Satomi Kawamoto's research while affiliated with Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency and other places

Publications (75)

Article
Remediation measures, such as Active Debris Removal (ADR) has been studied in order to preserve the space environment. Large derelict objects in crowded orbits are considered ADR targets because they are the source of numerous small debris in case of fragmentation. The target for removal must be chosen carefully because cost is the major issue in r...
Article
Active debris removal (ADR) is promising methods for ensuring safe space activities, free from the danger of debris. To carry out an ADR mission, the attitude and motion of the target must be determined precisely. Developing methodology to extract these values using only the target’s light curve would be a great step forward. We started the light c...
Article
This paper describes a process for identifying the intact objects in orbit that (a) pose the greatest debris-generating potential risk to operational satellites or (b) would reduce the risk the most if they were removed or prevented from colliding with each other (i.e., remediated). To accomplish this, a number of diverse, international space organ...
Article
A deorbit device is required for some microsatellites to meet space debris mitigation guidelines, although very challenging in terms of limited resources and reliability. The authors are conducting research on post-mission disposal (PMD) devices using an electrodynamic tether due to its high efficiency and simplicity. This PMD device consists of a...
Article
The collision probabilities of debris objects with and without Post Mission Disposal (PMD) and Active Debris Removal (ADR) are evaluated and discussed. A debris evolutionary model named NEODEEM was jointly developed by Kyushu University and JAXA for use in predicting future debris populations and calculating collision probabilities. The collision p...
Article
The growing amount of orbital debris is becoming a serious concern for space development activities. To remedy the situation, it is necessary to prevent new debris generation through highly probable post-mission disposal operations and remove existing large debris objects from crowded orbits. An electrodynamic tether (EDT) is a promising deorbit pr...
Article
A deorbit device is required for some microsatellites to meet space debris mitigation guidelines, although very challenging in terms of limited resources and reliability. Many groups are conducting research on post-mission disposal (PMD) devices using an electrodynamic tether (EDT) due to its high efficiency and simplicity. Since an EDT for microsa...
Article
A field-emission cathode (FEC) is a simple electron source that emits electrons just by applying a strong electric field on a solid surface. The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency has been developing FECs, especially for the application in electrodynamic tether (EDT) propulsion for active space-debris removal systems. An in-orbit experiment on EDT...
Article
A carbon nanotube-based field-emission cathode (FEC) has been researched and developed by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency mainly for space-debris removal systems with electrodynamic tether (EDT) propulsion. An in-orbit experiment to demonstrate the EDT technologies including the FEC was planned and conducted in early 2017. The FEC operated w...
Article
The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency developed an instrument consisting of a potential monitor and a plasma current sensor to measure the potential of the H-II transfer vehicle (HTV) against ambient plasma and the plasma environment around the HTV. In this first report on the charging measurements on the HTV-6 (sixth flight of H-II transfer vehic...
Conference Paper
Active debris removal (ADR) has been required to reduce the number of space debris. The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) focuses on removing the upper stages of rockets by using an electrodynamic tether (EDT). In order to execute ADR safely and securely, the motion of space debris must be correctly estimated and predicted. In this research...
Article
A field emission cathode (FEC) using a carbon nanotube was developed for an electrodynamic tether experiment on H-II transfer vehicle 6 (HTV-6). The mission is called the Kounotori Integrated Tether Experiment (KITE). Development of the FEC began at the beginning of 2013 and was completed in the spring of 2016. KITE began in January 2017 and the FE...
Article
Debris mitigation measures such as post-mission disposal (PMD) were set by considering the effects thereof using a debris evolutionary model. Many small satellites have recently been deployed in orbit and various plans are proposed for a so-called mega-constellation consisting of thousands of satellites in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). New systems such as...
Article
The growth of the near-Earth debris population since the beginning of human space activities is now a fact commonly admitted by space agencies worldwide. Numerous entities have warned about the danger that debris may have over time. Presently mitigation methods such as imposing post-mission disposal time after launch will no longer be sufficient; r...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Inter-Agency Debris Coordination Committee (IADC) predicts that the number of debris will continue to increase due to collisions between space debris. If the number of small debris of 1 mm to 10 cm which can neither be avoided nor defended is increased as predicted by IADC, it may seriously limit the human space activities in the future. Many r...
