Sarah H. Wild's research while affiliated with The University of Edinburgh and other places

Publications (737)

Article
Full-text available
Background The aetiology of breast cancers diagnosed ≤ 50 years of age remains unclear. We aimed to compare reproductive risk factors between molecular subtypes of breast cancer, thereby suggesting possible aetiologic clues, using routinely collected cancer registry and maternity data in Scotland. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of 41...
Article
Background: The role of coronary artery calcium score (CACS) in incident chronic kidney disease (CKD) in asymptomatic young populations remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between CACS and CKD development in adults. Methods: A cohort study of 113 171 Korean adults (mean age, 40.6 years) without CKD and proteinu...
Article
Full-text available
OBJECTIVE To determine the association between prescription of SGLT2 inhibitors (SGLT2is) and diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) incidence or mortality in people with type 2 diabetes (T2D) hospitalized with COVID-19. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This was a retrospective cohort study based on secondary analysis of data from a large nationwide audit from a...
Article
Aim: This cohort study investigates the extent to which variation in ulcer healing between services can be explained by demographic and clinical characteristics. Methods: The National Diabetes Foot Care Audit (NDFA) collated data on people with diabetic foot ulcers presenting to specialist services in England and Wales between July 2014 and Marc...
Article
Full-text available
Aims/hypothesis The aim of this study was to investigate the risks of all-cause and cause-specific mortality among participants with neither, one or both of diabetes and depression in a large prospective cohort study in the UK. Methods Our study population included 499,830 UK Biobank participants without schizophrenia and bipolar disorder at basel...
Article
Background Diabetes is a major public health issue. Because lifetime risk, life expectancy, and years of life lost are meaningful metrics for clinical decision making, we aimed to estimate these measures for type 2 diabetes in the high-income setting. Methods For this multinational, population-based study, we sourced data from 24 databases for 23...
Conference Paper
Background Among people with type 2 diabetes (T2D), those with comorbid serious mental illness (SMI) are at increased risk of diabetes complications and early death, which could be related to quality of diabetes care. We therefore sought to compare the receipt of diabetes care in people with and without SMI in the first year after T2D diagnosis and...
Article
Objective To use a Scottish national linked diabetes care dataset to determine whether annual monitoring of clinical guideline-recommended diabetes care indicators differ by severe mental illness (SMI) status among people with type 2 diabetes (T2D) during the first year following diabetes diagnosis and thereafter. ApproachWe examined receipt of 9 d...
Article
Full-text available
Background We report the first study to estimate the socioeconomic gap in period life expectancy (LE) and life years spent with and without complications in a national cohort of individuals with type 1 diabetes. Methods This retrospective cohort study used linked healthcare records from SCI-Diabetes, the population-based diabetes register of Scotl...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives To estimate the association between individual participant characteristics and attrition from randomised controlled trials. Design Meta-analysis of individual participant level data (IPD). Data sources Clinical trial repositories (Clinical Study Data Request and Yale University Open Data Access). Eligibility criteria for selecting stu...
Article
Full-text available
Background People with type 2 diabetes have a higher risk of cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality. We aim to distil the evidence, summarize the developments, and identify the gaps in relevant research on predicting cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes people using AI techniques in the last ten years. Methods A systematic search was...
Article
Full-text available
A major challenge of genome-wide association studies (GWASs) is to translate phenotypic associations into biological insights. Here, we integrate a large GWAS on blood lipids involving 1.6 million individuals from five ancestries with a wide array of functional genomic datasets to discover regulatory mechanisms underlying lipid associations. We fir...
Article
Full-text available
Background: To use routinely collected data to develop a five-year cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk prediction model for Chinese adults with type 2 diabetes with validation of its performance in a population of European ancestry. Methods: People with incident type 2 diabetes and no history of CVD at diagnosis of diabetes between 2008 and 2017 w...
Article
OBJECTIVE Studies using claims databases reported that SARS-CoV-2 infection >30 days earlier was associated with an increase in the incidence of type 1 diabetes. Using exact dates of diabetes diagnosis from the national register in Scotland linked to virology laboratory data, we sought to replicate this finding. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A cohor...
Article
Full-text available
Background Women from socio-economically deprived areas are less likely to develop and then to survive breast cancer (BC). Whether associations between deprivation and BC incidence and survival differ by tumour molecular subtypes and mode of detection in Scotland are unknown. Methods Data consisted of 62,378 women diagnosed with invasive BC betwee...
