Sam Williams's scientific contributions

Publications (3)

Article
Full-text available
There are two approaches to measuring COVID-19 deaths – ‘COVID associated deaths’ and ‘excess deaths’. An excess deaths framework is preferable, as there is measurement error in COVID associated deaths, due to issues relating to imperfect information about deaths that are directly attributable to COVID-19. The standard measure of excess deaths (com...
Article
Privatised water companies in England and Wales are subject to economic regulation by the industry regulator (Ofwat). Ofwat sets 5-year caps on the prices companies can charge their customers. These caps are in part based on the benchmarking of companies’ costs. Ofwat has not previously used econometrics to benchmark domestic retail costs, but it u...
Article
We address the question of: 'how many deaths in England and Wales are due to COVID-19?' There are two approaches to measuring COVID deaths - 'COVID associated deaths' and 'excess deaths'. An excess deaths type framework is preferable, as there is substantial measurement error in COVID associated deaths, due to issues relating to the identification...

Citations

... The burgeoning literature on social distancing policies and their effectiveness in curbing the spread of COVID-19 is not clear. Some studies (Gibson, 2020;Homburg, 2020;Williams et al., 2021) find that lockdowns had no impact on COVID-19 mortality in a variety of countries, while others have found that social distancing policies have generally been credited with a reduction in the spread of COVID-19 (Abouk and Heydari, 2020; Courtemanche et al., 2020;Dave et al., 2020a;Friedson et al., 2020), these containment measures had detrimental economic impacts. Hence, the role of policy makers is to strike a delicate balance between mitigating the loss of life versus the economic cost of shutdowns (Acemoglu et al. 2020), as well as to establish the most efficient measures of controlling the pandemic (Ibrahim et al., 2020). ...
... The analysis of the latest benchmarking research shows that benchmarking is a cross-sectoral research method, which means that it can be applied in all sectors of the economy. This is evidenced by the latest research, for example: Morse et al. (2020) dedicated to bus performance in the US; studies by Luo et al. (2020) in the Chinese construction sector; studies by Salim et al. (2020) for the comparison of Indonesia's foreign trade with Singapore and Hong Kong; studies by Williams et al. (2020) including a cost-effectiveness analysis of water retail in England and Wales; Beath and Flynn's research in the financial sector (2020) comparing the performance of private equity portfolios of the largest institutional investors in the world; a study by Ferreira and Marques (2021) on public-private partnerships in healthcare services in Portugal. ...
... Hence, there may not be a clear link between the infection and the death. (Williams et al., 2020) An individual may have died with COVID-19 and not of COVID-19. However, this argument can used to suggest that there could alternatively result in an underreporting of deaths (Aron and Muellbauer, 2020). ...