Article
Full-text available
The threat by the space debris in space activities has accelerating the necessity to take the measures against space debris, especially to remove the space debris, so-called, Active Debris Removal (ADR). The objective of this paper is to design the international framework to operate ADR from the systems engineering point of view, not only technical...
Article
Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) has been investigating an active space debris removal system that employs highly efficient electrodynamic tether (EDT) technology for orbital transfer. To realize the active debris removal system, JAXA has scheduled its first attempt to demonstrate the EDT system by utilizing the on-orbit platform of the H-...
Article
Full-text available
Research on a debris removal system that uses an electrodynamic tether (EDT) system has been conducted in JAXA. The EDT system requires an active electron emission device to drive a large electric current through the tether for obtaining adequate de-orbit thrust. A field emission cathode (FEC) is one good option for the electron emitter owing to it...
Article
The active removal of existing space debris is the one of the most proactive strategies to suppress space debris growth. The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) is investigating a cost-effective space debris removal system that employs the highly efficient electrodynamic tether (EDT) technology as its orbital transfer system. As the first ste...
Article
A flight demonstration of an electrodynamic tether (EDT) on the H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV) is planned by JAXA. This demonstration plan is called the Konotori Integrated Tether Experiment (KITE). KITE is the first step toward the development of active debris removal (ADR) systems using EDTs. EDTs have many advantages that make them promising candid...
Article
The H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV) is Japan's unmanned cargo transfer spacecraft that delivers cargo/supplies. It has on-orbit platform function to provide a demonstration to users from HTV4. ElectroDynamic Tether (EDT) technique, which is a promising candidate as a debris removal device, is planned to be demonstrated using HTV6. The demonstration con...
Conference Paper
The number of small satellites as those that do not exceed 50kg is rapidly increasing in the low-Earth orbit region. Since the orbital debris mitigation guidelines released by United Nations, Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee and national space agency does not consider small satellites and typical large satellites separately, small s...
Chapter
Space debris has been steadily increasing. Cascading effect caused by the collision between the objects would worsen the situation further. To ensure the safety of future space activities, aggressive measures to reduce debris is needed. Since density of debris in the region of 800 km to 1500 km altitude is particularly high, the occurrence of casca...
Article
Developers of small satellites may think of enlarging their effective cross-sectional area to minimize the long-term presence in the low Earth orbit region. However, the enlargement of their effective cross-sectional area causes the temporal increase of cumulative probability of accidental collisions. This paper evaluates the influence of small sat...
Article
The amount of space debris is ever increasing, and pollution of the space environment has become a serious problem that can no longer be ignored. Consequently, the active removal of large space debris from crowded economically useful orbits should begin as soon as possible. The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency has been investigating an active deb...
Article
In recent years, space debris problems have become very serious. The worst case occurs in the low Earth orbit (LEO) region, where debris-to-debris collisions generate new debris. The situation in the geostationary orbit (GEO) region is not as bad as that in the LEO. The debris problem in the GEO region, however, should not be left as it is because...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Developers of small satellites may think of enlarging their effective cross-sectional area to minimize the long-term presence in the low Earth orbit region. However, the enlargement of their effective cross-sectional area causes the temporal increase of cumulative probability of accidental collisions. This paper evaluates the influence of small sat...
Article
The Space Debris Mitigation Guidelines of the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee of the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space consist of seven guidelines to be considered for the mission planning, design, manufacturing and operational (launch, mission and disposal) phases of spacecraft and launch vehicle orbital stages. In...
Article
The Space Debris Mitigation Guidelines of the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee of the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space consist of seven guidelines to be considered for the mission planning, design, manufacturing and operational (launch, mission and disposal) phases of spacecraft and launch vehicle orbital stages. In...
