Sandra J. Hartman's research while affiliated with University of New Orleans and other places

Publications (94)

Article
This study investigates the relationship between the use of physical co-location and the success of new product development projects. It is proposed that physical co-location leads to higher frequency of face-to-face meetings. The higher frequency of face-to-face meetings are proposed to lead to more successful new product development projects. Dat...
Article
In this research, we find support for a proposed set of linkages among employee perceptions of individual and organizational green orientation, organizational culture, and outcomes, in terms of positive impacts of the green movement and organizational performance in two cultures - Jamaica and the United States. Specifically, we find that employees...
Article
Full-text available
Chakravarthy (1982) contends that a firms adaptive ability depends upon its material capacity and its organizational capacity and its adaptive fit. This study identifies the material and organizational capacities of 18 publicly-held corporations and relates each firms state of adaptation and adaptive fit to a measure of its stock price performance....
Article
Hall (1980) described the hostile environment to be faced by organizations during the decade ahead and provided prescriptions for dealing with a hostile environment. Our study examined 25 firms operating in an economically depressed area containing a number of elements corresponding to Halls hostile environment. Specifically, we sought to identify...
Article
There is often a disconnect between what individuals expect from a chosen profession or organization and what that profession or organization can realistically deliver. In this research, the authors consider the extent to which those considering a nursing career would benefit from advance information, generally described as a "realistic job preview...
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationships between organizational culture, the adoption and extent of use of quality management (QM) programs, as well as extent of use of traditional information systems (TIS), e‐commerce (E‐C) and customer relationship management (CRM) systems in Jamaica. Design/methodology/approach –...
Article
The current focus on business ethics has brought a resurgence of interest in ethics and ethical differences. In this study, we extend the business ethics literature that uses vignettes to present various kinds of ethical dilemmas to examine the relationships among several well-known and widely-used vignette measures, with focus on relationships bet...
Article
In this research, we examine whether organisations of differing size (large vs. small) and focus (regional vs. national/international) differ on several variables related to the green movement and Quality Management (QM). The variables examined include organisational green orientation, organisational culture, employee perceptions of organisational...
Article
In this research, we find support for a proposed set of linkages among employee perceptions of organizational green orientation, individual green orientation, and outcomes, in terms of positive impacts of the green movement and organizational performance. Specifically, we find that employees who believe that their organizations are aligned with the...
Article
In this research, we find support for a proposed set of linkages among individual andorganizational green orientation, organizational culture, employee perceptions oforganizational green orientation, Quality Management (QM) Maturity, and outcomes, interms of positive impacts of the green movement and organizational performance.Specifically, we find...
Article
Full-text available
This study examines the role of the university in attaining regional competitiveness in technology in periods of extreme adversity such as has been the case in the post-Hurricane Katrina situation in New Orleans and the Gulf Coast. In such situations, much can be learned from the experiences of developing nations which have successfully attained te...
Article
We provide a preliminary report on the Hurricane Katrina-related experiences of New Orleans-based college administrators, faculty and approximately 300 business students. What can be learned about the issues centring upon the role of the university in a disaster situation? We draw upon the work of Donahue and O'Keefe (2007), which emphasised the ne...
Article
In this study, we discuss the development of an instrument to examine subjects' awareness of and intentions to behave in accordance with what has become known as the 'green movement'. Environmental friendliness and sustainability are the major concerns of green products, green manufacturing and service, and green organisations. Recent commentary in...
Article
In this research, we find support for a proposed set of linkages among employee perceptions of organizational green orientation, Quality Management (QM) Maturity, and outcomes, in terms of positive impacts of the green movement and organizational performance. Specifically, we find that employees who believe that their organizations are aligned with...
Article
As mentioned in part I of our research, the shortage of nurses in the United States remains a persistent problem. Faced with this reality, nursing programs in colleges and universities continue to struggle to expand enrollment levels to meet the spiraling demand. In this part II of our research, we used another familiar tool in strategic management...
Article
The shortage of nurses in the United States remains a persistent problem. Faced with this reality, nursing programs in colleges and universities continue to struggle to expand enrollment levels to meet the spiraling demand. This research uses familiar tools in strategic management: the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) analys...
Article
Vocational choice theory asserts that an individual's career choice will be based on that person's anticipated satisfaction from working in a particular field and that the person's personality will determine which field will be most satisfying. This study measured personalities and job satisfaction among public health workers to determine if public...
