Scott Menard's research while affiliated with University of Colorado Boulder and other places

Publications (70)

Article
The present study investigates how adolescent exposure to violence (AEV), in the form of parental physical abuse, witnessing parental violence, and exposure to violence in the neighborhood, is related to adult anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder, controlling for more general adolescent violent victimization and for self-reports...
Article
Research on the effects of child abuse and of childhood and adolescent exposure to domestic violence or community violence has generally, with some exceptions, found them to be related to subsequent negative behavioral outcomes, such as crime, delinquency, and substance abuse. This study uses longitudinal self-report data from the National Youth Su...
Article
Media reports routinely reference the drug-related violence in Mexico, linking crime in communities along the Southwest U.S. Border to illegal immigrants. The primary purpose of the current research is to examine whether the media assertions can be supported. Logistic regression models were run to determine the impact of citizenship on the likeliho...
Article
In their 2012 article, Pollock, Oliver, and Menard found that race was not a significant predictor of being arrested or questioned by police. In light of recent events such as the death of Michael Brown Jr., Freddie Gray, and others, and the resulting media coverage and public protest, the current article sought to reexamine predictors of police co...
Article
The objective of this study is to examine continuity of intimate partner aggression (IPA), which is defined as repeated annual involvement in IPA, across respondents' life course and into the next generation, where it may emerge among adult children. A national, longitudinal, and multigenerational sample of 1,401 individuals and their adult childre...
Chapter
Self-report survey data were first collected in the 1940s in an attempt to address limitations of official arrest data for describing the distribution and correlates of illegal behavior. Since the 1970s, self-report data have come to be used extensively to estimate rates of illicit substance use and other forms of illegal behavior and to test theor...
Article
National Youth Survey Family Study (NYSFS) respondents were examined to identify the characteristics of individuals and their sociological environments, that would make them more likely to have consistency between self reported and officially recorded records of arrest. Somewhat surprisingly, it was found that those most likely to be at risk of arr...
Article
National surveys of self-reported substance use and other problem behavior frequently produce different prevalence estimates for substance use and other problem behaviors. There is research indicating different aspects of survey methodology may artificially inflate or deflate prevalence rates, and while some research has been done on specific influ...
Chapter
Self-report survey data on illegal behavior were first developed in the 1940s, a decade after the FBI Uniform Crime Reporting program and two decades before the first national victimization surveys in the United States. Although the validity of self-report data was questioned, research on its reliability and validity indicated acceptable levels of...
Article
This study examines the physical health, emotional well-being, and problem behavior outcomes associated with intimate partner abuse (IPA) victimization and perpetration experiences by analyzing a nationally representative, prospective, and longitudinal sample of 879 men and women collected from the National Youth Survey Family Study (NYSFS) and ass...
Article
There is a long history of longitudinal research in the social and behavioral sciences, beginning with censuses, other national statistics, and later national and local level sample survey research. Over the past 30 years, the use of longitudinal research data and methods has greatly expanded in the study of developmental criminology, the developme...
Article
The finding that victims and offenders are often the same individuals has led to attempts at explaining the positive correlation between victimization and offending. Much of the evidence for the positive relationship between victimization and offending, however, is based on samples of adolescents and young adults, or on data with other limitations....
Article
Using data from a nationally representative, longitudinal, and prospective sample of men and women, and controlling for prior involvement in the outcomes and demographic effects, the consequences of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) on substance use and depression were examined over a 3-year period. The results were unexpected. Men in the sample were...
Article
The study of the distribution and correlates of arrest is widely recognized as an important topic, for the purposes of contributing to changes in police policy and training, which in turn increase the fairness of U.S. policing. Despite agreement that this area of research is an important one, there remains variation in the way arrest is measured. T...
Article
Much research on the topic of police fairness focuses on a general concept of fairness, however, it has been suggested that when individuals are asked how they feel about police overall, they base their answers on specific incidents (Frank, Smith, & Novak 200510. Frank, J., Smith, B., & Novak, K. (2005). Exploring the basis of citizens' attitudes t...
Article
Informed by a strain theory perspective, this study utilizes data on adolescent exposure to violence (AEV) from a prospective, longitudinal, national household probability sample that originally consisted of 1,725 respondents, first interviewed as adolescents in 1977 and last interviewed in middle adulthood in 2003. Findings from bivariate correlat...
Article
Evidence on the relationship of adolescent exposure to violence (AEV) with adult physical and mental health problems is limited, with studies often focusing on earlier childhood rather than adolescence, and also on short term rather than long term outcomes. Information specifically on the relationship of AEV to seeking help for mental health proble...