Article
Several types of electroconductive solid lubricant films, developed as bonded films for the electrodynamic tether (EDT) of an active space debris removal system, were evaluated. These films used molybdenum disulfide or graphite as lubricants, and additives to obtain conductivity. Examination of tribological properties using a pin-on-disk tribometer...
Article
The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) has been investigating an active debris removal system that employs highly efficient electrodynamic tether (EDT) technology for orbital transfer. This study investigates the tether deployment using thrusters by means of numerical simulations of an EDT system. The thrusters are used in order to ensure th...
Article
Orbital debris around the earth has been increasing over decades, and has now become a serious problem at present The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) has been making efforts to develop an electrodynamic tether (EDT) system as de-orbit propulsion for active debris removal systems. We have been conducting research and development of a carbo...
Article
Debris environment remediation, that is, active debris removal is necessary in order to reduce the burden of collision avoidance maneuver operation and debris protection design, and unavoidable debris collision damage risk in the future. The targets of the removal are large intact debris objects (defunct satellites or rocket bodies) in the crowded...
Article
As an effective means of suppressing space debris growth, the Aerospace Research and Development Directorate of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) has been investigating an active space debris removal system that employs highly efficient electrodynamic tether (EDT) technology for orbital transfer. This study investigates tether deploymen...
Article
Full-text available
Since the launch of Sputnik, orbital debris population continues to increase due to ongoing space activities, on-orbit explosions, and accidental collisions. In the future, a great deal of fragments can be expected to be created by explosions and collisions. In spite of prevention of satellite and rocket upper stage explosions and other mitigation...
Article
In general space debris objects do not possess much convenient features and are non-cooperative. In such cases, since the conditions for capture are not favorable, tracking errors will lead to loading, and momentum transfer will occur during the capture process.In most cases, detailed mass and inertial characteristics of the target are unknown, eit...
Article
In recent years there have been demands for small, simple, low-power electron sources for applications such as miniature electric propulsion systems, electrodynamic tethers, scientific applications, and spacecraft charge control. To satisfy these demands, we have started the research and development of carbon nanotube (CNT) cathodes. A laboratory m...
Article
The amount of space debris has been increasing, and some evolutionary models predict that it would increase even if new satellite launches were stopped because of mutual collisions between existing objects. In such a case, debris mitigation measures such as explosion prevention and end-of-mission de-orbit will be inadequate and an active debris rem...
Article
Since the launch of Sputnik, orbital debris population continues to increase due to ongoing space activities, on-orbit explosions, and accidental collisions. In the future, it is expected that a great deal of fragments will be created by explosions and collisions. Thus, the number of space debris may increase exponentially (Kessler Syndrome). This...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Since the launch of Sputnik, orbital debris population continues to increase due to ongoing space activities, on-orbit explosions, and accidental collisions. In the future, a great deal of fragments can be expected to be created by explosions and collisions. In spite of prevention of satellite and rocket upper stage explosions and other mitigation...
Article
Since the number of satellites in Earth orbit is steadily increasing, space debris will eventually pose a serious problem to near-Earth space activities if left unchecked, and so effective measures to mitigate it are becoming urgent. Equipping new satellites with an end-of-life de-orbit or orbital lifetime reduction capability could be an effective...
Article
The current status of research and development of an electrodynamic tether (EDT) system for space debris mitigation is described. EDT is a kind of advanced propulsion technologies, which requires no propellant and electric power in theory. Since debris de-orbit systems need highly efficient propulsion systems, EDT can be one of the most attractive...
Article
In this study, the active removal of space debris is studied from the point of view of technological feasibility. First, the actual debris distribution is analyzed to determine which debris objects should be removed considering the effectiveness in preventing collisional cascading and feasibility such as the delta-V required for rendezvous with the...
Article
Full-text available
As an effective countermeasure for suppressing space debris growth, the Aerospace Research and Development Directorate, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) has been investigating an active space debris removal system that employs highly-efficient electrodynamic tether (EDT) technology as its orbital transfer system. A test flight experiment u...
Article
Orbital debris modeling at Kyushu University was initiated with satellite impact testing, aiming to investigate low-velocity impact phenomena possible in the geosynchronous Earth orbit. Testing results were incorporated in an orbital debris evolutionary model for the geosynchronous Earth orbit region, named GEODEEM. Kyushu University also has devel...