Article
AIMS To compare quality of care for type 2 diabetes in people with severe mental illness (SMI) versus no mental illness. METHODS We used routinely collected linked data to create a retrospective cohort study. We included 158,901 people diagnosed with type 2 diabetes in Scotland during 2009-2018 of whom 1701 (1%), 768 (0.5%) and 5211 (3%) had a pri...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
AI technologies are being increasingly tested and applied in critical environments including healthcare. Without an effective way to detect and mitigate AI induced inequalities, AI might do more harm than good, potentially leading to the widening of underlying inequalities. This paper proposes a generic allocation-deterioration framework for detect...
Article
Full-text available
This narrative review aims to examine the value of addressing mental disorders as part of the care of people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes in terms of four components of precision medicine. First, we review the empirical literature on the role of common mental disorders in the development and outcomes of diabetes (precision prevention and prognos...
Article
Objective: We aimed to investigate the individual and combined associations of depression and low socioeconomic status (SES) with risk of major cardiovascular events (MCVE), defined as first-ever fatal or non-fatal stroke or myocardial infarction, in a large prospective cohort study. Methods: We used data from 466,238 UK Biobank participants, ag...
Article
Introduction The applicability of randomised controlled trials of pharmacological agents to older people with frailty/multimorbidity is often uncertain, due to concerns that trials are not representative. However, assessing trial representativeness is challenging and complex. We explore an approach assessing trial representativeness by comparing ra...
Article
Introduction Multimorbidity is found in around half of people with any long-term condition but is substantially less common in randomised controlled trials (‘trials’). Multimorbidity may diminish a participant’s ability to complete a trial. However, empirical estimates of the association between individual patient characteristics and early terminat...
Article
Full-text available
Aims/hypothesis Mortality has declined in people with type 1 diabetes in recent decades. We examined how the pattern of decline differs by country, age and sex, and how mortality trends in type 1 diabetes relate to trends in general population mortality. Methods We assembled aggregate data on all-cause mortality during the period 2000–2016 in peop...
Article
Aims: The implications of prediabetes diagnosed by isolated glucose versus glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) on subclinical atherosclerosis are uncertain. We investigated associations between prediabetes defined by different diagnostic criteria and coronary artery calcification (CAC) and its progression over time. Materials and methods: The cross-sect...
Article
Background & aims: The effects of sex and menopausal status on the association between NAFLD and incident type 2 diabetes (T2D) remain unclear. We investigated the effect modification by sex and menopause in the association between NAFLD and T2D; also, added predictive ability of NAFLD for the risk of T2D was assessed. Approach & results: This c...
Article
Full-text available
The effect of sarcopenic visceral obesity on the risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is uncertain. We investigated (a) whether the skeletal muscle mass to visceral fat area ratio (SV ratio), as a measure of sarcopenic visceral obesity, is a risk factor for NAFLD; and (b) whether the SV ratio adds to conventional adiposity measures to i...
Preprint
Full-text available
AI technologies are being increasingly tested and applied in critical environments including healthcare. Without an effective way to detect and mitigate AI induced inequalities, AI might do more harm than good, potentially leading to the widening of underlying inequalities. This paper proposes a generic allocation-deterioration framework for detect...
Article
Context: A protective or causative role of vitamin D status on the risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) remains inconclusive. Objective: To evaluate the association between changes in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] status during follow-up and the risk of incident NAFLD and resolution of pre-existing NAFLD. Design: A retrospec...
Article
Background: Glycaemic control is a key component in diabetes mellitus (diabetes) management. Periodontitis is the inflammation and destruction of the underlying supporting tissues of the teeth. Some studies have suggested a bidirectional relationship between glycaemic control and periodontitis. Treatment for periodontitis involves subgingival inst...
Article
Background & aims To assess the impact of pre-admission renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitor (RAASi) and statin use on mortality following COVID-19 hospitalization in adults with pre-existing diabetes. Methods Retrospective cohort study of adults with diabetes admitted to ninety-nine participating hospitals in the United Kingdom, France...
Article
OBJECTIVE To assess the incidence of remission of type 2 diabetes in routine care settings. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS People with type 2 diabetes (HbA1c ≥48 mmol/mol (6.5%) or <48 mmol/mol (6.5%) with a prescription for glucose-lowering medications) alive on 1 April 2018 were identified from a national collation of health records in England and...
Article
Context The association of menstrual cycle length and irregularity with the risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is unknown. Objective We examined this association in large cross-sectional and cohort studies. Methods The cross-sectional study included 72 092 women younger than 40 years who underwent routine health examinations; the l...
Article
Background and aims Increased levels of ketone bodies, an alternative fuel when glucose availability is low, may exert beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Whether increased ketone bodies are associated with coronary artery calcium (CAC), a recognized and strong cardiovascular risk factor, remains unknown. We investigate...
