Sara S. Sparrow's research while affiliated with Yale University and other places

Publications (56)

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This chapter presents a model of Comprehensive Psychological Assessment that has been developed to inform the assessment process in both clinical and research settings and has been influenced by the core tenets of developmental psychopathology. While this model applies throughout the life span, the chapter illustrate the components and application...
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The main diagnostic features of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are defined in terms of qualitative impairments in social interaction, communication, and a pattern of restricted interests or repetitive behaviors. However, the particular constellation of symptoms, number, frequency, and severity differs from individual to individual. For some, an en...
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The objectives of this report are: (a) to trace the theoretical roots of the concept clinical significance that derives from Bayesian thinking, Marginal Utility/Diminishing Returns in Economics, and the "just noticeable difference", in Psychophysics. These concepts then translated into: Effect Size (ES), strength of agreement, clinical significance...
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The relationship between adaptive functioning and autism symptomatology was examined in 1,089 verbal youths with ASD examining results on Vineland-II, IQ, and measures of ASD severity. Strong positive relationships were found between Vineland subscales and IQ. Vineland Composite was negatively associated with age. IQ accounted a significant amount...
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The relationship between adaptive functioning (ability) and autism symptomatology (disability) remains unclear, especially for higher functioning individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study investigates ability and disability using the Vineland and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS), respectively, in two clinical samples...
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To evaluate the impact of risperidone on adaptive behavior in children with autistic disorder who have serious behavior problems and to examine different methods of scoring the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales to measure change. Forty-eight children (5 years to 16 years, 5 months) who showed behavioral improvement during acute treatment with rispe...
Chapter
The greater weighting of the Verbal Comprehension and Perceptual Reasoning Factors into the Full Scale score benefits the students with strengths in the higher level cognitive areas. In addition, the separation of speed-based tasks into a separate factor allows students who have strengths in the higher level cognitive demands of the verbal comprehe...
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The interrelationship between adaptive functioning, behaviour problems and level of special education was studied in 186 children with IQs ranging from 61 to 70. The objective was to increase the insight into the contribution of adaptive functioning and general and autistic behaviour problems to the level of education in children with intellectual...
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Our purpose in this report is to evaluate scientifically that body of literature relating the effects of prenatal and postnatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) upon neurobehavioral, health-related, and cognitive deficits in neonates, developing infants, children, and adults. The data derive from seven cohorts: six cohorts of mothers an...
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In this paper we address the points raised by groups of scientists who were invited to respond to our initial critique of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) research in this special issue. In that article, we applied six objective criteria to more than two decades of published PCB research and concluded that much of the research was badly flawed. The P...
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The purpose of this study is to provide a microanalysis of differences in adaptive functioning seen between well-matched groups of school-aged children with autism and those diagnosed as having Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified, all of whom functioned in the mild to moderate range of intellectual impairment. Findings indicate...
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There is little information about the long-term outcomes of children with facial nerve palsy attributable to Lyme disease, a group putatively at high risk for poor neurologic outcomes. The purpose of this study is to assess the long-term neuropsychologic and health outcomes of children with facial nerve palsy attributable to Lyme disease. We conduc...
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The concurrent validity of the Leiter International Performance Scale (Leiter) and Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised (Leiter-R) was examined in a sample of children with autism who could not be assessed with more traditional measures of intelligence (e.g., the Wechsler scales). The sample consisted of 26 children ranging in age from 4...
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Preterm infants have a high prevalence of long-term cognitive and behavioral disturbances. However, it is not known whether the stresses associated with premature birth disrupt regionally specific brain maturation or whether abnormalities in brain structure contribute to cognitive deficits. To determine whether regional brain volumes differ between...
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Traditional approaches to diagnosing autism emphasize delays in communication and socialization. Traditional diagnostic schemes typically list symptoms (e.g., lack of eye contact), but provide little guidance on how to incorporate information about developmental level in making a diagnosis. Because standardized measures of adaptive behavior can pro...
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For preterm infants, intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) may be associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcome. We have demonstrated that early low-dose indomethacin treatment is associated with a decrease in both the incidence and severity of IVH in very low birth weight preterm infants. In addition, we hypothesized that the early administration...
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In this paper, we review current issues in cognitive assessment. After addressing important definitional and theoretical issues, we discuss some recently developed cognitive assessment instruments as well as some recently revised instruments. Tests that are scheduled for revision will also be mentioned. As most readers are generally familiar with t...
Article
In this paper, we review current issues in cognitive assessment. After addressing important definitional and theoretical issues, we discuss some recently developed cognitive assessment instruments as well as some recently revised instruments. Tests that are scheduled for revision will also be mentioned. As most readers are generally familiar with t...
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Full-text available
Although the interpretation of studies of face recognition in older children, adolescents, and adults with autism is complicated by the fact that participating samples and adopted methodologies vary significantly, there is nevertheless strong evidence indicating processing peculiarities even when task performance is not deficient. Much less is know...