Article
Fundamental to dealing with the problems associated with attracting and retaining nurses during a tight labour market are issues centreing upon attrition from the field. In the United States, attrition has become such a significant issue that efforts to attract individuals to the field and recruit them to positions in the health care industry are n...
Article
The response and file exchange capabilities of web-enhanced instruction are focused by using web-based technologies to enhance the instructional setting for students to respond to materials provided by the instructor. The two specific features such as digital dropboxes and assignments are considered for studying how the instructors can use the new...
Article
This article proposes that, across industries, too much has been made of the importance of job satisfaction and its impact on organizational effectiveness. In addition, so much attention has been directed toward satisfaction that many health care employees, particularly nurses, now expect job satisfaction from their employers as an entitlement. In...
Article
Web Enhanced Instruction (WEI) is not intended to replace the traditional classroom setting, but rather to supplement the traditional lecture with course content that can be accessed from campus or the Internet. WEI has the potential to extend the boundaries of traditional classrooms by providing new opportunities for communication and interaction...
Article
In this study, we report findings from a sample of students at a traditionally African American public institution in the South on a key retention issue - appealing denial of financial aid. We present background which suggests that the financial aid area is in a period of uncertainty where "good" information may be difficult for students to find. O...
Article
Our concern in this paper is with the extent to which cultural differences may affect the way in which organisations respond to changes in the workplace, and we examine Mainland China and the USA. We consider whether there are differences as well as consistencies in the perceptions of managers from the two countries in their experiences with QM Mat...
Article
The federal government, the medical insurance industry, and the academic medical community have disagreed over what treatments are appropriate and cost effective for morbid obesity. This debate is hindered by inadequate data regarding the true costs of diseases and who chooses an operation as a treatment option. The purpose of this study was to obt...
Article
As in any other industry, laws and regulations significantly impact the functioning of the healthcare industry. Some laws, such as those relating to malpractice and social insurance systems, affect the manner in which the industry operates. Other laws, such as those regulating antitrust and employment practices, affect the organization and the envi...
Article
Problems with attracting and retaining nurses during a tight labor market are compounded by some fundamental issues related to attrition from the field. It is important to recognize that, of the students who graduate from nursing schools each year and enter the field of nursing, significant attrition occurs during the first 5 years in the professio...
Article
Purpose – Seeks to conduct serious academic study of the Generation X phenomenon. Design/methodology/approach – Considers how the literature (primarily the popular press) has viewed the contrast between Generation X and its predecessor, the Baby Boomer generation. Uses Fey's acceptance of others scale to consider what differences may exist between...
Article
Problems with attracting and retaining nurses during a tight labor market are exacerbated by the fundamental issues related to attrition from the field. Many individuals leave the field prior to graduation or between graduation and placement. Significant attrition occurs during the first 5 years in the profession. One out of every 3 hospital nurses...
Article
Purpose – This paper reviews recent discussions in the information technology (IT) and management literatures in order to consider their implications and to make a series of predictions about organizational life in the coming e-business era. Design/methodology/approach – A wide variety of recent discussions, ranging from comments by political/gover...
Article
In this paper, we report the development of a theoretical model for health care administration programs at the graduate level. Our model development was prompted by recently-expressed concerns that the training available to managers and executives in health care fields is encountering a number of problems: it is typically lengthy and expensive, and...
Article
When examining the healthcare industry, the need for continuing education in internal functions (i.e., HR management) has been documented. However, equally important to success in the healthcare industry are external functions such as marketing. In an expansion of research on internally focused functions, we report findings from an exploratory stud...
Article
Actionable sexual harassment is defined as a violation of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. In recent years, there have been a number of significant developments in sexual harassment case law and litigation including: (1) nationwide legal recognition for same-sex sexual harassment; (2) increased standards on employer liability for sexual h...
Article
New information technologies place data on integrated information systems, and provide access via pervasive computing technologies. Pervasive computing puts computing power in the hands of all employees, available wherever it is needed. Integrated systems offer seamless data and process integration over diverse information systems. In this paper we...
Article
Problems with attracting and retaining nurses during a tight labor market are compounded by some fundamental issues related to attrition from the field. It is important to recognize that, of the students who graduate from nursing schools each year and enter the field of nursing, significant attrition occurs during the first 5 years in the professio...
