Sergio Fernandez's research while affiliated with Indiana University Bloomington and other places

Publications (36)

Article
The field of public administration offers differing perspectives on the contributions of senior managers and street‐level bureaucrats to performance, focusing generally on the presence rather than absence of these actors in the policy process. This study explores whether job vacancies among senior managers and lower‐level employees affect service d...
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Contracting out has long been used in all levels of government in the United States, with federal contract spending increasing 8% to 9% annually since 2015. The literature on contracting out has examined the impact of this practice on the work-related attitudes and motivation of public employees who have transitioned to work for private contractors...
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Public organisations have long sought new ways to enhance organisational performance and employee morale, bring about organisational change, and foster innovations. While governments across the world have continually embarked upon administrative reform efforts, the efficacy and adoption of such reforms remains understudied. This study explores whet...
Chapter
This chapter provides the theoretical foundation for the empirical analysis that follows, focusing on the theory of representative bureaucracy. It begins with a discussion of bureaucratic accountability and the various means used to control the bureaucracy, including representative bureaucracy. The discussion then critically examines the theory of...
Chapter
This chapter positions administrative reform and demographic transformation of the South African bureaucracy within the context of the ANC government’s efforts to address the legacy of apartheid. For nearly two decades, the ANC has pursued an ambitious and far-reaching policy agenda whose central thrust has been to undo the harm caused by apartheid...
Chapter
The discussion begins with a brief historical overview of racial oppression and exploitation in South Africa, including the period of apartheid. The critical role played by the bureaucracy in realizing the National Party’s vision for a racially separated and white dominated South Africa is explained. The discussion then shifts to the apartheid bure...
Chapter
This chapter investigates the impact of representation of historically disadvantaged groups and workforce diversity on organizational performance in South Africa. Multivariate regression analysis is used to analyse longitudinal data from a ten-year panel of national departments. The empirical analysis offers compelling evidence that representative...
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This chapter discusses the study’s limitations and its implications for researchers, policymakers, and public managers.
Article
Despite the proliferation of published work using the U.S. Office of Personnel Management’s (OPM) Federal Employee Viewpoint Survey (FEVS) data, the scholarly community to date lacks a review of the practices and value associated with how scholars have used the survey data in their research. We turn a lens at the public administration research that...
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We develop a conceptual framework that integrates and extends existing explanations of outsourcing’s effects on the government workforce and organizational performance. We then test our logic using 5 years of panel data (2010-2014) from U.S. federal agencies. The evidence presents modest negative effects of outsourcing on organizational performance...
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Researchers have long recognized administrative reform as a constant feature of American public administration. The employee engagement initiative of the U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM) has become one of the most prominent administrative reforms underway in the federal government. Like many reforms, the veracity of claims about this refor...
Article
Representative bureaucracy is a critical element of modern public administration and governance. Since the advent of nonracial democracy, the South African government has transformed the apartheid bureaucracy into a new public service that closely mirrors the country's diverse population. Questions remain, however, about how this demographic transf...
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Research suggests that job scarcity affects voluntary turnover in an organization, but there is no consensus on the exact role of job scarcity in the voluntary turnover process. We develop an integrative model that treats job scarcity as a direct antecedent of voluntary turnover as well as a moderator of other antecedents. Based on a panel of 185 f...
Article
In response to police-involved homicides of black citizens in Ferguson, Missouri, and elsewhere, some have suggested that more black police officers could reduce the number of these events. The authors offer an empirical test of this assertion. The literature offers conflicting expectations: some studies suggest that increased representation reduce...
Article
Research has demonstrated that management influences the performance of public organizations, but almost no research has explored how the success or failure of a public organization influences the decisions of those who manage it. Arguing that many decisions by public managers are analogous to risky choice, the authors use a well-validated model of...
Article
The transformation of the South African Public Service into a bureaucracy that is broadly representative of the population is one of the most significant public sector reforms to occur since the end of apartheid. Grounded in the theory of representative bureaucracy, this study examines demographic representation in the South African Public Service...
Article
Although significant progress has been made in developing leadership theory and understanding the traits, skills, behaviors, and styles that make a good leader, progress in bridging the gap between theory and practice using models of leadership training and development has been slow. This research attempts to answer the question of whether leadersh...
