Scott O. Lilienfeld's research while affiliated with University of Melbourne and other places

Publications (473)

Article
Full-text available
Relatively little is known about the relations between psychopathic traits and interpersonally-directed versus organizationally-directed workplace behaviors despite the implications of these traits for maladaptive (e.g., bullying, harassing, white-collar crime, slacking) and adaptive (e.g., improving the workplace, supporting others) workplace beha...
Article
A growing cadre of influential scholars has converged on a circumscribed definition of empathy as restricted only to feeling the same emotion that one perceives another is feeling. We argue that this restrictive isomorphic matching (RIM) definition is deeply problematic because (1) it deviates dramatically from traditional conceptualizations of emp...
Article
For more than 30 years, the posttraumatic model (PTM) and the sociocognitive model (SCM) of dissociation have vied for attention and empirical support. We contend that neither perspective provides a satisfactory account and that dissociation and dissociative disorders (e.g., depersonalization/ derealization disorder, dissociative identity disorder)...
Chapter
Psychopathy is a contentious construct with respect to both theory and operationalization. A number of myths, misconceptions, and fallacies regarding the assessment of psychopathy hinder scientific progress and impede this construct’s applied consideration across settings and contexts. We review these widespread erroneous ideas with an eye to guidi...
Article
In three samples (Ns = 286, 304, and 273), we found that endorsement of conspiracy theories, paranormal beliefs, and psychological misconceptions were all positively intercorrelated, supporting an individual difference in the tendency to generally endorse unsubstantiated claims. Multiple regression analyses further supported generality, showing tha...
Preprint
Full-text available
The rigidity-of-the-right hypothesis (RRH), which posits that cognitive, motivational, and ideological rigidity resonate with political conservatism, is the dominant psychological account of political ideology. Here, we conduct an extensive review of the RRH, using multilevel meta-analysis to examine relations between varieties of rigidity and ideo...
Article
Charles Sanders Peirce (1839-1914) was one of the most polymathically brilliant scientific thinkers in American history. He was also arguably the first American experimental psychologist, strongly influencing some of the nation’s earliest modern psychology pioneers. Yet partly because of the lasting effects of personal scandals and powerful enemies...
Article
Authoritarianism has been the subject of scientific inquiry for nearly a century, yet the vast majority of authoritarianism research has focused on right-wing authoritarianism. In the present studies, we investigate the nature, structure, and nomological network of left-wing authoritarianism (LWA), a construct famously known as “the Loch Ness Monst...
Article
Full-text available
Left‐wing authoritarianism (LWA) has a controversial history in psychology. Some researchers have expressed skepticism about the existence of LWA, whereas others have argued that LWA is a valid construct. In the present article, we offer a framework to reconcile these two perspectives by proposing that ideologically based authoritarian norms are so...
Article
In recent years, an upsurge of polarization has been a salient feature of political discourse in America. A small but growing body of research has examined the potential relevance of intellectual humility (IH) to political polarization. In the present investigation, we extend this work to political myside bias, testing the hypothesis that IH is ass...
Preprint
Full-text available
In recent years, an upsurge of polarization has been a salient feature of political discourse in America. A small but growing body of research has examined the potential relevance of intellectual humility (IH) to political polarization. In the present investigation, we extend this work to political myside bias, testing the hypothesis that IH is ass...
Article
Context Dolphin‐assisted therapy (DAT) is a popular form of animal‐assisted therapy for autism spectrum disorders and other psychological conditions. Objective In this review, our third, we analyze the most recent DAT studies in terms of construct and internal validity criteria to determine if there is empirical support for DAT. Method To ensure...
Preprint
Full-text available
Left-Wing Authoritarianism (LWA) has a controversial history in psychology. Some researchers have expressed skepticism about the existence of LWA, whereas others have argued that LWA is a valid construct. In the present article, we offer a framework to reconcile these two perspectives by proposing that ideologically-based authoritarian norms are so...
Article
Full-text available
Based on converging research, we concluded that the controversial topic of unconscious blockage of psychological trauma –i.e., repressed memory- remains very much alive in clinical, legal, and academic contexts (Otgaar et al., 2019). In his commentary, Brewin (in press) conducted a co-citation analysis and concluded that scholars do not adhere to t...
Article
Dissociative disorders are conditions marked by discontinuities in the normal integration of consciousness, memory, identity, emotion, perception, body representation, motor control, and behavior. Dissociative disorders include dissociative amnesia, depersonalization/derealization disorder, and dissociative identity disorder. This entry reviews the...
Article
Dissociative disorders are conditions marked by discontinuities in the normal integration of consciousness, memory, identity, emotion, perception, body representation, motor control, and behavior. Dissociative disorders include dissociative amnesia, depersonalization/derealization disorder, and dissociative identity disorder. This entry reviews the...
