Scott M. Lephart's research while affiliated with University of Kentucky and other places

Publications (323)

Article
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Consistent differences between males and females have been shown in land-based measurements of anaerobic power and capacity. However, these differences have not been investigated for a tethered 30-s maximal swimming test (TST). The purpose of this study is to explore gender differences in land and pool-based assessments of anaerobic power (Fpeak) a...
Article
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Objectives To present a new knee isokinetic assessment procedure linked to noncontact knee injury mechanisms and examine correlations between variables relevant to noncontact knee injury prevention screening (peak torque [PT, Nm], time-to-peak torque [TTPT, ms], angle-of-peak torque [APT, °], mean PT [MPT, Nm]). Design Cross-sectional. Setting Sp...
Article
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Background: The identification of risk factors for injury is a key step for musculoskeletal injury prevention in youth sports. Not identifying and correcting for injury risk factors may result in lost opportunity for athletic development. Physical maturation and sex affect these characteristics, which may indicate the need for both age and sex-bas...
Article
Background: The specialized roles of many military personnel require specific skills and high physical demands, placing unique stresses on the shoulders and increasing risk of injury. As normal dominant/nondominant shoulder asymmetries have been established in military personnel, bilateral strength comparisons must be understood in context of dail...
Article
Winters, JD, Heebner, NR, Johnson, AK, Poploski, KM, Royer, SD, Nagai, T, Randall, CA, Abt, JP, and Lephart, SM. Altered physical performance following advanced special operations tactical training. J Strength Cond Res 35(7): 1809-1816, 2021-The purpose of this study was to determine how the unique challenges of specific military tactical training...
Article
Internal and external rotational knee stability is essential for sports performance and excessive rotation can lead to injury but is rarely assessed in injury risk analysis. The objectives of this study were to determine the between-session reliability, discriminant validity and potential sex differences of a dynamic postural stability (DPS) assess...
Article
Nagle, EF, Nagai, T, Beethe, AZ, Lovalekar, MT, Zera, JN, Connaboy, C, Abt, JP, Beals, K, Nindl, BC, Robertson, RJ, and Lephart, SM. Reliability and validity of a pool-based maximal oxygen uptake test to examine high-intensity short-duration freestyle swimming performance. J Strength Cond Res 33(5): 1208-1215, 2019-A modality-specific swimming prot...
Chapter
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention strategies have not always been successful. The identification of modifiable risk factors for injury is an important step in the injury prevention process. The gender differences observed in ACL injury rates pose an additional layer of complexity within this process; specifically, what are the sex-...
Article
Introduction Military personnel are at an increased risk of shoulder injuries due to training and deployment demands, however, there is a lack of information on the tactical athlete’s upper extremity profile. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine shoulder musculoskeletal characteristics, including range of motion (ROM), strength, and...
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Introduction Tactical demands of a Marine Corps Forces Special Operations Command (MARSOC) Critical Skills Operator (CSO) require high levels of physical performance. During combat deployments, teams of CSOs are supplemented with enablers who specialize in mission-specific tasks. MARSOC CSOs and enablers serve alongside each other in extreme combat...
Article
The purpose of this study was three-fold: (a) to examine the test-retest reliability of a 30 second maximal tethered freestyle swimming test (TST), (b) to assess the validity of the TST by examining the association to sprint swimming performance and, (c) to examine the associations between a swim-specific and land-based measure of anaerobic perform...
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Context: Seventy-seven percent of musculoskeletal injuries sustained by United States Army Special Forces Operators are preventable. Identification of predictive characteristics will promote the development of screening methods to augment injury-prevention programs. Objective: To determine physical and performance characteristics that predict mu...
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Background Self-reported data are often used in research studies among military populations. Objective The accuracy of self-reported musculoskeletal injury data among elite military personnel was assessed for issues with recall. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Applied research laboratory at a military installation. Participants A total of...