Article
Traditionally, entrepreneurs and small businesses have faced difficulties when competing with entrenched firms for customers and expanding into global markets. The World Wide Web (WWW) is one approach to overcoming obstacles by giving organizations a direct connection to potential customers and suppliers on a global level. However, complex technolo...
Article
Quality management (QM) literature has consistently failed to distinguish between managers and line employees when it comes to implementing QM tools and techniques. However, managers and line employees vary considerably on several key individual characteristics. Thus, it is logical to expect that they will react differently to QM implementations. T...
Article
In this paper, we demonstrate how a small entrepreneurial business can compete successfully in the internet arena without developing an in-house website. Current technological development coupled with outsourcing have levelled the playing field, and e-commerce permits a firm to actively and successfully compete in the global marketplace. We suggest...
Article
Investigates the relationships between organizational adoption and extent of use of quality management (QM) programs and customer relationship management systems (CRM) in health-care and non-health-care organizational settings. In referring to QM, recognizes that there has been widespread adoption, across organizations generally, of programs aimed...
Article
As discussed in Part I of this series, rogue doctors have serious sociopathic behavioral deficiencies which may be the result of a defect of character or a flaw in ethics. Under these circumstances, unacceptable behavior patterns will arise. For years, counseling, coaching, training, supervising, transfers to less critical disciplines, disciplinary...
Article
Among the most serious problems a doctor can have may be those which are the result of a defect of character or a flaw in ethics. Under these circumstances, unacceptable behavior patterns may arise. Examples of unacceptable patterns of behavior include dishonesty, intentionally harming a patient, sexual harassment, and substance abuse. For years, d...
Article
This case study reports on an organizational decline situation involving a historically well-known and respected professional organization outside the health care field, with the intention of pointing to several implications for health care. We begin by discussing the results of a survey that involved both members of the organization and "outsiders...
Article
Organizations need to examine their cultures at the level of the "shop floor"--in health care, the point where health care workers deal with patients--to determine if the culture is consistent with management policies and will permit an effective program of reward and discipline. This article describes a case where organizational culture was a majo...
Article
Organizations need to examine their cultures at the level of the “shop floor”—in health care, the point where health care workers deal with patients—to determine if the culture is consistent with management policies and will permit an effective program of reward and discipline. This article describes a case where organizational culture was a major...
Article
In this research, we investigate the relationships between organizational adoption and extent of use of Quality Management (QM) programmes and Information Systems (IS) in two somewhat different organizational settings--health care and non-health care. Specifically, we contend that organizations from the two settings may vary considerably in what we...
Article
Investigates the relationships between organizational adoption and extent of use of two kinds of programs. Specifically, contends that organizations may vary considerably in QM maturity. Argues that QM maturity organizations will be characterized by perceptions that the culture is different in ways which are supportive of QM, and that the organizat...
Article
In this research, the authors examine the relationships between findings from several potentially-related literature streams including a prescriptive body of communication theory involving supervisor-subordinate communication, contingency ideas involving use of coaching/directive vs counselling/participative leader communication styles, and leader-...
Article
In this research we report an analysis of comments from managers and executives in healthcare organizations to provide insights into the strategic management needs of healthcare organizations. The comments were obtained as part of a survey that asked upper-level managers and executives to identify strategic management skill and knowledge needs in h...
Article
Management approaches used by many healthcare organizations lag behind those of similar competitive industries. The authors of this article report findings from an exploratory study of executives' perceptions of training needs in managerial strategy. The authors asked executives to rate the level of knowledge required for each of five key areas in...
Article
Reports an initial study to validate a brief instrument which could be useful as a tool to permit researchers to gain insight into a construct termed QM maturity – the quality of an organization’s adoption of (QM) programs. Notes that investigators have frequently confounded the length of time an organization reports that it has “been on” QM with t...
Article
As the 21st century approaches, HR managers are increasingly finding it necessary to "think outside the box" to find ways to deliver governmental services to users of those services who may be scattered widely throughout a region or territory. Specifically, the HR function finds itself faced with seemingly contradictory pressures: obtaining personn...
Article
This study examines how deans and associate deans of a group from similar universities use networking. Specifically, we consider whether the deans, traditionally considered to perform boundary-spanning functions, make more use of external networking than do the associate deans, who are their subordinates. We examine the relationship between accurac...
Article
This study examines a series of relationships between total quality management (TQM) and information systems (IS) development. Specifically, we consider whether organizations which have more fully adopted TQM will be different in their approaches to IS development. Our findings suggest that where TQM is adopted more fully, there will be a significa...