Article
Individual-level predictors of erroneous arrest for illegal behavior are investigated using a national level, probability sample. The analysis specifically examines whether being a “usual suspect” based on previous criminal behavior and being male; “guilt by association” based on the illegal behavior of one’s friends; academic achievement; and soci...
Article
This paper examines the interaction between social control and social risk mechanisms and genes within the dopaminergic system (DAT1 and DRD2) as related to serious and violent forms of delinquent behavior among adolescents and young adults. We use nine waves of data from the National Youth Survey Family Study to examine the relevance of protective...
Article
Despite evidence that exposure to violence in adolescence may be more predictive of problem behavior outcomes than exposure to violence in earlier childhood, there is limited research on the relationship of adolescent exposure to violence on adult intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration and victimization. This study examines the relationship o...
Article
Bully-Proofing Your School (BPYS), a school-based intervention program designed to reduce bullying and school violence, is evaluated for its impact on bullying and related aggressive behaviors in a multiple nonequivalent control group, pretest-posttest design with ex ante selection of treatment and comparison groups. Outcome measures included perce...
Article
The occurrence of false accusations of illegal behavior is investigated using cross-sectional, long-term recall data for two generations of a national probability sample of individuals. The analysis examines whether being a “usual suspect” based on past criminal behavior; “guilt by association” based on the illegal behavior of one's friends; academ...
Article
Full-text available
Interactional theory argues that theoretical variables and delinquency have reciprocal causal relationships. While empirical support for the reciprocal relationships has been found, the impact of delinquency on later changes in the variables, including attenuated attachment to family, needs more elaboration. Labeling theory may offer a constructive...
Article
A host of research has examined the possibility that environmental risk factors might condition the influence of genes on various outcomes. Less research, however, has been aimed at exploring the possibility that genetic factors might interact to impact the emergence of human traits. Even fewer studies exist examining the interaction of genes in th...
Article
Guided by rigorous methodology and a life-course perspective, the goal of this research is to address a gap in current knowledge on whether, when, and how strongly intergenerational continuity of substance use exists when examining age-equivalent and developmentally specific stages of the life course. Annual self-reported substance use measures wer...
Article
Previous research into the relationship between sports and illegal behavior has left it unclear whether sports participation acts as a preventative measure or a risk factor for illegal behavior. The present study examines the relationship between sports involvement and illegal behavior, in both the long and the short-term, in a national sample, usi...
Article
Research on the effects of adolescent physical abuse, witnessing domestic violence, and perceptions of community violence have generally, with few exceptions, found them to be predictive of subsequent negative behavioral outcomes, such as substance abuse, crime, and other problem behaviors. Less frequently studied is the relationship of these adver...
Article
A sizable majority of individuals report involvement in at least some delinquency during their lives. The small percentage of individuals who abstain from delinquency represents an interesting, yet underdeveloped area of research. The purpose of this article is to provide a general model for abstention from learning and integrated theories and prop...
Article
The finding that victims and offenders are often the same individuals has led to attempts at explaining the positive correlation between victimization and offending. Much of the evidence for the positive relationship between victimization and offending, however, was based on samples of adolescents and young adults, or on data with other limitations...
Article
This research examined socioeconomic variables, offending behavior, and prior police contact, as predictors of self-reported police contact (questioning or arrest). Utilizing multilevel models and eight waves of National Youth Survey Family Study data, the predictors were examined in a national sample of individuals, over 24 years. Results indicate...
Article
Full-text available
The integrated theory first proposed by Elliott et al. (1979), combining strain, social control, and social learning (and sometimes social disorganization) theories, has been repeatedly tested and consistently supported for a wide range of behaviors including licit and illicit substance use, violence, and other forms of illegal behavior. It has not...
Article
To date, research on multigenerational aspects of delinquency has been devoted to transmission from parents to offspring, largely ignoring long-term invariance of criminological theories. This study uses multigenerational data from the most recent waves of the National Youth Survey Family Study to test a general model of delinquency across two samp...
Article
Full-text available
This study examines the distribution and correlates of a special class of property crimes, crimes of trust, using longitudinal and cross sectional self-report data from a national sample. We begin by defining crimes of trust and consider their conceptual relationship to "conventional" property crimes, which we here characterize as crimes of stealth...
Article
Full-text available
Recent modifications to self-control theory suggest that influential factors (bonds) equate to self-control in the calculation of whether or not to engage in deviant behavior. Hirschi argued that self-control should fare better as a theory when it is operationalized as the number and salience of an individual’s social bonds, rather than as a cognit...
