aims to identify lo...
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Background: Age at final menstrual period (FMP) and the accompanying hormone trajectories across the menopause transition do not occur in isolation, but likely share molecular pathways. Understanding the genetics underlying the endocrinology of the menopause transition may be enhanced by jointly analyzing multiple interrelated traits. Methods: I...
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OBJECTIVE Type 2 diabetes (T2D) has heterogeneous patient clinical characteristics and outcomes. In previous work, we investigated the genetic basis of this heterogeneity by clustering 94 T2D genetic loci using their associations with 47 diabetes-related traits and identified five clusters labeled: β-cell, proinsulin, obesity, lipodystrophy, and li...
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Background DNA methylation, an epigenetic mechanism modulated by lifestyle and environmental factors, may be an important biomarker of complex diseases including cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and subclinical atherosclerosis. Methods DNA methylation in peripheral blood samples from 391 African-Americans from the Genetic Epidemiology Network of Arte...
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Genetic studies on telomere length are important for understanding age-related diseases. Prior GWASs for leukocyte TL have been limited to European and Asian populations. Here, we report the first sequencing-based association study for TL across ancestrally diverse individuals (European, African, Asian, and Hispanic/Latino) from the NHLBI Trans-Omi...
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate, revise, and extend the Informed Consent Ontology (ICO) for expressing clinical permissions, including reuse of residual clinical biospecimens and health data. This study followed a formative evaluation design and used a bottom-up modeling approach. Data were collected from the literature on US federal regu...
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Increased blood lipid levels are heritable risk factors of cardiovascular disease with varied prevalence worldwide owing to different dietary patterns and medication use¹. Despite advances in prevention and treatment, in particular through reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels², heart disease remains the leading cause of death worldwi...
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A diverse set of driver genes, such as regulators of DNA methylation, RNA splicing, and chromatin remodeling, have been associated with pre-malignant clonal expansion of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). The factors mediating expansion of these mutant clones remain largely unknown, partially due to a paucity of large cohorts with longitudinal blood...
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Elevated serum urate levels, a complex trait and major risk factor for incident gout, are correlated with cardiometabolic traits via incompletely understood mechanisms. DNA methylation in whole blood captures genetic and environmental influences and is assessed in transethnic meta-analysis of epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) of serum urate...
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Chronic kidney disease is a major public health burden. Elevated urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio is a measure of kidney damage, and used to diagnose and stage chronic kidney disease. To extend the knowledge on regulatory mechanisms related to kidney function and disease, we conducted a blood-based epigenome-wide association study for estimated...
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Measures of information processing speed vary between individuals and decline with age. Studies of aging twins suggest heritability may be as high as 67%. The Illumina HumanExome Bead Chip genotyping array was used to examine the association of rare coding variants with performance on the Digit-Symbol Substitution Test (DSST) in community-dwelling...
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Large-scale gene sequencing studies for complex traits have the potential to identify causal genes with therapeutic implications. We performed gene-based association testing of blood lipid levels with rare (minor allele frequency < 1%) predicted damaging coding variation by using sequence data from >170,000 individuals from multiple ancestries: 97,...
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Background: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in European ancestry (EA) participants have identified many loci associated with cognitive function. However, the association between variants at these loci and cognition has not been evaluated in South Asians. Due to ancestral genetic heterogeneity, the functional SNPs/variants in South Asians ma...
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Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality among US adults. African Americans have higher burden of CVD morbidity and mortality compared to any other racial group. Identifying biomarkers for clinical risk prediction of CVD offers an opportunity for precision prevention and earlier intervention. Results Using linear m...
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Background Smoking remains one of the leading preventable causes of death. Smoking leaves a strong signature on the blood methylome as shown in multiple studies using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. Here, we explore novel blood methylation smoking signals on the Illumina MethylationEPIC BeadChip (EPIC) array, which also targets novel CpG...
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Background: Genome wide association studies (GWAS) conducted primarily in European Ancestry (EA) have identified hundreds of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are associated with general cognitive function. The association between these SNPs and cognitive function has not yet been evaluated in South Asians yet, either individually or in...
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Background Sleep-disordered breathing is a common disorder associated with significant morbidity. The genetic architecture of sleep-disordered breathing remains poorly understood. Through the NHLBI Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) program, we performed the first whole-genome sequence analysis of sleep-disordered breathing. Methods The s...
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Even though physical activity and sedentary behavior are moderately heritable, little is known about the mechanisms that influence these traits. Here, we combine data for up to 674,980 individuals from 51 studies in a trans-ancestry meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for self-reported moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity d...
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Objective: To determine the contribution of common genetic variants to risk of early onset ischemic stroke (IS). Methods: We performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of early onset IS, ages 18-59, using individual level data or summary statistics in 16,927 cases and 576,353 non-stroke controls from 48 different studies across No...
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Fine-mapping to plausible causal variation may be more effective in multi-ancestry cohorts, particularly in the MHC, which has population-specific structure. To enable such studies, we constructed a large (n = 21,546) HLA reference panel spanning five global populations based on whole-genome sequences. Despite population-specific long-range haploty...
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Causal mediation analysis aims to characterize an exposure's effect on an outcome and quantify the indirect effect that acts through a given mediator or a group of mediators of interest. With the increasing availability of measurements on a large number of potential mediators, like the epigenome or the microbiome, new statistical methods are needed...
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While exogenous administration of recombinant erythropoietin has been associated with increased risk of hypertension, coronary artery disease, and mortality, it is not known if endogenous circulating erythropoietin level is associated with coronary artery disease and its risk factors. We measured and analyzed epidemiological and genetic association...
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Reproductive longevity is essential for fertility and influences healthy ageing in women1,2, but insights into its underlying biological mechanisms and treatments to preserve it are limited. Here we identify 290 genetic determinants of ovarian ageing, assessed using normal variation in age at natural menopause (ANM) in about 200,000 women of Europe...
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Gauging the spectrum of human mutations It has become increasing clear that mutation affects phenotypic variation and disease risk across humans. However, there are many different types of mutation. Seplyarskiy et al . applied a matrix factorization method to large human genomic datasets to identify germline mutational processes in an unsupervised...
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We consider Bayesian high‐dimensional mediation analysis to identify among a large set of correlated potential mediators the active ones that mediate the effect from an exposure variable to an outcome of interest. Correlations among mediators are commonly observed in modern data analysis; examples include the activated voxels within connected regio...
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Background - Coronary artery calcification (CAC) and carotid artery intima-media thickness (cIMT) are measures of subclinical atherosclerosis in asymptomatic individuals and strong risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is an independent CVD risk factor that accelerates atherosclerosis. Methods - We performed meta-anal...
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Nurse scientists are increasingly interested in conducting secondary research using real world collections of biospecimens and health data. The purposes of this scoping review are to (a) identify federal regulations and norms that bear authority or give guidance over reuse of residual clinical biospecimens and health data, (b) summarize domain expe...
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Background Biological aging estimators derived from DNA methylation data are heritable and correlate with morbidity and mortality. Consequently, identification of genetic and environmental contributors to the variation in these measures in populations has become a major goal in the field. Results Leveraging DNA methylation and SNP data from more t...