Article
Full-text available
Background Iron stores, estimated as ferritin levels, and type 2 diabetes (T2D) have been associated previously, while findings regarding coronary heart disease (CHD) and cerebrovascular disease (CEVD) are still inconclusive. No study has focused on simultaneous evaluation of associations between iron stores and the above cardiometabolic diseases (...
Preprint
Background Studies using claims databases have reported that SARS-CoV-2 infection >30 days earlier increased the incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1DM). Using exact dates of type 1 diabetes diagnosis from the national register in Scotland linked to virology laboratory data we sought to replicate this finding. Methods A cohort of 1849411 individuals a...
Article
Introduction: diabetes mellitus is an increasing public health burden in developing countries. The magnitude of diabetes association with traditional risk factors for diabetes have been given less attention in rural population. This study aims to determine the prevalence of diabetes and impaired fasting glucose and to assess associated characteris...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Despite known benefit of vitamin D in reducing sarcopenia risk in older adults, its effect against muscle loss in young population is unknown. We aimed to examine the association of serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] level and its changes over time with the risk of incident low muscle mass (LMM) in young and middle-aged adults. Design:...
Preprint
Background: Women from socio-economically deprived areas are less likely to develop and then to survive breast cancer (BC). It is unknown whether the associations between deprivation and BC incidence and survival differ by tumour subtypes. Methods: Data consisted of 62,378 women diagnosed with invasive BC between 2000 and 2016 in Scotland. Incidenc...
Article
Objective: To compare the validity and robustness of five methods for handling missing characteristics when using cardiovascular disease risk prediction models for individual patients in a real-world clinical setting. Study design and setting: The performance of the missing data methods was assessed using data from the Swedish NDR (n=419,533) with...
Article
Full-text available
p class="MsoNormal">Reduced heart rate variability (HRV) is reflective of autonomic imbalance. However, its impact on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is unknown. We investigated the association between 10-s HRV and incident NAFLD. A cohort of 154,286 Korean adults with no NAFLD at baseline were followed up. 10-s electrocardiograms were us...
Article
Full-text available
The impact of changes in sleep duration and sleep quality over time on the risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is not known. We investigated whether changes in sleep duration and in sleep quality between baseline and follow-up are associated with the risk of developing incident NAFLD. The cohort study included 86,530 Korean adults wit...
Article
Background Population-level trends in mortality among people with diabetes are inadequately described. We aimed to examine the magnitude and trends in excess all-cause mortality in people with diabetes. Methods In this retrospective, multicountry analysis, we collected aggregate data from 19 data sources in 16 high-income countries or jurisdiction...
Article
Full-text available
Background and Aims My Diabetes My Way (MDMW) is Scotland’s interactive website and mobile app for people with diabetes and their caregivers. It contains multimedia resources for diabetes education and offers access to electronic personal health records. This study aims to assess the cost-utility of MDMW compared with routine diabetes care in peopl...
Preprint
Full-text available
Objective: We aimed to investigate the individual and combined associations of depression and low socioeconomic status (SES) with risk of major cardiovascular events (MCVE), defined as first-ever fatal or non-fatal stroke or myocardial infarction, in a large prospective cohort study. Methods: We used data from 466,238 UK Biobank participants, aged...
Preprint
Full-text available
Aims/hypothesis: To investigate the risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality among participants with neither, one, or both of diabetes and depression in a large prospective cohort study in the United Kingdom. Methods: Our study population included 499,830 UK Biobank participants without schizophrenia and bipolar disorder at baseline. Type 1 o...
Article
Full-text available
Increased blood lipid levels are heritable risk factors of cardiovascular disease with varied prevalence worldwide owing to different dietary patterns and medication use¹. Despite advances in prevention and treatment, in particular through reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels², heart disease remains the leading cause of death worldwi...
Preprint
Full-text available
Genetic variants within nearly 1,000 loci are known to contribute to modulation of blood lipid levels. However, the biological pathways underlying these associations are frequently unknown, limiting understanding of these findings and hindering downstream translational efforts such as drug target discovery. To expand our understanding of the underl...
Preprint
Full-text available
A major challenge of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) is to translate phenotypic associations into biological insights. Here, we integrate a large GWAS on blood lipids involving 1.6 million individuals from five ancestries with a wide array of functional genomic datasets to discover regulatory mechanisms underlying lipid associations. We firs...
Article
Background: People with diabetes and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have a significantly greater risk of death and/or intensive care unit (ICU) admission. The Association of British Clinical Diabetologists (ABCD) recently audited outcomes for people hospitalised in the UK with diabetes and COVID-19. Methods: The ABCD COVID-19 and diabetes audi...
Article
Full-text available
Aims/hypothesis Data on type 1 diabetes incidence and prevalence are limited, particularly for adults. This study aims to estimate global numbers of incident and prevalent cases of type 1 diabetes in 2017 for all age groups, by country and areas defined by income and region. Methods Incidence rates of type 1 diabetes in children (available from 94...