Article
The active removal of existing space debris is the one of the most proactive strategy to suppress space debris growth, and the Aerospace Research and Development Directorate, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency is investigating an active space debris removal system that employs highly-efficient electrodynamic tether (EDT) technology as its orbital t...
Article
The electrodynamic bare tether system shows a promise of efficient electron current collection. Several problems associated with the use of the bare tether were investigated, such as anomalous current collection due to ionization of the neutral gas, negative arcs, and heating by current collection. These phenomena may adversely affect the control o...
Article
Full-text available
The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) is investigating an active space debris removal system that employs highly-efficient electrodynamic tether (EDT) technology. As an electron collector of the EDT for debris de-orbiting, a multiple bare tethers are to be used. In order to simulate the EDT operation, current-voltage (I-V) characteristics o...
Article
Study and long-term prediction of orbital debris environment in low Earth orbits are urgent needs for secure human space development and exploration. This paper introduces some results of Low Earth Orbital Debris Environmental Evolutionary Model (LEODEEM) being researched at Kyushu University with collaboration from JAXA for the purpose of discussi...
Article
Research and development of an electrodynamic tether propulsion system for space debris removal has been started in the Institute of Space Technology and Aeronautics, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). An experimental investigation of a carbon-nanotube field-emission cathode (FEC), which is suitable as an electron emitter in this propulsion...
Article
This paper presents the current status of space debris modeling and analysis tools being developed in Japan. This paper also introduces briefly an orbital debris evolutionary model in low-Earth orit being developed by Kyushu University in collaboration with JAXA and demonstrates some future projection scenarios. A suite of debris mitigation standar...
Article
As a countermeasure for suppressing space debris growth, the Institute of Space Technology and Aeronautics, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), is investigating an active space debris removal system that employs highly efficient electrodynamic tether (EDT) technology as its orbital transfer system. A small, expendable EDT package is under de...
Article
Since the number of satellites in Earth orbit is steadily increasing, space debris could eventually pose a serious problem to near-Earth space activities, and therefore effective measures to mitigate it are important. The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), is investigating an active space debris removal system and the applicability of elect...
Article
As a countermeasure for suppressing space debris growth (P. Eighler, A. Bade, Chain Reaction of Debris Generation by Collisions in Space—A Final Threat to Spaceflight? in: 40th Congress of the International Astronautical Federation, IAA-89-628, October 1989), the National Aerospace Laboratory of Japan is investigating a satellite capture, repair an...
Article
For maturation of space activities, not only developing and using space systems is important, but also performing maintenance on them in their orbital environment is necessary in order to use them efficiently. The Communications Research Laboratory (CRL) has been studying an orbital maintenance system (OMS), specifically an on-orbit satellite maint...
Article
Rescuing a satellite once it has been launched is very difficult. Because we can only obtain information about a satellite by telemetry from the satellite itself, we cannot obtain any more information once a satellite has failed. Furthermore, space debris reentering the atmosphere is becoming a significant problem because the number of satellites i...
Article
1.The EDT satellite can change orbit without any propellant, 2.A Tether system can exchange momentum and energy between the
Article
Full-text available
After introducing Japan's short history of space debris related activities, individual R&D activities conducted so far and future plans are presented according to the well accepted classification, that is, Observation/Modeling, Protection and Mitigation.
Article
Full-text available
Recently, the importance and urgency of the space debris issues have been fully recognized and related studies are being conducted extensively among the space-faring organizations. This paper describes the status of Japan's research programs on the space debris removal systems and the on-orbit servicing system and also briefly introduces ongoing re...
Conference Paper
A 70 kg micro-piggyback satellite, "//-Lab Sat", is currently under development and will be launched in the near future by a Japanese H-IIA launcher. One of its missions will be to release two truncated cone-shaped targets with representative dimensions of about 10cm and obtain CMOS camera images of them. The targets will be released using springs...