Conference Paper
Summary form only given. The need to effectively acquire knowledge for exploration, analysis, and reporting from a variety of sources has increased with the shift to a knowledge based economy. Business intelligence systems are information technology systems designed to meet the requirements of knowledge workers. In this paper, we consider the prosp...
Article
This paper examines the relationships between equity theory, equity sensitivity, and organizational citizenship behavior. Several issues are investigated: whether individuals from different cultures differ in their equity sensitivity orientations; whether individuals from different cultures differ in preference for benevolent, equity sensitive, and...
Article
Examines two distinctly different reasons for resistance to total quality management (TQM) in US corporations. One of these is that workers will perceive TQM as controlling rather than empowering: in effect, seeing it as a ploy to get them to work harder for fewer rewards. Alternatively, it may be that TQM is seen as empowering but that all individ...
Article
In this study, we explore how individual differences may impact perceptions about the organization, job characteristics, the organization's use of programs, and the organization's culture in the quality environment. We find positive relationships among the three individual difference variables. Moreover, our results suggest that two of them, Growth...
Article
The concept of organizational justice is important to understanding and predicting organizational behavior. A significant development in the research literature has been the separation of distributive and procedural justice. While much of the research has focused on negative outcomes, this research attempted to verify the presence of both forms of...
Article
The importance of decision maker interpretations in determining organizational responses to performance downturn is underscored and incorporated into a model proposed by Ford and Baucus (1987). In this study, we adapted a Ford and Baucus model to examine 25 organizations in an area of economic downturn. Managerial perceptions of the business enviro...
Article
This study was developed to examine whether bias against women, blacks, and homosexuals emerges in predictable patterns when raters are presented with hiring scenarios. We instructed the research sample to hire six of eight candidates for an accounting position. Eight candidates were necessary to offer the full range of gender, race, and sexual ori...
Article
There is a growing recognition of the need to change the way research is conducted in management. In addition, there is an increasing belief that the philosophy of science can be applied to the research methods and standards normally employed in the study of organizations. Several recent contributions to the literature of management have indicated...
Article
We examined factors contributing to the formation of a communications clique among deans representing a group of AACSB accredited colleges of business. We considered whether several variables which appeared to be related to clique status could be used to predict clique membership. We found some support for the idea that several factors play a role...
Article
Campus ministry, especially in urban areas, has represented an area of frustration and discouragement for many mainline denominations. In this paper, we explore some of the issues involved and apply them to ongoing work to redesign a specific urban campus ministry. While results are not yet available, the work which is being done suggests that ther...
Article
This study investigates the substitutability of video conferencing for physical co-location in new product development projects. The findings indicate that video conferencing is a suitable substitute for physical co-location as far as schedule performance and budget performance are concerned. Surprisingly, the use of video conferencing instead of p...
Article
In this paper, I discuss a pair of issues which have emerged during an investigation of administration in the larger church (e.g., over 1000 members) setting. In general, the churches surveyed appear to encounter problems with overly-decentralized structures, where all staff members report to the senior pastor, and with lack of coordination in the...
Article
Examines the behaviour of hotel employees who, even when they say they are “satisfied”, move from job to job for reasons unrelated to that “satisfaction”. Suggests that an important reason for leaving jobs is that such movement may represent an important way to “get ahead”. Reports on a study which is a preliminary investigation of what is describe...
Article
To compete in today's business world, a college graduate must be equipped with the skills to be applied in the business environment. This study explored undergraduate production/operations management (P/OM) students' preparation for management careers and the expectations of firms in the field. The results show that though only 65% of students are...
Article
During the past 10 years, there has been continuing discussion of a central idea of prospect theory: individuals' risk-taking behavior will differ depending on whether they perceive themselves to be in the negative domain (the donmin of losses) or the positive domain (the domain of gains). Specifically, prospect theory proposes that individuals wil...
Article
Clark et al (1992)reported on the use of a computer simulation model to show that significant reduction in customer ‘ waiting time’ could be achieved by new management policies for multi-station service organizations. They modelled a multi-phase queuing structure and showed reductions in the system variable ‘ time in system’ when servers were poole...
Article
Describes a study which represents an initial examination of the relationship between personality factors and sexual and non-sexual harassment. The traditional approach in the United States to sexual harassment sensitivity has been in terms of social-sexual behaviours based on gender. Moreover, a review of previous research indicates that the exami...