Article
Right–left political views can be decomposed into distinct economic and social dimensions that bear differing relations with external criteria. In three community samples (total N = 1,487), we identified replicable suppressor situations in which statistically controlling for either social or economic political ideology increased the other ideology...
Article
Full-text available
Forensic evaluations of insanity have recently borne witness to an influx of neuroimaging methods, especially structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography, to assist in the development of explanations that help to excuse legal responsibility for criminal behavior. The results of these scanning methods have b...
Article
A robust literature demonstrates that psychopathology and personality pathology are well-represented within quantitatively-derived, hierarchical dimensional models. Nevertheless, the location of core traits comprising psychopathic personality (psychopathy) as defined by the triarchic model has not been clearly explicated. We extended hierarchical s...
Article
We critique Roy et al.'s (2020; this issue) approach to characterizing the item-level factor structure of the three scales of the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure (TriPM), in light of the manner in which the TriPM scales were developed, the purposes they were designed to serve, and the growing body of evidence supporting their construct validity. We f...
Article
Although the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) and Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI) ostensibly measure the same construct, they seem to emphasize different conceptions of psychopathy. This study was designed to clarify these differences by testing how well the PCL-R and PPI map alternative conceptions of psychopathy. Construct validity...
Preprint
In this review, we traverse the long and fascinating journey of the clinical trial, which started with a variety of attempts to examine the effectiveness of psychological and medical interventions, and only later incorporated randomization, blinding, and use of placebos. We also briefly explore why many of these early discoveries were resisted or o...
Preprint
Full-text available
Right-left political views can be decomposed into distinct economic and social dimensions that bear differing relations with external criteria. In three community samples (total N = 1487), we identified replicable suppressor situations in which statistically controlling for either social or economic political ideology increased the other ideology d...
Article
Objective We sought to replicate and extend provisional research on the personological correlates of conspiracy beliefs by examining their associations with abnormal‐ and normal‐range personality domain‐level traits and, for the first time, lower‐order personality facets; we also examined internalizing symptoms. Method The study comprised four sam...
Article
Full-text available
We show that, in contrast to Brewin, Li, Ntarantana, Unsowrth, and McNeilis (2019), large proportions of laypersons believe in the scientifically controversial phenomenon of unconscious repressed memories. We provide new survey data showing that when participants are asked specific questions about what they mean when they report that traumatic memo...
Article
The extent to which individual differences in personality traits and cognitive styles diminish affective polarization (AP) is largely unknown. We address this gap by examining whether intellectual humility (IH) buffers against AP. We examined the associations between domain-general and domain-specific measures of IH, on the one hand, and AP, on the...
Article
Reflective practice has gained traction in clinical psychology largely to address the fact that practitioners must frequently “use their heads” when scientific data are not readily available. Despite their widespread adoption, reflective practice techniques are largely lacking in supportive outcome evidence. We contend that the reflective practice...
Preprint
Full-text available
Authoritarianism has been the subject of scientific inquiry for nearly a century, yet the vast majority of authoritarianism research has focused on right-wing authoritarianism. In the present studies, we investigate the nature, structure, and nomological network of left-wing authoritarianism (LWA), a construct famously known as “the Loch Ness Monst...
Preprint
Evidence-based therapies stemmed from the movement toward evidence-based medicine, and later, evidence-based practice (EBP) in psychology and allied fields. EBP reflects a progressive historical shift from naïve empiricism, which is based on raw and untutored observations of patient change, to systematic empiricism, which refines and hones such obs...
Preprint
Full-text available
Philosophers have long speculated that authoritarianism and belief in determinism are functionally related. To evaluate this hypothesis, we assessed whether authoritarianism and allied personality and political variables predict varieties of belief in determinism in three community samples (N1 = 566 to 20,010; N2 = 500; N3 = 419). Authoritarianism...
Article
Philosophers have long speculated that authoritarianism and belief in determinism are functionally related. To evaluate this hypothesis, we assessed whether authoritarianism and allied personality and political variables predict varieties of belief in determinism in three community samples (N1 = 566 to 20,010; N2 = 500; N3 = 419). Authoritarianism...
Preprint
Lilienfeld, S. O., & Latzman, R.D. (2019). Insufferably Dilly-Dallying and Lazy Editorial (IDLE) Syndrome: Proposed Diagnostic Criteria for Identifying Slothful Journal Editors. The Clinical Psychologist, 72(3), 20-23.
Article
Full-text available
Over the last thirty years, multiculturalism has become an implicit and explicit philosophy that permeates research, grant funding, teaching, training, and scholarship within nearly every domain of American psychology. Although multiculturalism has succeeded in bringing much-needed attention to historically neglected minority populations, it may ha...