Article
Aggression in the school context is a problem that has received increasing attention over the past decade. It is important for the prevention of aggression in school that we understand the etiology of aggression at different ages and grades in school to help us better identify targets for program intervention. The present study draws insights prima...
Article
Conduct disorder is a serious, relatively common disorder of childhood and adolescence. Findings from genetic association studies searching for genetic determinants of the liability toward such behaviors have been inconsistent. One possible explanation for differential results is that most studies define phenotype from a single assessment; for many...
Article
The CHRNA6 and CHRNB3 genes have been associated with nicotine dependence and early subjective response to nicotine. Here we present evidence, using a nationally representative sample of adults, that this region is also associated with alcohol behaviors. Six SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) spanning the CHRNB3/A6 genes were analyzed using the...
Article
Full-text available
Dopaminergic dysfunction has been hypothesized to play an important role in the etiology of alcohol-use disorders. A restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) in the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) of the DRD2 gene affects gene expression and has been implicated as a risk factor for alcohol dependence. This polymorphism (TaqIA) has been report...
Article
Full-text available
A functional promoter polymorphism in monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) has been implicated as a moderating factor in the relationship between childhood maltreatment and later adolescent and adult antisocial behavior. Despite wide interest in this hypothesis, results remain mixed from the few attempts at replication. Regression-based analyses were conduct...
Article
The relationship between substance use and crime is investigated, building on previous research by Goldstein and his colleagues (Brownstein & Goldstein, 1990; Goldstein, 1985; Goldstein, Brownstein, & Ryan, 1992). The previous research is extended by examining the relationship between substance use and crime at different stages of the life course,...
Article
Repeat victimization may involve multiple incidents of victimization in a single year, multiple years of victimization, or both. This study examines both types of repeat victimization as well as the concentration of victimization among a relatively few highfrequency victims and the intermittency of victimization in a sample of adolescents in high-r...
Article
The relationship between drugs and crime is investigated, building on previous research by Huizinga, Menard, and Elliott and by Goldstein and his colleagues. The previous research is extended by examining the relationship between drugs and crime at different stages of the life course, adolescence and early adulthood; by extending the age range used...
Article
The research presented here is essentially descriptive, but includes new empirical findings on repeat victimization. Based on data from nine waves of the National Youth Survey (NYS), encompassing the years 1976–1992 and respondents' ages ranging from 11 to 33, the present study examines the seriousness of victimization incidents reported in the NYS...
Article
Coefficients of determination for continuous predicted values (R analogs) in logistic regression are examined for their conceptual and mathematical similarity to the familiar R statistic from ordinary least squares regression, and compared to coefficients of determination for discrete predicted values (indexes of predictive efficiency). An example...
Article
In this article, data from the Denver Youth Survey, a panel study of families in Denver, Colorado, are used to investigate the influence of family factors in predicting adolescent victimization. Statistically controlling for respondents' sociodemographic characteristics (age, gender, ethnicity), we examine the predictive impact on adolescent victim...
Article
This paper examines the relationships among delinquent peer group bonding, conventional moral beliefs, and the frequency of minor and serious illegal behavior in the framework of an integrated theory of delinquent behavior. Three-wave, three-variable structural equation models are tested for minor and serious illegal behavior with data from a natio...
Article
Used prospective longitudinal data from adolescents (aged 11–17 yrs) to test control theory (CNT) from early to late adolescence, focusing on whether CNT is equally applicable to the explanation of more serious and less serious offenses; whether CNT is equally applicable to the explanation of male and female delinquency; and whether CNT explains il...
Article
1 Introduction.- 2 The Demographic Distribution of Delinquency and ADM Problems.- 3 Prevalence and General Offending/Use Patterns: The Joint Occurrence of Delinquent Behavior and ADM Problems.- 4 Age, Period, and Cohort Effects.- 5 Developmental Patterns.- 6 The Etiology of Delinquency and ADM Problems.- 7 Prediction of Delinquent and ADM Behavior...
Article
The maturational reform hypothesis and the Easterlin cohort size hypothesis are used to specify models in which age, period, and cohort effects on self-reported crime and delinquency are estimated. Curvilinear effects, logarithmic transformations, and the distinction between prevalence and frequency of offending are considered. The maturational ref...
Article
In response to recent debates about the utility of longitudinal as opposed to cross-sectional designs in the study of crime and delinquency, we examine empirical evidence on the extent to which longitudinal and cross-sectional data may be used interchangeably without altering substantive conclusions. We distinguish between longitudinal or cross-sec...
Article
The long- and short-term relationships of alcohol and illegal drug use to delinquent and criminal behavior are examined. As anticipated, substance use and delinquency are positively associated, but there is little evidence that substance use leads to delinquency. Two possible exceptions to this generalization involve the role of alcohol use in sexu...
