Sabine Kastner's research while affiliated with Princeton University and other places

Publications (209)

Article
Attention is fundamental to all cognition. In the primate brain, it is implemented by a large-scale network that consists of areas spanning across all major lobes, also including subcortical regions. Classical attention accounts assume that control over the selection process in this network is exerted by ‘top-down’ mechanisms in the fronto-parietal...
Chapter
The thalamus is a key structure in the mammalian brain, providing a hub for communication within and across distributed forebrain networks. Research in this area has undergone a revolution in the last decade, with findings that suggest an expanded role for the thalamus in sensory processing, motor control, arousal regulation, and cognition. Moving...
Article
In-vivo electrophysiology requires direct access to brain tissue, necessitating the development and refinement of surgical procedures and techniques that promote the health and well-being of animal subjects. Here, we report a series of findings noted on structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans in monkeys with MRI-compatible implants follow...
Article
Full-text available
When you are playing catch or I Spy, your brain helps you focus on one location and ignore the rest. Did you know that most people are slightly better at focusing on one side of space, either left or right? This is called a focusing bias. The focusing bias is usually so small that you do not notice it in your daily life. This slight bias can be mea...
Article
Recent evidence suggests that visual attention alternately samples two behaviorally relevant objects at approximately 4Hz, rhythmically shifting between the objects. Whether similar attentional rhythms exist in other sensory modalities, however, is not yet clear. We therefore adapted and extended an established paradigm to investigate visual and po...
Article
Full-text available
Open science initiatives are creating opportunities to increase research coordination and impact in nonhuman primate (NHP) imaging. The PRIMatE Data and Resource Exchange community recently developed a collaboration-based strategic plan to advance NHP imaging as an integrative approach for multiscale neuroscience.
Article
Engagement of posterior parietal cortex (PPC) in visuospatial attention and arithmetic processing has been extensively documented using neuroimaging methods. Numerous studies have suggested a close connection between visuospatial attention and arithmetic processing. However, given that the extant evidence in humans stem from neuroimaging methods th...
Article
Despite increased awareness of the lack of gender equity in academia and a growing number of initiatives to address issues of diversity, change is slow, and inequalities remain. A major source of inequity is gender bias, which has a substantial negative impact on the careers, work-life balance, and mental health of underrepresented groups in scienc...
Article
Full-text available
The pulvinar is the largest nucleus in the primate thalamus and has topographically organized connections with multiple cortical areas, thereby forming extensive cortico-pulvino-cortical input-output loops. Neurophysiological studies have suggested a role for these transthalamic pathways in regulating information transmission between cortical areas...
Article
Full-text available
An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
Preprint
Even during sustained attention, enhanced processing of attended stimuli waxes and wanes rhythmically, with periods of enhanced and relatively diminished visual processing (and hit rates) alternating at 4 or 8 Hz in a sustained visual attention task. These alternating attentional states occur alongside alternating dynamical states, in which lateral...
Article
The fundamental receptive field (RF) architecture in human visual cortex becomes adult-like by age 5. However, visuo-spatial functions continue to develop until teenage years. This suggests that, despite the early maturation of the RF structure, functional interactions within and across RFs may mature slowly. Here, we used fMRI to investigate funct...
Article
Full-text available
Scientific excellence is a necessity for progress in biomedical research. As research becomes ever more international, establishing international collaborations will be key to advancing our scientific knowledge. Understanding the similarities in standards applied by different nations to animal research, and where the differences might lie, is cruci...
Article
Full-text available
Despite the relative successes in the surgical treatment of pharmacoresistant epilepsy, there is rather little research on the neural (re)organization that potentially subserves behavioral compensation. Here, we examined the post-surgical functional connectivity (FC) in children and adolescents who have undergone unilateral cortical resection and,...
Article
Full-text available
Over the past 10-20 years, neuroscience witnessed an explosion in the use of non-invasive imaging methods, particularly magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), to study brain structure and function. Simultaneously, with access to MRI in many research institutions, MRI has become an indispensable tool for researchers and veterinarians to guide improvement...
Article
There has been little evidence linking changes in spiking activity that occur prior to a spatially predictable target (i.e., prior to target selection) to behavioral outcomes, despite such preparatory changes being widely assumed to enhance the sensitivity of sensory processing. We simultaneously recorded from frontal and parietal nodes of the atte...
Article
In the adult brain, biases in the allocation of spatial attention can be measured using a line bisection task and are directly relatable to neural attention signals in the fronto‐parietal attention network. Behavioral studies on the development of spatial biases have yielded a host of inconsistent results, likely due to variance in sample size, def...
Article
While research in previous decades demonstrated a link between the pulvinar nucleus of the thalamus and visual selective attention, the pulvinar's specific functional role has remained elusive. However, methodological advances in electrophysiological recordings in non-human primates, including simultaneous recordings in multiple brain regions, have...
Preprint
Despite the relative successes in the surgical treatment of pharmacoresistant epilepsy, there is rather little research on the neural (re)organization that potentially subserves behavioral compensation. Here, we examined the post-surgical functional connectivity (FC) in children and adolescents who have undergone unilateral cortical resection and,...
Article
Left parietal cortex has been associated with the human-specific ability of sophisticated tool use. Yet, it is unclear how tool information is represented across senses. Here, we compared auditory and visual tool-specific activations within healthy human subjects to probe the relation of tool-specific networks, uni- and multisensory response proper...
Article
Repeated stimuli elicit attenuated responses in visual cortex relative to novel stimuli. This adaptation can be considered as a form of rapid learning and a signature of perceptual memory. Adaptation occurs not only when a stimulus is repeated immediately, but also when there is a lag in terms of time and other intervening stimuli before the repeti...
