# Shane R. Cloude's research while affiliated with Dental Advisor and other places

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## Publications (155)

In this study, we advance a new family of model-based decompositions adapted for dual-pol synthetic aperture radar data. These are formulated using the Stokes vector formalism, coupled to mappings from full quad-pol decomposition theory. A generalized model-based decomposition is developed, which allows separation of an arbitrary Stokes vector into...

In this paper we develop a new approach to the calibration of polarimetric radar data based on two key ideas. The first is the use of in-scene trihedral corner reflectors not only for radiometric and geometric calibration but also to completely remove any receiver distortion components. Secondly, we then show that the remaining transmitter distorti...

In this paper we outline a new approach to the analysis of polarimetric synthetic aperture (POLSAR) data. Here we exploit target orthogonality as a multi-dimensional extension of wave orthogonality, familiar on the Poincaré sphere. We first show how to formulate a general basis for a complex orthogonal scattering space using a generalization of the...

In this paper, we consider a new method for forest canopy height estimation using TanDEM-X single-pass radar interferometry. We exploit available information from sample-based, space-borne LiDAR systems, such as the Global Ecosystem Dynamics Investigation (GEDI) sensor, which offers high-resolution vertical profiling of forest canopies. To respond...

This study proposes, for the first time, an approach to remove thermal noise from the wave coherency matrix, C₂, estimated from single-look complex dual-polarization Interferometric Wide Swath mode Sentinel-1 synthetic aperture radar data. The approach is straightforward; it exploits the ThermalNoiseRemoval module, provided by the European Space Ag...

We advance what we believe is a novel eigenvalue-based method for calibrating Mueller matrix polarimeters employing a single calibration optical component: a polarizer. The method is potentially advantageous in high numerical aperture imaging or wide spectral range spectroscopic polarimetric configurations restricting or even prohibiting the standa...

In our previous studies, we demonstrated the usefulness of TanDEM-X interferometric bistatic mode with single polarization to obtain forest heights for the purposes of large area mapping. A key feature of our approach has been the use of a simplified Random Volume Over Ground (RVOG) model that locally estimates forest height. The model takes TanDEM...

In this letter, we present a new algorithm for the detection of objects embedded in unwanted background signal. We employ systems in radar and optics capable of measuring the full polarimetric response via either the Mueller matrix or the complex scattering matrix. We first solve an optimization problem to find the maximum signal in the null subspa...

In this paper, we demonstrate the feasibility of using TanDEM-X (TX) interferometric coherence data for mapping forest height with 25-m pixels across a study area near Fort Simpson, Northwest Territories (NWT), Canada. Our simplified RVOG model locally estimates forest height by combining an optimized estimation of TX interferometric coherence ampl...

Compact polarimetry (CP) offers a tradeoff with fully polarimetric modes in terms of swath width, power budget, and polarimetric information content. In this letter, a classification comparison is made among real CP, simulated CP (SCP), and quad polarimetric (QP) data acquired from the L-band SAR system onboard the ALOS-2 satellite. The Wishart sup...

In this paper, we consider the problem of true transmitter polarization state estimation for circular compact SAR modes. We employ two methods—the first using point targets such as trihedral reflectors, and the second, a new method, based on the Pauli phase observed over distributed targets like forest canopy. We first show how compact modes allow...

In this paper, we consider the problem of radar estimation of forest canopy height in regions with dense forests and severe topography. We combine a reference digital elevation model with multiple satellite baselines from ascending and descending orbits to develop a merging algorithm relating single pass interferometric coherence to forest canopy h...

In this paper, we report results of a study aimed at assessing the potential for using X-band single-pass radar interferometric coherence for forest canopy height estimation. We use datasets from the Tandem-X satellite pair collected over Canadian forest test sites, where supporting lidar data are available for validation. We first employ dual-copo...

The coherent nature of the acquisition by TerraSAR-X of both copolar channels (HH and VV) enables the generation of many different polarimetric observables with physical interpretation, as have recently been used for monitoring rice fields. In this letter, the influence of incidence angle upon these polarimetric observables is analyzed by comparing...

A set of ten RADARSAT-2 images acquired in fully polarimetric mode over a test site with rice fields in Seville, Spain, has been analyzed to extract the main features of the C-band radar backscatter as a function of rice phenology. After observing the evolutions versus phenology of different polarimetric observables and explaining their behavior in...