Article
Age, period, and cohort size effects are calculated for alcohol, marijuana, and polydrug use for seven cohorts of youth, aged 11–17 in 1976 and 18–24 in 1983. Data are taken from the National Youth Survey, a longitudinal prospective probability sample. Use of cohort size, rather than year of birth, is based on existing theory (the Easterlin hypothe...
Chapter
The National Youth Survey sample is drawn from seven cohorts, aged 11–17 in the first year of data collection (1976) and aged 18–24 in the most recent year for which data are presently available. The oldest cohort was born in 1959, near the peak of the postwar baby boom; the youngest was born in 1965, a year in which total fertility rates had decli...
Chapter
There is a substantial literature on the relationship between criminal behavior and age, sex, race or ethnicity, social class or status, and place of residence. The earliest examples of this literature may be found in the work of the French cartographers Guerry and Quetelet (see Vold & Bernard, 1986, pp 131–132), and contemporary examples abound. A...
Chapter
In previous chapters we examined the common correlates of delinquent and ADM behavior, and (in Chapter 3) the direct correlation between different types of delinquent and ADM behavior. In Chapter 6 in particular, we found that although delinquency, substance use, and mental health problems share no direct causal influence common to all three types...
Chapter
Age, period, and cohort effects, as described in Chapter 4, constitute one three-dimensional aspect of variation in delinquency and ADM problem behaviors over time. In this chapter, we consider three other aspects of temporal variation in delinquency and ADM problem behaviors. We begin by examining patterns of initiation (or onset) and suspension (...
Chapter
An integrated social psychological model that incorporated elements of traditional strain theory, social control (bonding) theory, and social learning theory was tested and presented by Elliott et al. (1985). A satisfactory integration required some modification of the “pure” forms of these theoretical perspectives, and a detailed logical and empir...
Chapter
Our purpose in this final chapter is twofold. First, we review the empirical findings presented in the preceding chapters. Second, we discuss the theoretical, methodological, and policy implications of those findings.
Chapter
The focus in this chapter is on the joint occurrence of delinquent behavior, alcohol and illicit drug use, and mental health problems. In this analysis we employ the delinquent and alcohol, drug, and mental health (ADM) problem typologies described earlier in Chapter 1. As in Chapter 2, the data presented in the figures and tables are for the years...
Article
Trends in elderly victimization are analyzed for the years 1973-1984. Criminal victimization rates are declining for all types of crime, including those committed against the elderly. The elderly experienced greater declines over time than the general population. Crimes involving a combination of personal contact and economic motivation declined fa...
Article
Tests of statistical and correlation/regression methods were used to compare victimization data and official police data across time and space. For the spatial comparison, victimization data from twenty-six cities surveyed by the LEAA were compared with FBI Uniform Crime Report data on offenses known to the police for those same cities. For the tem...
Article
This study examines short-term (five- to ten-year) trends in crime and juvenile delinquency using FBI Uniform Crime Reports data on arrests and offenses known to the police, National Crime Survey data on victimization, and National Youth Survey data on self-reported delinquency. The focus is on FBI Index offenses, but less serious offenses are also...
Article
As society becomes increasingly urbanized, the continued importance of rural-urban distinctions in understanding crime has become subject to debate. The effects of rural and urban residence on victimization rates, fear of victimization, and crime prevention practices are studied using data from a sample survey of eastern New Mexico residents. Urban...
Article
Rates of commitment in Colorado counties were examined over time, and a cross-sectional sample of convicted adult offenders was analyzed to determine if offenders are being diverted from incarceration in the State of Colorado. Results vary by county as to whether actual diversion or widening of the net occurs. The end result of the placement proces...
Article
Individual data are analyzed to assess the impact of community placement on individual offenders in the state of Colorado. The results indicate that both personal characteristics and program placement influence chances of rearrest. Community placement does not increase the individual's risk of rearrest. These conclusions suggest that community plac...
Article
Reported crime rates in areas of Colorado (boom towns) affected by energy resource development are compared with rates in areas not affected by such development. The findings indicate that crime rates have increased more dramatically and at faster rates in boom areas than in nonboom areas. Population growth does not appear suf ficient to explain th...

Citations

... Exposure to violence is associated with mental and emotional health disorders, with effects persisting until adulthood (Chen et al., 2017;Covey et al., 2020;Orengo-Aguayo et al., 2019). Low-income communities and minorities commonly show mental health disorders (Alegria et al., 2019;Porche et al., 2011). ...