Article
Since 2002, the U.S. Office of Personnel Management has used the Federal Employee Viewpoint Survey (FEVS) to monitor efforts by federal executive agencies to manage human capital. Public management researchers have used FEVS data to produce dozens of peer-reviewed publications on a range of topics of interest to policy makers, practitioners, and ac...
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Full-text available
Employee empowerment practices have been widely adopted in public organizations in Europe, the Pacific Rim, and North America. In this study, employee empowerment is conceptualized as a multifaceted approach composed of various practices aimed at sharing information, resources, rewards, and authority with lower level employees. Self-Determination T...
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The last three decades have witnessed the spread of employee empowerment practices throughout the public and private sectors. A growing body of evidence suggests that employee empowerment can be used to improve job satisfaction, organizational commitment, innovativeness, and performance. Nearly all previous empirical studies have analyzed the direc...
Article
The U.S. Congress created the small disadvantaged business (SDB) and women-owned small business (WOSB) programs to promote fairness in government contracting. In this study, we examine whether increases in racial and gender representation in federal agencies correlates with the proportion of contracting dollars awarded to women- and minority-owned...
Chapter
Government’s increasing reliance on alternative service delivery arrangements is one of the most striking developments in public administration over the past three decades. We see no signs of the trend abating anytime soon. On the contrary, the fiscal challenges brought about by the recent recession are likely to exacerbate government’s reliance on...
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Employee empowerment programs have been widely adopted in the public sector as a way to improve organizational performance. Empowered employees improve performance largely by finding innovative ways of correcting errors in service delivery and redesigning work processes. Failure to encourage innovation can seriously undermine the effectiveness of e...
Article
Why do U.S. federal government employees choose to leave the federal service? By focusing on turnover intentions, this article develops propositions about why employees anticipate leaving their jobs along three dimensions: (1) demographic factors, (2) workplace satisfaction factors, and (3) organizational/relational factors. Two distinct measures o...
Article
In a period of ongoing public sector reform in the United States (US), federal government agencies have been pushed to find new ways of performing their public functions more effectively and efficiently. Frontline public sector employees are a particularly vital source of innovations in organisational function and form. This study seeks to identify...
Article
Much of the appeal of performance measurement is explained by its image as a simple and value-neutral way to monitor and improve government. But contemporary governance is characterized by complexity. Few public officials have the luxury of directly providing relatively simple services, the context in which performance regimes work best. Instead, t...
Article
This study develops the concept of integrated leadership in the public sector. Integrated leadership is conceived as the combination of five leadership roles that are performed collectively by employees and managers at different levels of the hierarchy. The leadership roles are task-, relations-, change-, diversity-, and integrity-oriented leadersh...
Article
The federal government increasingly relies on nongovernmental organizations for procuring goods and services. This long-term trend presents a significant challenge for administrators because it risks the egalitarian values of democracy by further distancing administrative action from direct, participative, democratic oversight. The authors put forw...
Article
In this article we examine the state of public management research, specifically focusing on the scope of research and variety of methodologies pursued in the field. We use a sample of manuscripts from three successive meetings of the Public Management Research Association to explore these issues. Our analysis is organized along four themes that ha...
Article
In an effort to bring some order to the leadership literature and integrate existing knowledge on the topic of leadership, some scholars have begun to develop integrative frameworks of leadership. Integrative frameworks incorporate leadership skills, traits, behaviors, and styles and situational variables in a single theoretical model to explain a...
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Full-text available
For more than a decade, public organizations have been adopting employee empowerment with the aim of improving performance and job satisfaction and promoting innovativeness. Our understanding of employee empowerment has been hindered by a dearth of empirical research on its uses and consequences in the public sector. Based on Bowen and Lawler's con...
Article
Full-text available
Since 2002, the U.S. Office of Personnel Management has used the Federal Employee Viewpoint Survey (FEVS) to monitor efforts by federal executive agencies to manage human capital. Public management researchers have used FEVS data to produce dozens of peer-reviewed publications on a range of topics of interest to policy makers, practitioners, and ac...