Conference Paper
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Combat swimming (CS) is a mode of locomotion by which warfighters swim at water’s surface to transit to their mission start point. Mission specific gear are worn, or carried, consisting of fatigues, webbing belt, boots, fins, and rucksacks. Novice combat swimmers are challenged to adapt to the altered hydrodynamic forces occurring as a consequence...
Conference Paper
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Swimming requires technical proficiency to perform effectively and efficiently. Directly analyzing technique and performance is expensive and time consuming. Understanding underlying factors and characteristics which relate to swimming performance is of benefit. To quantify, land-based laboratory measures (LM) can be used, but associations between...
Article
Context: Postural stability is essential for injury prevention and performance. Differences between genders may affect training focus. Objective: To examine static and dynamic postural stability (PS) in male and female Soldiers Design: Descriptive Laboratory Study. Setting: Biomechanics laboratory. Participants: Twenty-five healthy female So...
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Introduction: Prolonged exposure to seated whole-body vibration (WBV) is considered a risk factor for neck pain (NP) and low back pain (LBP) in aircrew. Decreased trunk proprioception following WBV exposure has been previously reported. Proprioceptive feedback from the mechanoreceptors of the neck and trunk regions plays an important role in mainta...
Article
BACKGROUND: Unintentional musculoskeletal injury has a significant impact on military personnel which is amplified in U.S. Navy Sea, Air, and Land Operators who participate in year round physical and tactical training. Full recovery from injury including restoration of strength is necessary for safe participation in training and performance of miss...
Article
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Due to flight-exposure and age, cervical and trunk musculoskeletal characteristics of military helicopter pilots may gradually deteriorate, increasing the risk of neck pain/low back pain. The purpose of this study was to compare cervical and trunk strength, flexibility, and posture among groups of pilots based on flight-exposure (total flight-hours...
Article
tion was to assess the effect of a tart cherry beverage (TCB) on delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). METHODS: Participants underwent assessment of the quadriceps for pain, muscle tenderness, thigh girth, flexibility, strength, and markers of muscle inflammation and damage at baseline, immediately following, and 24 h, 48 h, 96 h, and one week post...
Article
BACKGROUND: Fatiguing exercise may impair functional joint stability and increase injury risk. Musculoskeletal and physiological characteristics are related to fatigue, but their relationship with proprioceptive changes following fatigue is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To establish the relationship between strength and physiological characteristics and chan...
Article
Despite many nonbattle injuries reported during deployment, few studies have been conducted to evaluate the effects of deployment on musculoskeletal and physiological characteristics and balance. A total of 35 active duty U.S. Army Soldiers participated in laboratory testing before and after deployment to Afghanistan. The following measures were ob...
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Background: Proprioception plays a vital role in achieving functional joint stability of the knee. Numerous research studies have evaluated the effects of injury, surgery, rehabilitation, and training on proprioception in the sports medicine research. Joint position sense (JPS) and threshold to detect passive motion (TTDPM) have been commonly used...
Article
The purpose of this study was to describe the epidemiology of musculoskeletal injuries among Soldiers of the 101st Airborne (Air Assault) Division. A total of 451 subjects (age: 27.6 ± 6.2 years, gender: males 395/451 = 87.6%) volunteered. Musculoskeletal injury data were extracted from subjects' medical charts and injuries that occurred during 1 y...
Article
Objective: To examine the effect of kinesiology tape (KT) on shoulder strength, proprioception, and scapular kinematics in healthy and Subacromial Impingement Syndrome (SAIS) subjects. Design: Placebo-controlled quasi-experimental study. Setting: Research laboratory. Participants: A total of 30 physically active subjects participated. Ten he...
Article
Unlabelled: The Eagle Tactical Athlete Program (ETAP) was scientifically developed for the U.S. Army's 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault) to counter unintentional musculoskeletal injuries (MSIs). Purpose: To determine if ETAP would reduce unintentional MSIs in a group of 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault) Soldiers. Methods: ETAP-trained...