... Following Matsueda's (1992) original analysis, our analysis uses variables from the first three waves. The attrition rate over the three-year span was low, 4 percent in 1978 and 6 percent in 1979, and comparisons of respondents across waves indicate that loss by demographic variables and law violation did not substantially influence the underlying distributions on these variables (D. Elliott, Huizinga, and Menard 1989). We use the data from 1,086 youths who reported having engaged in delinquency during the second wave and 586 youths who reported they did not engage in delinquency during this time. ...
... For both physical violence and property offending, the gender effect remained consistent, suggesting that victimization did not mediate the relationship between gender and offending. Given research suggesting that gender differences in the victim-offender overlap are nuanced (Flexon et al., 2016;Franzese et al., 2017;Watts & McNulty, 2013), we examined subtypes of victimization disaggregated by gender. ...
... Studies investigating the immigrant-crime relationship have often focused on the social disorganization perspective. Sibila, Pollock and Menard (2017) cite several previous early twentieth century studies (Shaw, 1929;Shaw & McKay, 1931;Thomas & Znaniecki, 1958) that have influenced their work on immigrant offending (Sibila et al., 2017). Similarly, Bernat (2019) states that when communities experience an increase in immigrant populations, poverty, and crime, along with a decrease in racial and ethnic homogeneity, crime was attributed solely to the increased immigrant population. ...
... Scholars, practitioners, and policymakers have called for greater understanding of how and why use of force occurs during police-citizen encounters (Correll et al., 2014;Cox et al., 2014;Klahm et al., 2011Klahm et al., , 2014Nowacki, 2015) and more generally to understand the role of race in criminal justice (Baumer, 2013;Sampson, 2009;Spohn, 2013;Ulmer, 2012;Unnever & Gabbidon, 2011). Numerous studies document the continuing tensions between police officers and members of the public (Lum & Nagin, 2017;Pollock et al., 2012Pollock et al., , 2016Weitzer, 2015). They also highlight the discord between what officers and citizens view as acceptable uses of force, particularly when police-citizen encounters end with one or more fatalities (Ferrandino, 2015;Kleinig, 2014;Rojek et al., 2012). ...
... The undesirable peer effect stems from the differential association theory, which states that criminal behavior is learned. The more they interact with undesirable peers, the more criminal attitudes and behavior they accept and learn (Elliott et al., 1989;Matsueda, 1982;Sutherland and Cressey, 1978). Bearing in mind the importance of the above theories, an interactive framework integrating variables from rational choice, social bonding and differential association perspectives will be adopted for analysis. ...
... Studies of IPV over one's life course have focused mainly on patterns of violence, revealing how early experiences of violence are associated with negative health outcomes and the perpetration and victimisation of violence during adolescence and adulthood, as well as across generations [25,26]. Life course analyses also examined the temporal sequence of IPV and other aspects of health and wellbeing. ...
... This potentially can lead to underreporting even one event that would remove the adolescent from the abstaining subset. Although self-reported data are commonly used in criminology and have recently been shown to be moderately to highly convergent with official estimates of crime (Payne & Piquero, 2016;Piquero, Schubert, & Brame, 2014;Pollock, Hill, Menard, & Elliott, 2016;Pollock, Menard, Elliott, & Huizinga, 2015), we were unable to externally evaluate the validity of self-reported offending. This is important as some investigations have found that self-reported drug use is underestimated by young people (Magura, 2010). ...
... Second, the limited number of high-quality longitudinal data-sets available to life-course researchers suggests that more effort should be made to develop databases that follow subjects over longer periods of time while also addressing common methodological concerns such as reducing attrition and achieving valid and reliable measures across waves. Funding must be made available for the development of such databases to support research that assesses the viability of group-based trajectory models over time and tests the applicability of current theoretical models of offending and victimization in explaining crime over the life course (Menard, 2015). Third, and perhaps most important, criminologists must aim to work together with policy-makers to utilize current research findings and to direct energy and funding toward developing new research questions and collecting new data to address what we still do not know. ...
... Individuals who experience IPV and sexual assault are more likely to report a range of acute and chronic mental and physical health concerns that have long-term consequences for survivors and pose significant social and public health costs (Black et al. 2011;Breiding et al. 2014;D'Inverno et al. 2019). The consequences of experiencing IPV and sexual assault are varied and include death, increased physical and mental health risk, reduced economic security and educational attainment, increased housing instability, and risk of future violence victimization (Goodman et al. 2009;Iverson et al. 2013;Jewkes 2002;Simmons et al. 2018). Over 40% of female victims and 14% of male victims experience severe physical injury related to IPV (Smith et al. 2018). ...