Citations

... what are the key determinants of innovation in the public sector? Why do some public organizations actively adopt and experiment with new technologies to improve their services while others are found to lag? Several previous studies have explored the determinants and conditions for innovation in the context of public organizations (Arundel et al., 2019;Cepparulo & Zanfei, 2021;Clausen et al., 2020;Cinar et al., 2019;Demircioglu, 2017;Demircioglu andAudretsch, 2017, 2020;De Vries et al., 2018;Epstein, 2022;Faber et al. 2020;Hameduddin et al. 2020;Hartley et al., 2013;Liang et al. 2017;Pittaway and Montazemi, 2020;Suzuki & Demircioglu 2019;Vickers et al. 2017). However, relatively few have focused on the reasons why public organizations adopt these new technologies specifically to transform their service delivery. ...
... There are two main tenets of this theory. First, passive representation occurs when an agency is demographically similar to the community that it serves; and second, passive representation is likely to produce benefits (active representation) for the individuals within that community (Fernandez, 2020;Krislov, 1974;Long, 1952;Meier, 1993;Meier & Nigro, 1976;Mosher, 1982;Selden, Brudney, & Kellough, 1998;Van Riper, 1958). ...
... We tested the hypothesized model using structural equation modeling (SEM), which can address the effects of measurement errors of the latent variables, thus increasing the reliability of the results over regression or ANOVA (Edwards, 2009). Moreover, SEM can be used to simultaneously test multiple paths, which is effective and appropriate for the hypothesized model in the present study (Resh et al., 2021). Since the observed variables are ordinal, the hypothesized model was tested with the distribution-free diagonally weighted least squares estimation (DWLS) (Li, 2016(Li, , 2021. ...
... Rather, new organizational structures are focused, and thus these theories appear to be as such inadequate in terms of capturing this concurrent strategy. As transformational outsourcing wishes to create an adaptive, and modular organization, scholars have considered modular systems theory as a possible theoretical base.Lee et al., [15] urged that outsourcing affects perceived performance through its influence on job satisfaction. ...
... Otherwise, one could consider the aggregation of attitudes by small or smaller workgroups. One example outside the scope of bureaucratic polarization is Hameduddin & Fernandez (2019), who aggregate the attitudes of managers and subordinates by agency to better estimate group preferences. ...
... Representative bureaucracy (RB) theory holds that higher levels of representation of the public's characteristicsincluding race, sex, and other characteristicsamong bureaucrats in a public organization will lead to higher levels of desired outcomes (Kennedy 2014;Kingsley 1944;Krislov 2013;Kenneth John Meier 1975;2019;Mosher 1982; see also Bishu and Kennedy 2019 for a meta-analytic review). Theory predicts that the identification bureaucrats have with those of similar demographic characteristics (Mosher 1968;Meier 2019), and that service recipients have with bureaucrats (Theobald and Haider-Markel 2008), will lead to favorable outcomes for that group and its members, as well as better agency performance (Fernandez 2020;Fernandez, Koma, and Lee 2018). This performance is a manifestation, RB theory suggests, of bureaucrats' shared characteristics translating to outcomes that benefit those being represented through active representation (AR), symbolic representation (SR), other mechanisms (e.g. ...
... Outgoing employees do not work at full capacity, they carry (often to the competition) with their important knowledge and their leaving and replacement cost the facility time and money. Our findings are consistent with many studies and findings reported in the scientific literature on the significant impact of internal factors on the rate of fluctuation in companies (Kim and Yi, 2018;Han and Jekel, 2011;Lee et al., 2017;Hausknecht and Holwerda, 2013). It is therefore recommended to focus on the inside of the organization to eliminate the causes of fluctuations. ...
... Antiblack policing in both countries is therefore not simply an issue of racist, white police. Attempts at diversification have not reduced assaults on black lives (Baker et al., 2020;Nicholson-Crotty et al., 2017). ...
... Nicholson-Crotty et al. Nicholson-Crotty et al. [62] showed that public sector employees are less likely to take risks when their performance meets expectations. Therefore, perceiving public sector employees as engaging in blame avoidance behaviors is natural. ...
... They also provided promising answers to the organisational deadlock involved in focusing on traditional competence management and non-existent cross-sectoral co-operation. To put Sitra training experience into a more overall leadership training context, it can be argued following Seidle et al. (2016), who have recently underlined that a combination of coaching, classroom instruction, feedback, and experiential training has a significant impact on leader performance. ...