Chapter
Publisher Summary This chapter reviews the actual assessment of gifted children with the help of Wechsler intelligence scale for children-third edition (WISC-III). The appropriate instrument used for this purpose is probably the WISC-III as it is extensively used in different schools in the United States at present. Usually, most school systems rec...
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Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales Special Population norms are presented for four groups of individuals with autism: (a) mute children under 10 years of age; (b) children with at least some verbal skills under 10 years of age; (c) mute individuals who are 10 years of age or older; and (d) individuals with at least some verbal skills who are 10 year...
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The assessment of adaptive behaviors is an important component of the evaluation of children and adolescents with autism. The assessment of adaptive behavior plays a central role in the diagnosis of mental retardation, which occurs at high rates among individuals with autism; can inform the development of individualized educational, vocational, and...
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This Grand Rounds is concerned with the classification of Asperger's syndrome and its continuity/discontinuity with autism. Information on a 15-year-old with the condition is presented as are data on other family members. The proband exhibited a longstanding pattern of marked deficits in social interaction, motor awkwardness, and unusual, circumscr...
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The authors investigated the validity of Asperger Syndrome (AS) by comparing the neuropsychological profiles in this condition and Higher-Functioning Autism (HFA). Diagnostic assignment followed a stringent procedure based on ICD-10 research criteria for the two disorders. The groups had comparable age and Full Scale IQ distributions. The groups di...
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Determined the unique protective effects of several interrelated attributes of 126 psychiatrically hospitalized children (aged 4–14 yrs). Ss completed the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children or the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children—Revised (WISC—R), and the Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement. I...
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Assessed differences in sex ratio, severity of associated mental retardation, and various metrics of severity of autism in autistic, PDD-NOS, and developmentally disordered (non-PDD) cases. Males with autism were more frequent than females, particular at higher IQ levels. The three clinical groups differed, in expected ways, in the various measures...
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This study was concerned with the development of quantitative measures of social development in autism. Multiple regression equations predicting social, communicative, and daily living skills on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales were derived from a large, normative sample and applied to groups of autistic and nonautistic, developmentally disord...
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The purpose of this article is to present, for the first time, a comprehensive methodology for assessing the reliability of a clinical scale that is frequently utilized in neuropsychological research and in biomedical studies, more generally. The dichotomous-ordinal scale is characterized by a single category of "absence" and two or more ordinalize...
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This study examined the extent to which the social disabilities found in autism can be accounted for by the "Theory of Mind" hypothesis. Items related to social development from the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales were administered to 29 CA-, MA- and IQ-matched pairs of young autistic and non-autistic, developmentally disabled children. These ite...
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Etiology-specific profiles of intellectual abilities were compared in three groups of males with mental retardation using the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC). Subjects included 10 males with fragile X syndrome, 10 with Down syndrome, and 10 with nonspecific mental retardation who were equated on both mental and chronological age. Ac...
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The issues of low prevalence in the context of the diagnosis of neuropsychological disorders in the larger community is discussed. Guidelines are proposed for producing reliability and validity estimates which are clinically, as well as statistically meaningful.
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Full-text available
the purposes of this chapter were to define adaptive behavior in the context of its historical roots, beginning with the pioneering work of Edgar Doll; to discuss the properties of relevant adaptive behavior scales (content areas, norms, psychometric properties); the relevance of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales; and the "cognitive" and adapti...
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Considerable data have been reported concerning comorbidity of various individual psychiatric disorders in children within the diagnostic supradomains of affect/anxiety disorders and behavior disorders as well as between these supradomains. To further examine such comorbidity, 35 psychiatrically hospitalized children were studied in terms of the pr...
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Disturbances in gaze and patterns of facial interaction are prominent aspects of social dysfunction in autism; the nature of this disturbance has up to the present been unclear. This study examined the ability of autistic subjects to use the human face as a source of information. Autistic and age- and MA-matched retarded control subjects assembled...
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The Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC), an assessment instrument for autistic individuals, was evaluated in a group of 157 subjects, 94 clinically autistic and 63 nonautistic. The two groups differed significantly in ratings of pathology. Both false positive and false negative diagnostic classifications were made when the results of the checklist were...
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Although social factors are commonly viewed as an important defining characteristics of the autistic syndrome, earlier research studies have not systematically evaluated social dysfunction in autistic individuals. In this study, the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales were used to assess adaptive behavior in a group of autistic and a group of nonauti...
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In this report, we discuss recent research and clinical issues relevant to the adaptive functioning of psychologically disturbed children. We focus upon the overall and specific adaptive behavior patterns of several types of emotional disorders, some diagnosed before, others after, the advent of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disor...
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Silverstein expressed concern that Vineland means and standard deviations (SDs) vary considerably from age group to age group in the national standardization sample. He concluded that as a result the following assessments are compromised: standard errors of measurement, domain strengths and weaknesses, and domain pairwise comparisons. This reply se...