Article
The study of psychopathic traits in youth is in its nascent stages and the nature and the structure of these traits is still poorly understood. In one of the most comprehensive analyses to date of the construct validity of the widely used Antisocial Processing Screening Device (APSD), we used two independent samples of youth, one community (N = 220...
Article
Cognitive biases can permeate everyday clinical decision-making processes and adversely affect the accuracy of clinical judgments, even among the many practitioners who are capable, knowledgeable, and highly intelligent. Reviews summarizing the cognitive biases that affect clinical decision-making have largely targeted physicians rather than practi...
Preprint
The extent to which individual differences in personality traits and cognitive styles diminish affective polarization (AP) is largely unknown. We address this gap by examining how one poorly understood but recently researched individual difference variable, namely, intellectual humility (IH), may buffer against AP. We examined the associations betw...
Preprint
Objective: We sought to replicate and extend research on the personological correlates of conspiracy beliefs by examining their associations with abnormal- and normal-range personality domain-level traits and, for the first time, lower-order personality facets; we also examined internalizing symptoms. Method: The study comprised four samples of com...
Article
Full-text available
Denault, V., Plusquellec, P., Jupe, L. M., St-Yves, M., Dunbar, N. E., Hartwig, M., … van Koppen, P. J. (2020). L’analyse de la communication non verbale: Les dangers de la pseudoscience en contextes de sécurité et de justice [The analysis of nonverbal communication: The dangers of pseudoscience in security and justice contexts]. Revue internationa...
Poster
Full-text available
The present studies (Total N = 6,165) describe the construction and validation of the LWA Index, which measures authoritarian traits in individuals who oppose established hierarchies of authority. Across 5 samples, we used the test construction process to psychometrically explore the LWA construct, identifying 3 key dimensions: (1) desire to violen...
Article
Fraudulent health claims have become an inescapable fixture of the contemporary information (or misinformation) landscape. MacFarlane, Hurlstone, and Ecker (2020) provided a five-fold framework for conceptualizing susceptibility to fraudulent health claims, and proposed potential remedies for each driver of these claims. We build on their analysis...
Article
Full-text available
Denault, V., Plusquellec, P., Jupe, L. M., St-Yves, M., Dunbar, N. E., Hartwig, M., … van Koppen, P. J. (2020). The analysis of nonverbal communication: The dangers of pseudoscience in security and justice contexts. Anuario de Psicología Jurídica, 30, 1-12. doi: 10.5093/apj2019a9
Article
Full-text available
An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
Article
Full-text available
Para los profesionales de la seguridad y la justicia (policías, abogados, jueces), los miles de artículos revisados por pares sobre comunicación no verbal representan fuentes importantes de conocimiento. Sin embargo, a pesar del alcance del trabajo científico realizado sobre este tema, los profesionales pueden recurrir a programas, métodos y enfoqu...
Article
Full-text available
We present a consensus-based checklist to improve and document the transparency of research reports in social and behavioural research. An accompanying online application allows users to complete the form and generate a report that they can submit with their manuscript or post to a public repository.
Article
Full-text available
This systematic review is aimed at examining the effectiveness of the rapid prompting method (RPM) for enhancing motor, speech, language, and communication and for decreasing problem behaviors in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A multi-faceted search strategy was carried out. A range of participant and study variables and risk and...
Article
Although the causes and correlates of sexual objectification almost certainly comprise a heterogeneous array of individual difference variables, little is known about sexual objectification perpetration's nomological network. We hypothesized that the broad personality construct of psychopathy would afford a fruitful framework for understanding and...
Article
Full-text available
What does believing in repressed memory mean? In a recent paper in this journal, Brewin, Li, Ntarantana, Unsworth, and McNeilis (in press; Study 3) argued that when people are asked to indicate their belief in repressed memory, they actually think of deliberate memory suppression rather than unconscious repressed memory. They further argued that in...
Article
Full-text available
Can purely psychological trauma lead to a complete blockage of autobiographical memories? This longstanding question about the existence of repressed memories has been at the heart of one of the most heated debates in modern psychology. These so-called memory wars originated in the 1990s and many scholars have assumed that they are over. We demonst...
Article
In our article (Lilienfeld et al., 2019), we hypothesized that psychopathy and some other personality disorders are emergent interpersonal syndromes (EISs): interpersonally malignant configurations of distinct personality subdimensions. We respond to three commentaries by distinguished scholars who raise provocative challenges to our arguments and...
Article
Personality disorders have long been bedeviled by a host of conceptual and methodological quandaries. Starting from the assumption that personality disorders are inherently interpersonal conditions that reflect folk concepts of social impairment, the authors contend that a subset of personality disorders, rather than traditional syndromes, are emer...