Article
Aims To provide global, regional, and country-level estimates of diabetes prevalence and health expenditures for 2021 and projections for 2045. Methods A total of 219 data sources meeting pre-established quality criteria reporting research conducted between 2005 and 2020 and representing 215 countries and territories were identified. For countries...
Article
Aims To update and extend a previous cross-sectional international comparison of glycaemic control in people with type 1 diabetes. Methods Data were obtained for 520,392 children and adults with type 1 diabetes from 17 population and five clinic-based data sources in countries or regions between 2016 and 2020. Median HbA1c(IQR) and proportions of...
Article
Objective: To describe incidence of foot ulceration and amputation-free survival associated with foot ulceration status in a national population-based cohort study of people with diabetes. Research design and methods: The study population included 233,459 people with diabetes who were alive in Scotland on 1 January 2012 identified from the natio...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Clinical pathways are changing to incorporate support and appropriate follow-up for people to achieve remission of type 2 diabetes, but there is limited understanding of the prevalence of remission in current practice or patient characteristics associated with remission. Methods and findings: We carried out a cross-sectional study es...
Article
Aim To describe short and longer-term mortality following major lower extremity amputation (LEA) by diabetes status over two time periods. Methods A retrospective cohort study of patients who underwent major LEA between 2004 and 2013 was conducted based on linkage of national population-based hospital records and a register of people with diagnose...
Article
Full-text available
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a potentially serious liver disease that affects approximately one-quarter of the global adult population, causing a substantial burden of ill health with wide-ranging social and economic implications. It is a multisystem disease and is considered the hepatic component of metabolic syndrome. Unlike other...
Article
Full-text available
Background The mortality of metabolic-obesity phenotypes has been thoroughly studied, but it is not known if or how the association between mortality and body mass index (BMI), waist circumference or a body shape index (ABSI) differ in strata of cardiometabolic health status. Methods We linked data on 12,815 men and women aged 36–79 years from the...
Article
Introduction: The longitudinal relationship between sleep duration, sleep quality, and the risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is unknown. We aimed to examine the association between sleep duration, sleep quality, and NAFLD development. Methods: Using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, sleep duration and quality were evaluated for...
Article
Aim To describe short and longer-term mortality following major lower extremity amputation (LEA) by diabetes status over two time periods Method A retrospective cohort study of patients who underwent major LEA between 2004 and 2013 was conducted based on linkage of national population-based hospital records and a register of people with diagnosed...
Article
Background: This study investigated the association between socioeconomic status and type 2 diabetes (T2D) prevalence in Scotland in 2021 and tested the null hypothesis that inequalities had not changed since they were last described for 2001-2007. Methods: Data from a national population-based diabetes database for 35-to-84-year-olds in Scotlan...
Article
Full-text available
Aims/hypothesis Data on type 1 diabetes incidence and prevalence are limited, particularly for adults. This study aims to estimate global numbers of incident and prevalent cases of type 1 diabetes in 2017 for all age groups, by country and areas defined by income and region. Methods Incidence rates of type 1 diabetes in children (available from 94...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background The aetiology of breast cancers diagnosed ≤ 50 years of age remains unclear. We aimed to compare reproductive risk factors between molecular subtypes of breast cancer thereby suggesting possible aetiologic clues, using routinely collected cancer registry and maternity data in Scotland. Methods We conducted a population-based retrospecti...
Conference Paper
Background The prescribing of antidepressant and antipsychotic drugs is increasing worldwide for a range of indications including mental ill-health. Numerous side effects have been associated with these drugs, including increased risk of cardiovascular complications. People with diabetes are more likely to be prescribed these drugs but few studies...
Article
Full-text available
Aims/hypothesis We aimed to report current rates of CVD in type 1 diabetes and to develop a CVD risk prediction tool for type 1 diabetes. Methods A cohort of 27,527 people with type 1 diabetes without prior CVD was derived from the national register in Scotland. Incident CVD events during 199,552 person-years of follow-up were ascertained using ho...
Article
Background Severe mental illness (SMI) is associated with increased stroke risk, but little is known about how SMI relates to stroke prognosis and receipt of acute care. Aims To determine the association between SMI and stroke outcomes and receipt of process-of-care quality indicators (such as timely admission to stroke unit). Method We conducted...
Article
Full-text available
Aims/hypothesis The aim of this work was to describe the clinical characteristics of adults with type 1 diabetes admitted to hospital and the risk factors associated with severe coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) in the UK. Methods A retrospective cohort study was performed using data collected through a nationwide audit of people admitted to hos...