In modern society, the anthropogenic influences on ecosystems are central points to understand the evolution of our planet. A polarimetric synthetic aperture radar may have a significant contribution in tackling problems concerning land use change, since such data are available with any-weather conditions. Additionally, the discrimination capabilit...

The feasibility of retrieving the phenological stage of rice fields at a particular date by employing coherent copolar dual-pol X-band radar images acquired by the TerraSAR-X sensor has been investigated in this paper. A set of polarimetric observables that can be derived from this data type has been studied by using a time series of images gathere...

Climate change is increasing the frequency and size of wildfire events in Canada's forests. The size, distribution, and remoteness of boreal forest fire events make them a challenge to accurately monitor. Radarsat-2 is all-weather radar technology and offers high spatial resolution, cross polarization, polarimetric capabilities, and a wide swath wi...

1. ABSTRACT In this paper, biomass estimations are compared using quadpol ALOS PALSAR, TerraSAR-X and LIDAR data over Glen Affric, Scotland. Biomass was retrieved from the ALOS PALSAR and TerraSAR-X data using Yamaguchi decomposition to obtain useful information about the scattering mechanisms. A regression equation is obtained from the establishme...

This work presents a study about the evolution of the radar response of rice fields at X-band as a function of their phenology, by using three time series of coherent HHVV dual-pol X-band radar images acquired by the TerraSAR-X sensor at different incidence angles during a whole cultivation season. After analyzing a wide set of polarimetric observa...

In this paper we provide a review of developments in the field of polarimetric SAR interferometry or POLInSAR, beginning with its origins in data from the SIR-C mission in 1994 and culminating in its latest application to Tandem-X, a space-borne single pass X-Band interferometer launched in 2010. Linking these two important developments in technolo...

Several POLInSAR methodologies are based on the concept of polarimetric and interferometric coherence [1]. Many of them assume the scattering mechanisms observed at the two interferometric acquisitions are the same (i.e. equi-scattering mechanism, ESM). However, if the scatterers change, different approaches must be employed. In order to select the...

Tandem-X – successfully launched in June 2010 – forms with TerraSAR-X the first single-pass (single- dual- and quad-) polarimetric interferometer in space. This allows for the first time the acquisition and analysis of Pol-InSAR data in X-band from space without the disturbing effect of temporal decorrelation.
In this paper TerraSAR-X – TanDEM-X d...

Target detectors using polarimetry are often focused on single (coherent) targets, since these are the ones that can be more simply characterized polarimetrically. The new proposed algorithm is aimed at the more difficult problem of partial target detection (i.e. targets with any degree of polarization). A new feature vector is defined starting fro...

Target detectors using polarimetry are often focused on single targets, since these are characterised more simply and in a deterministic way. The algorithm proposed in this paper is aimed at the more difficult problem of partial target detection (i.e. targets with any degree of polarisation). In order to carry out the detection we need to define a...

The contribution of synthetic aperture radar polarimetry in target detection is described and found to add valuable information. A new target detection methodology that makes novel use of the polarization fork of the target is described. The detector is based on a correlation procedure in the target space, and other target representations (e.g., Hu...

Polarimetry has been demonstrating to be a valuable instrument for classification of scenery. Two approaches are classically attempted: a physical and statistical one. In this paper, a physical approach is presented, based on the partial target detector recently presented by the authors. The classification is achieved performing several detections...

In this paper we review recent developments in scattering theory related to applications involving polarised electromagnetic waves. We concentrate on applications in random media where second and higher order moments of the scattered field are important. We split the discussion into surface and volume scattering effects and consider each separately...

In this paper we apply an entropy analysis to measured scattering matrices from the Amsterdam light scattering database. We select examples of mineral aerosols from the database and use them to demonstrate differences in polarization behavior between the particle clouds using a new coherency matrix formulation. These differences are further investi...

This paper deals with a new class of localized point targets we call polarized point scatterers (PPS). They can be detected from Quadpol SAR data by using a two-dimensional filter, employing an eigenvalue/alpha threshold. They can then be used to estimate the dielectric constant of the target using a simple scattering model. We first consider the b...

The objective of this paper is to make a review of the current status of the PolSARpro v4.0 Software (Polarimetric SAR Data Processing and Educational Toolbox), developed under contract to ESA by a consortium comprising I.E.T.R at the University of Rennes 1, AELc, DLR-HR and Dr mark Williams from Adelaide. The objective of this current project is t...