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Responds to an article by T. Oakland and S. Houchins (see record 1985-24276-001) that reviewed the present authors' survey form of the revised Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales by noting several factual and conceptual errors committed by Oakland and Houchins regarding internal consistency, Pearson correlations, interrater reliability, content vali...
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Eleven children with atypical development, suggestive of the atypical Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) diagnosis in DSM-III were studied. Comprehensive developmental assessments were available for the “atypical” and 14 normal children both during preschool years and at follow-up, about 7 years later. The atypical children demonstrated signifi...
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Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales represent a revision of the Vineland Social Maturity Scale, which, over the last sixty years, has made major contributions to our knowledge of adaptive behavior assessment and our understanding of mental retardation characteristics of adaptive behavior / construction of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales / val...
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In an earlier investigation (Sparrow & Cicchetti, 1978) the authors assessed the reliability and validity of a new instrument for assessing types and levels of adaptive behaviors. Although there was strong evidence for both, the sample was small (N= ≤45) and consisted only of institutionalized mentally retarded children. The current investigation i...
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The reliability and validity of the behavior of a sample of institutionalized mentally retarded children, with total IQs between 2 and 53, were assessed by a new scale measuring the following areas; communication, self-help, physical skills, self-control, and social behavior. Clinically and statistically acceptable levels of interrater agreement we...

Citations

... The AOSI was considered a screening measure for 'risk markers' of autism in toddlers under the age of 18 months, before the age of typical autism diagnosis, and is therefore not considered a diagnostic instrument. Cohort studies largely utilised standardised questionnaires (52/153; 34%) and interviews (38/153; 25%), including standardised interviews such as the Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scales, second edition [119], as well as clinical interviews and semi-structured research interviews (e.g. [120]). ...
... In selecting a tool and interpreting its results, it is important to be familiar with the sample and conditions in which the normative data were collected-the more similar the normative sample is to your target population, the more relevant the norms (Carter, Marakovitz, & Sparrow, 2015). In a majority of the tests available, the most typical way to operationalize development has been based on chronological age. ...
... Nevertheless, these have not been consistently confirmed by other studies. For instance, Carter et al. (1996) claims that even high-functioning individuals with ASD show significant deficits in adaptive behaviors. Freeman et al. (1999) concluded that social skills are independent from initial IQ scores. ...
... = good agreement, and values > 0.9 = excellent agreement. Due to limited sample sizes, we deemed a conservative scale more appropriate than the more lenient ones proposed by (Cicchetti and Sparrow 1981) or (Shrout and Fleiss 1979). ...
... The Arabic version of Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, (VABSA) [21] was used in this study for assessment of developmental functions. The Arabic version was validated with good reliability and validity and used in several studies in Arabic Countries [21]. ...
... Many intelligence tests have been developed [e.g., Standford-Binet Intelligence Test; (Roid, 2003); Woodcock-Johnson Cognitive Abilities Test (Schrank, McGrew, Mather, Wendling, & LaForte, 2014)] and used for intellectual assessment of children in both clinical and academic contexts (Kaufman & Lichtenberger, 2006;Sparrow, Pfeiffer, & Newman, 2005). Among these intelligence tests developed, one of the most commonly used tests in the assessment of gifted children is the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC). ...
... That is, they have higher intelligence scores than 97.8% of the sample (Holocher-Ertl et al., 2008;Sparrow et al., 2005). Previous studies in the literature have investigated how gifted children perform or what cognitive profiles they have on the original version of the W. It has been shown that the old versions of WISC, such as WISC-Revised Edition (WISC-R) and WISC-Third Edition (WISC-III), yield valid and reliable results for the assessment of gifted children (Brown & Yakimowski, 1987;Sparrow & Gurland, 1998). In relation to the WISC-IV, the original standardization study examined the WISC-IV subtest and index scores of 63 children who had been previously identified as gifted (Wechsler, 2003a, p. 77). ...
... Therefore, while basing intervention goals solely on ADOS and ADI-R criteria is never warranted, it is possible in some cases that working on goals that increase quality of life may coincide with lower ADOS and ADI-R scores. While these decreased scores may be associated with improved adaptive functioning, it does not imply a "reduction" in autism or a fundamental change in a person's identity (see Tsatsanis et al., 2011 for a discussion on targeting adaptive behaviors as opposed to "symptomatology"). Working with Autistic individuals when creating intervention plans is one way to address this ambiguity. ...
... Sparrow et al., 1984). It is widely used for individuals with various developmental disabilities, including autism (Sparrow & Cicchetti, 1987). ...
... The VABS (Sparrow et al., 1984) is one of the most widely used tools in various diagnostic and special education settings. It is mainly suitable for the diagnosis of children though has also been used with adults (Saleem et al., 2019) but is not suitable as for a rapid screening of functional states in adults with intellectual disabilities due to its large number of items. ...