Article
Many organizations devote considerable time and effort to improving job satisfaction, hoping for improved performance. To the extent that happiness and satisfaction are a result of one's heredity and past experiences, management clearly has a very limited role in effecting change. To the degree that happiness and satisfaction are a direct result of...
Article
Planning situations differ according to environmental volatility, system adaptation, and planning level. Differences in planning situations should influence the extent of planners' information search and the type of information processing techniques that will be appropriate. The literature identifies eight information processing tools as aids in pl...
Article
Recent interest in constituency theory, coupled with the concern of the quality movement for meeting the needs of the internal and external “customers” of organizations leads HR managers to think about their jobs in terms of the stakeholders or constituents who have influence or impact on HR job performance. When the HR job is considered in terms o...
Article
The literature contains a number of studies dealing with the effectiveness of decision support systems (DSS). The results from these studies have been inconclusive in providing an answer to the question: does a computer-based DSS improve decision effectiveness? These studies have suggested a number of methods to provide a clearer answer to the ques...
Article
Describes a longitudinal study which examined the social style profile (SSP) as a predictive tool for managerial success over a ten-year period. The SSP has been used extensively in the USA to measure leadership behaviours and has served as a foundation for a wide variety of leadership development programmes in organizations. The analyses indicated...
Article
Harris purports to set the record straight about drugs in the workplace. Instead, he perpetuates old myths and cynicism about the American workforce and gives us no reason to change our original thesis. That is, generally speaking, the American workforce is sober and its productivity is not affected to any great extent by alcohol and drugs. In our...
Article
Generally speaking, the American workforce's productivity is not effected by alcohol and drugs. While this statement appears to fly in the face of the prevailing wisdom, we offer evidence that it is true, consider why there is a widespread perception that drugs are a significant problem in the American workplace, and suggest implications for manage...
Article
This study examined how parental influence may shape the leadership process. American college students majoring in management used the Leadership Behavior Description Questionnaire to describe their management style. They next used the same instrument to describe their perceptions of the management style used by a person they nominated as an import...
Article
In this study we investigated C. Gilligan's [(1982), In a different voice: Psychological theory and women's development, Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press] suggestion that women and men, due to socialization, develop differently in terms of moral development [L. Kohlberg (1969), Stage and Consequence: The Cognitive Development Appr...
Article
This study used a between-subjects analysis of variance design (2 2 2 2) to estimate the effects of rater gender, ratee gender, the gender stereotype of the job, and the gender stereotype of the ratee's personal characteristics on a promotion decision. The results indicated that female employees with masculine characteristics were evaluated as most...
Article
A little-explored issue in the psychological and legal literature involves test validation. This article discusses issues of test validation from both psychological and legal perspectives. Areas of inconsistency are noted and probable future directions are high-lighted.
Article
Past research on the effects of sex role stereotypes on evaluation of male and female performers have neither pretested for the gender linkage of the task nor controlled for several potential confounds. In this study, American male and female students (N = 143; 68 men, 75 women) rated high- and low-performing male and female stimulus persons in two...
Article
As noted in the literature, comparatively little research has examined either descriptive or prescriptive modeling of the planning process. A major reason for this lack of research appears to be the difficulty of comparing and testing planning methods within and across actual organizations. The purpose of this paper is to present a prescriptive pla...
Article
The authors propose that job satisfaction might be assessed through the measurement of "action tendencies" and report the development of an action tendency job satisfaction instrument. A series of five studies was conducted with workers in a wide range of occupations serving as respondents. The developmental studies indicate that the resulting inst...
Article
In the 21st century, there is no doubt that organizations are using information technologies (IT) to become more effective and efficient, consequently gaining competitive advantages. There are extensive researches on the organizational effectiveness of IT. However, there is lack of empirical study in how organizations are using IT. In this study, u...
Article
In recent years, there has been a rapid increase in use of what we term Web Enhanced Instruction (WEI) by colleges and universities. Recent work by Landry (2003) and Landry et al (2006) has reported the development and an initial examination of a modification of the Davis (1989) Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) to measure students' perceptions of...
Article
In this study, we extend the vein of management and business ethics literature that uses vignettes to present various kinds of real life of ethical dilemmas (Fritzsche and Becker, 1984; Becker and Fritzsche, 1987; Premeaux and Mondy, 1993) to different groups of managers and to those from different national cultures. In this research, however, our...