In this paper we develop a new statistical test to determine whether quad or dual (including compact) polarisation modes are best for use in low frequency SAR applications. We first consider a general formulation of dual/compact modes and use it to expose a fundamental weakness in compact reconstruction algorithms. We then show how all dualpol scat...

In this paper we introduce a new algorithm for radar estimation of the vertical structure of vegetated land surfaces. The algorithm is based on a low frequency 3-D image reconstruction using polarization coherence tomography or PCT. We first summarize the technique, present a new method for selecting the optimum interferometric baseline and then ap...

In this letter, we consider a dual-baseline formulation of coherence tomography and show how practical application of the method is limited by numerical stability. To help reduce this, we propose a regularization technique based on a matrix singular value decomposition to stabilize the inversion. We then apply the new dual-baseline algorithm to gro...

In this section we consider the problem of radar detection of stationary targets obscured by foliage clutter. This is a classical detection problem for which the usual solution approach is to reduce the radar centre frequency as far as possible, so minimising scattering by the foliage while hopefully maintaining a significant target response. These...

In this paper we consider ways in which macroscopic symmetries impact on the structure and information content of scattering matrices in vector electromagnetic theory. We show how these symmetries can lead to a consistent and complete parameterization of depolarization behaviour and examine the potential for using these ideas to extract information...

This paper discusses PolSARpro v3.0, the free educational software developed under contract to the European Space Agency by a consortium led by IETR at the University of Rennes, France. This paper gives an introduction to the PolSARpro toolbox, its philosophy and utility, and in particular describes the theory and implementation of the coherent for...

Recently, a new radar imaging technique-Polarization Coherence Tomography or PCT - has been proposed in the literature. This technique uses the variation of interferometric coherence with polarization to reconstruct a vertical profile function in penetrable volume scattering. In this paper we apply PCT for the first time to ground-based polarimetri...

In this paper we introduce a new radar-imaging technique, called polarization coherence tomography (PCT), which employs variation of the interferometric coherence with polarization to reconstruct a vertical profile function in penetrable volume scattering. We first show how this profile function can be efficiently represented as a Fourier-Legendre...

We investigate multichannel imaging radar systems employing coherent combinations of polarimetry and interferometry (Pol-InSAR). Such systems are well suited for the extraction of bio- and geophysical parameters by evaluating the combined scattering from surfaces and volumes. This combination leads to several important differences between the desig...

The performance of quantitative remote sensing based on multidimensional synthetic aperture radars (SARs), and polarimetric SAR systems in particular, depends strongly on a correct statistical characterization of the data, i.e., on a complete knowledge of the effects of the speckle noise. In this framework, the eigendecompostion of the covariance o...

In this paper we present an analysis of the potential for
implementing polarimetric SAR Interferometry (POLInSAR)
with the new L band phased array SAR sensor (PALSAR) to be
launched on board the JAXA-ALOS satellite. We first summarise
a new system design concept, the phase tube, we have developed
for general POLInSAR assessment and then present a d...

In this letter we develop a new concept, the negative alpha filter, which we suggest has application for quantitative estimation of surface parameters beneath vegetation using polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferometry (POLInSAR). We first derive the filter and then validate it using simulations of L-band coherent forest scattering....

Spaceborne polarimetric SAR interferometry enables quantitative measurements of important bio- and geophysical parameters of the Earth surface on a global scale. We will first give a short review about actual and planned spaceborne SAR missions that can provide the observation space required for the derivation of Pol-InSAR products. This overview i...

In the last years the quantitative bio/geo physical agricultural and land-use parameter estimation has attained significant importance, driven by the development of new techniques and algorithms and the availability of new multi- parameter data sets. In this work the behaviour of agricultural vegetation in terms of polarimetric interferometric SAR...

Although the problems of soil moisture and surface roughness estimation of bare surfaces have been extensively analyzed in terms of conventional polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data, the information content of polarimetric interferometric SAR (Pol-InSAR) data regarding surface parameters has not yet been fully investigated. We consider...

The quality of an interferogram of two SAR images is measured by a concept called coherence. Coherence is inversely proportional to the interferogram phase variance. Since the interferogram phase is sensitive to the terrain topography, coherence maximization has a potential application in DEM generation. In this paper, the interferometric coherence...

In this paper we develop a multi-layer coherent polarimetric vegetation scattering model to investigate physical parameter estimation using fully polarimetric multi-baseline multi-frequency radar interferometry. It is shown that 2-layer model inversion for single baseline/single frequency sensors requires regularisation to remove multiple solutions...