Article
Soldiers must maintain tactical performance capabilities over the course of their career. Loss in physical readiness may be a function of age and the operational demands associated with increasing years of service. The purpose of this study was to assess strength and physiological characteristics in different cohorts of U.S. Army Soldiers based on...
Article
The purpose of this analysis was to describe medical chart reviewed musculoskeletal injuries among Naval Special Warfare Sea, Air, and Land Operators. 210 Operators volunteered (age: 28.1 ± 6.0 years, height: 1.8 ± 0.1 m, weight: 85.4 ± 9.3 kg). Musculoskeletal injury data were extracted from subjects' medical charts, and injuries that occurred dur...
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Introduction: Neck pain (NP) and low back pain (LBP) are prevalent among military helicopter pilots. Although there have been few studies on sex differences in the NP/LBP prevalence in this population, females are shown to be at a greater risk of NP/LBP in civilian studies. This disparity may be due to musculoskeletal characteristics differences th...
Article
BACKGROUND: Strength of body segments and bat velocity during the baseball swing have been described as positively related, but the relative importance of each body segment's strength and the effect of ball location in the strike zone have not been examined. OBJECTIVE: To identify the correlation between the strength of different body segments alon...
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Background: Musculoskeletal injuries are a significant burden to United States Army Special Operations Forces. The advanced tactical skill level and physical training required of Army Special Operators highlights the need to optimize musculoskeletal characteristics to reduce the likelihood of suffering a recurrent injury. Purpose: To identify th...
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Background: Low back pain (LBP) is one of the most common musculoskeletal issues facing military helicopter pilots. It is clinically important to identify differences in musculoskeletal characteristics between pilots with and without a LBP history for formulating effective interventions. Objective: To compare lumbar spine and hip flexibility and...
Article
Context: Dynamic postural stability is important for injury prevention, but little is known about how lower-extremity musculoskeletal characteristics (range of motion [ROM] and strength) contribute to dynamic postural stability. Knowing which modifiable physical characteristics predict dynamic postural stability can help direct rehabilitation and...
Article
Context: Knee injuries commonly occur in later stages of competition indicating that fatigue may influence dynamic knee stability. Force sense (FS) is a submodality of proprioception influenced by muscle mechanoreceptors, and, if negatively affected by fatigue, may results in less effective neuromuscular control. Objectives: To determine the eff...
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BACKGROUND: Core strengthening is a significant component of training programs utilized to optimize athletic performance, reduce injury, and facilitate return from injury. Reliable and valid clinical measures of core strength are necessary to determine the effectiveness of these programs. OBJECTIVE: The purpose was to determine the reliability and...
Article
Human performance training and prevention strategies are necessary to promote physical readiness and mitigate musculoskeletal injuries of the Naval Special Warfare (NSW) Operator. The purpose of this study was to measure the effectiveness of two training programs when performed during a training evolution of Operators. A total of 85 Operators (Expe...
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Objectives: Proprioception is important because it is used by the central nervous system to mediate muscle control of joint stability, posture, and movement. Knee active joint position sense (AJPS) is one representation of knee proprioception. The purpose of this study was to establish the intra-tester, inter-session, test-retest reliability of co...
Conference Paper
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Special Warfare Combat-craft Crewman (SWCC) operate heavily armed boats in a variety of special operations missions. The Rigid Hulled Inflatable Boats (RHIBs) used in a maritime environment are particularly susceptible to sea state and coastal weather due to their small size and light weight, placing a high physical demand on SWCCs. Musculoskeletal...
Article
Unlabelled: The repeal of the Direct Ground Combat Assignment Rule has renewed focus on examining performance capabilities of female military personnel and their ability to occupy previously restricted military occupational specialties. Previous research has revealed female Soldiers suffer a greater proportion of musculoskeletal injuries compared...