Article
Full-text available
An experimental investigation of a carbon-nanotube field-emission cathode (FEC), which is suitable as an electron emitter in an electrodynamic tether propulsion system, was conducted. One of the important issues in the design of FEC is to suppress an electron flow to a gate electrode to avoid thermal deformation of the electrode and to reduce power...
Article
This paper introduces recent space debris related activities in Japan. As for the ground based observation, the progress of the 1 m optical telescope construction at the Bisei Space Guard Center is to be reported as well as technology development such as the automated debris detection and attitude estimation techniques from optical image data. Next...
Article
Full-text available
An electrodynamic tether (EDT) is an attractive candidate for deorbit propulsion of future active debris removal systems because of its simplicity and high efficiency in mass and power consumption. EDT needs an electron emission device for sending an electric current to the tether and the device should also be small, simple, and low powered. A fiel...

Citations

... In this regard, the sequential removal of objects from this list is not the most effective in terms of consistently improving the safety of the orbital environment. The paper [38] studies the consequences of removing 50 space objects from Ref. [30] for near-Earth environment. Various scenarios and sequences for removing objects are considered. ...
... They called the surface that reflects light into the camera as the contribution surface. They assessed the contribution surface corresponding to the light curve peak value based on the ground laboratory, and then obtained the influence of the target rotation axis on the light curve through numerical simulation quickly, aiming at solving the refined attitudes and motions [21]. ...
... Most Active Debris Removal (ADR) mission design focuses on targeting massive derelicts, either rocket bodies or dead satellites, with masses up to 9000 kg. However, the space community has shown reticence to execute debris remediation activity primarily to four issues (listed in [1]): the uncertainty of the cost of debris remediation alternatives, the ownership and access rights of either derelict satellites or of the orbit space, the selection of the resident space object (RSO) to be removed, and the danger of any ADR mission to create more debris. ...
... The United Nations identified the Earth's orbital space environment as a finite resource in its Guidelines for the Long-term Sustainability of Outer Space Activities [1,2]. However, such a limited resource will likely become scarce in recent years with the deployment of constellations such as StarLink, OneWeb, LeoSat, and TeleSat. ...
... The study is based on the use of the diversity prediction theorem that states that collective performance of different decision schema exceeds the collective performance of single scheme [31]. Based on eleven different algorithms and indexes for ranking space debris objects [22,30,[32][33][34][35][36][37] the 50 most significant objects were selected. Table 1 is based on Table 4 from Ref. [30] and contains objects grouped by their types. ...
... In addition to theoretical work, several experiments have been carried out in space to date: TSS-1R, PMG, KITE [83]. Experiment KITE failed due to mechanical problems [116]. The advantages of electrodynamic tethers include their relatively small mass, ease of control, and a wide range of orbits where this technology can be applied [117]. ...
... However, given the ever-changing appearance of debris in motion, however, it would not be easy to realize accurate image processing and onboard navigation, especially for the approach from 30 m at the V-bar to 30 m above the target point. It would be realistic for ground operators to estimate the 6-DoF motion of the debris from the images collected 30 m away on the V-bar [5], and for the removal satellite to make its approach using the debris motion data added to the onboard estimate [6]. This means that the removal satellite should hold its position precisely at the 30m point on the V-bar long enough to collect debris images for ground motion estimation. ...
... In this context the scientific community is evaluating further mitigation strategies, considering both the utilization of enhanced protections [21] and the implementation of post mission disposal (PMD) [22] and active debris removal (ADR) [23] operations. Among the different strategies for PMD and ADR [24], Electrodynamic Tethers (EDTs) have been investigated as a reliable and convenient solution in low-Earth orbit (LEO) [25,26]. For further information on EDTs and the most recent evolution, the lowworking-function tethers (LWTs), see [27][28][29][30]. ...
... This decision was mainly due to two factors; the first is Aliena's relationship with Temasek Laboratories at Nanyang Technological University, which have great expertise in the field of carbon nanotubes and innovative ideas on how to improve their performance. The second reason is that the use of CNT-FEN for electric propulsion and in space has been already demonstrated by pioneering studies [10,11]. ...