The report contains the detailed description of the work carried out in the study, aimed at identifying and developing new possibilities for retrieving bio- and geophysical variables for land applications from interferometric SAR (InSAR) data. Based on literature review and theory various variables were identified as candidates for new InSAR algori...

Proposes a new model for the inversion of surface roughness and soil moisture from polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data, based on the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the polarimetric coherency matrix. It demonstrates how three polarimetric parameters, namely the scattering entropy (H), the scattering anisotropy (A), and the alpha angle...

In this paper we re-examine the entropy alpha approach to radar polarimetry and show how the basic method may be augmented by the addition of two new polarizing parameters, the propagation and helicity phase angles and three depolarizing parameters, the anisotropy A and two depolarizing eigenvector angles. We apply the technique to Polarimetric AIR...

In this paper we have presented an MRA homogenization approach for electromagnetic radiation and propagation in the presence
of complex laminates. The formulation addresses a general 3D source configuration via plane-wave spectral expansion, yet here
we have limited our study to a single plane wave (single spectral parameter ξ), emphasizing the UWB...

Diversified Technologies, Inc. (DTI) has successfully developed and demonstrated a highly efficient and reliable new approach
to solid state switching that can be used in a wide range of high power microwave systems. Switches using this approach are
shown in Figure 1 and Figure 2.
Multiple switch modules can be combined in series and parallel to m...

Evanescent modes or the tunnelling process are characterized by an imaginary wave number. These special solutions of the Helmholtz
and of the Schrödinger equations first noticed in connection with the total reflection were said to have no physical meaning
about 200 years ago. Last century the tunnelling problem in quantum mechanics has been describ...

The above discussion shows that flat electromagnetic resonators partially filled with dielectric substances are excellent
systems for studying ray-splitting phenomena. Due to a formal equivalence of the stationary Maxwell equations and the quantum
Schrödinger equation, flat ray-splitting cavities are also suitable for the study of ray splitting and...

Pulsed synchronized antenna array 2×2 has been built and tested. Array radiates monocycle of 0.5 ns length, ∼2 GHz center
frequency. Total radiated power ∼80 kW, efficient potential ∼11 kV, beam width ∼80×140 at 0.7 level. The array showed perfect summation of field intensity of partial radiators.

The FRI-CIRA-1 provides broadband antenna coverage in a single compact package that is easily portable.
The antenna has outstanding RF characteristics in both the frequency and time domains. In the time domain, it has an impulse
response with FWHM of 70 ps and mid band effective height of 30 cm. In the frequency domain, the peak gain at 4 GHz is 2...

We establish a connection between the Lyapunov exponent and SB ray methods which places a limit on the ability to make numerically
deterministic or convergent predictions. When this limit is reached the ray fields are essentially random. One method, valid
for ergodic straight ducts, is to represent the random ray field component by a field composed...

The complete frequency-domain fields due to a vertical magnetic dipole on the surface of a two-layered ground have been derived
in an analytical form. In these expressions, the displacement currents in the air and in the ground are taken into consideration.
The previously obtained approximate solution [7] is found to be the late time part of the pr...

In many current forward and inverse scattering scenarios, there is a need for numerically efficient robust forward solvers
for fields excited by distributed sources in the presence of complex environments. This motivation has led us to re-visit
the previously developed FD narrow-waisted Gaussian beam algorithms (Maciel and Felsen, 1989; 1990a,b) an...

IPCP provides a new approach to large target detection using high resolution UWB signals, and provides detection nearly equivalent
to traditional correlator for high false alarm rates.
It is a small step from optimal detection to adjusting the filter for special classes of targets. Selective target detection
will be useful for many special radar a...

On the basis of numerical simulations of different GPR scenarios and field experience the technical requirements for the impulse
GPR system specialized on detection and identification of small and shallow buried objects have been formulated. These requirements
have been partly realized in the video impulse ground penetrating radar system developed...

In this paper, we consider the determination of electromagnetic flelds for a (large) number of values of a physical parameter. We restrict ourselves to the case where the linear system originates from one or more integral equations. we apply an iterative procedure based on the minimization of an integrated squared error, and start this procedure fr...

The obtained results present a realization of the first stage of the research program on the development of the methods and
technology of the ultrawideband radars. Subsequent investigations are related to the development of combined antennas excited
by the bipolar ≤1-ns long pulses, high-power UWB sources on the basis of multielement arrays with th...