Preprint
Lilienfeld, S. O., & Latzman, R. D. (2018). Personality disorders: Current scientific status and ongoing controversies. In J.N Butcher (Ed.), APA Handbook of Psychopathology: Psychopathology: Understanding, assessing, and treating adult mental disorders (pp. 557-606). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Article
Research suggests that the Boldness and Disinhibition traits of psychopathy are negatively and positively related to internalizing, respectively. Although the associations between psychopathy and internalizing are relatively well-demonstrated, few studies have examined the specificity of these associations with psychopathy as opposed to general per...
Article
Fearless dominance (FD) generally manifests null to small relations with externalizing problems, leading some researchers to propose alternative paths by which FD features may relate to these problems. The current study provides a test of two possibilities, namely that FD (a) interacts statistically with self-centered impulsivity (SCI) such that FD...
Article
In this issue, Williams (p. ♦♦♦) responds to my 2017 critique in this journal of the scientific status of the microaggression research program (MRP). In some cases, she presents helpful data that partially address several of my recommendations for enhancing the MRP’s rigor. Nevertheless, because she appears to misconstrue many of my arguments regar...
Chapter
Violence has long been recognized as critical public health problem. Due to the well-established link between psychopathy and severe and chronic violence perpetration across the lifespan, psychopathy is undeniably a public health problem. This is true even of youth with psychopathic traits indicating the need to implement prevention efforts early i...
Article
According to the triarchic model, psychopathy encompasses 3 distinct dispositional constructs: boldness, meanness, and disinhibition. Although the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure was designed to assess these 3 constructs, researchers have developed alternative triarchic scales using both omnibus measures of general personality and existing psychopath...
Article
In a large sample of youth (N = 942, 51% female), we found support for a 3 correlated factors model of psychopathology that comprised Distress, Fears, and Externalizing factors. Distress was positively associated with Neuroticism, Fears was not associated with Big Five dimensions, and Externalizing was negatively associated with Agreeableness and C...
Preprint
Fearless Dominance (FD) generally manifests null to small relations with externalizing problems, leading some researchers to propose alternative paths by which FD features may relate to these problems. The current study provides a test of two possibilities, namely that FD (a) interacts statistically with Self-centered Impulsivity (SCI) such that FD...
Article
Although psychopathy traits are traditionally associated with maladaptivity, certain traits may statistically buffer against risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Research suggests that psychopathy traits are differentially associated with PTSD, as boldness traits are negatively related to PTSD whereas disinhibition features are positively...
Article
Full-text available
Although research suggests that the antisocial behavior facet of psychopathy (ASB) generally carries the greatest predictive power for future violence, these findings are drawn primarily from forensic samples and may reflect criterion contamination between historical violence and future violence perpetration. Likewise, these findings do not negate...
Article
We tested the hypothesis that people show generality in their endorsement of unsubstantiated claims, employing more types of measures than used in previous studies. We found that measures of generic conspiracist ideation, specific fictitious conspiracy theory and false conspiracy theory beliefs were all strongly and positively intercorrelated. A mu...
Chapter
There are two major types of rationality, namely epistemic and instrumental rationality. These two forms of rationality refer to what is true and what to do, respectively.
Article
Empathy is widely regarded as relevant to a diverse range of psychopathological constructs, such as autism spectrum disorder, psychopathy, and borderline personality disorder. Cognitive empathy (CE) is the ability to accurately recognize or infer the thoughts and feelings of others. Although behavioral task paradigms are frequently used to assess s...
Article
In his stimulating commentary, Bornstein (2018) correctly observes that dimensional and categorical approaches have long competed for scientific legitimacy in theory and research on personality disorders. I argue, however, that Bornstein (a) overstates the similarities of these 2 approaches in their implications and (b) risks conflating ontological...
Preprint
Full-text available
Although the causes and correlates of sexual objectification almost certainly comprise a heterogeneous array of individual difference variables, little is known about sexual objectification perpetration’s nomological network. We hypothesized that the broad personality construct of psychopathy would afford a fruitful framework for understanding and...
Article
Hundreds of organizations are approved by the American Psychological Association (APA) to sponsor continuing education (CE) to psychologists who provide assessment and intervention services to the public. CE sponsors are held to standards by the APA that emphasize evidence-based practice, but less is known about what is taught in individual CE prog...
Chapter
Pseudoscience in Child and Adolescent Psychotherapy - edited by Stephen Hupp March 2019
Article
Full-text available
In response to a crisis of confidence, several methodological initiatives have been launched to improve the robustness of psychological science. Given its real-world implications, personality disorders research is all too important to not follow suit. The authors offer a plea for preregistration in personality disorders research, using psychopathic...