Preprint
Full-text available
There has been little evidence linking changes in spiking activity that occur prior to a spatially predictable target (i.e., prior to target selection) to behavioral outcomes, despite such preparatory changes being widely assumed to enhance the sensitivity of sensory processing. We simultaneously recorded from frontal and parietal nodes of the atte...
Preprint
Full-text available
Pulvinar is the largest nucleus in the primate thalamus and has topographically organized connections with multiple cortical areas, thereby forming extensive cortico-pulvino-cortical input-output loops. Neurophysiological studies have provided evidence for a role of these transthalamic pathways in regulating information transmission between cortica...
Article
Nonhuman primate neuroimaging is on the cusp of a transformation, much in the same way its human counterpart was in 2010, when the Human Connectome Project was launched to accelerate progress. Inspired by an open data-sharing initiative, the global community recently met and, in this article, breaks through obstacles to define its ambitions.
Article
Long-range horizontal connections in early vision undergird a well-studied "collinear facilitation" effect, wherein a central low-contrast target becomes more detectable when flanked by collinear elements. Collinear facilitation is weaker in schizophrenia. Might lateral connections be responsible? To consider the possibility, we had 38 schizophreni...
Article
Spatial attention is comprised of neural mechanisms that boost sensory processing at a behaviorally relevant location while filtering out competing information. The present review examines functional specialization in the network of brain regions that directs such preferential processing. This attention network includes both cortical (e.g., frontal...
Article
Full-text available
Alpha oscillations are strongly modulated by spatial attention. To what extent, the generators of cortical alpha oscillations are spatially distributed and have selectivity that can be related to retinotopic organization is a matter of continuous scientific debate. In the present report, neuromagnetic activity was quantified by means of spatial loc...
Article
Full-text available
To study the brain, scientists can use a machine called an MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scanner. An MRI scanner takes pictures of the brain in a safe way, allowing scientists to learn about the structure of the brain and its functions. MRI helps scientists learn which areas of the brain are active when you engage in different activities, such a...
Preprint
Full-text available
Repeated stimuli elicit attenuated responses in visual cortex relative to novel stimuli. This adaptation phenomenon can be considered a form of rapid learning and a signature of perceptual memory. Adaptation occurs not only when a stimulus is repeated immediately, but also when there is a lag in terms of time and other intervening stimuli before th...
Article
Full-text available
Background Visual shape completion is a fundamental process that constructs contours and shapes on the basis of the geometric relations of spatially separated edge elements. Behavioral and electrophysiological studies indicate that people with chronic schizophrenia are poor at visual shape completion but at what point does the impairment emerge, ho...
Article
Selective attention is crucial for navigating natural visual environments, which are often crowded with too many objects to process simultaneously. Research over the past few decades has led to influential theories describing neural mechanisms underlying selective attention in the adult brain. However, how children come to achieve adult-level selec...
Article
Full-text available
The original version of this Article contained an error in the author affiliations. Affiliation 3 incorrectly read ‘Department of Biological and Brain Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA’.
Article
The functional role of the pulvinar, with its widespread cortical connectivity, has remained elusive. In this issue of Neuron, Jaramillo et al. (2019) provide a computational roadmap for how the pulvinar might influence various cognitive behaviors across multiple large-scale networks.
Article
Full-text available
Spatial attention is discontinuous, sampling behaviorally relevant locations in theta-rhythmic cycles (3–6 Hz). Underlying this rhythmic sampling are intrinsic theta oscillations in frontal and parietal cortices that provide a clocking mechanism for two alternating attentional states that are associated with either engagement at the presently atten...
Article
Full-text available
The pulvinar influences communication between cortical areas. We use fMRI to characterize the functional organization of the human pulvinar and its coupling with cortex. The ventral pulvinar is sensitive to spatial position and moment-to-moment transitions in visual statistics, but also differentiates visual categories such as faces and scenes. The...
Article
Recent evidence has demonstrated that environmental sampling is a fundamentally rhythmic process. Both perceptual sensitivity during covert spatial attention and the probability of overt exploratory movements are tethered to theta-band activity (3–8 Hz) in the attention network. The fronto-parietal part of this network is positioned at the nexus of...
Article
The selection of behaviorally relevant information from cluttered visual scenes (often referred to as ‘attention') is mediated by a cortical large-scale network consisting of areas in occipital, temporal, parietal, and frontal cortex that is organized into a functional hierarchy of feedforward and feedback pathways. In the human brain, little is kn...
Article
Visual shape completion is a fundamental process that constructs contours and shapes on the basis of the geometric relations between spatially separated edge elements. People with schizophrenia are impaired at distinguishing visually completed shapes, but when does the impairment emerge and how does it evolve with illness duration? The question bea...
Data
FA, flip angle; TI, inversion time; TE, echo time; ES, echo spacing; BW, bandwidth per pixel; TR, repetition time; PA, parallel acquisition; PF, partial Fourier (half scan); SO, slice orientation; PE, phase encoding direction; RO, read out direction; SL, slice direction. Reconstructed resolution (RR; mm) and image dimensions (RID; px) refer to the...
Data
TE, echo time; TR, repetition time; PE, phase encoding; RO, read out direction; Reconstructed resolution (RR; mm) and image dimensions refer to the images after they have been reconstructed from the k-space data, the matrix size, and resolution used for the acquisition may differ. For these categories, RO, read out direction; PE, phase encoding dir...
Data
FA, flip angle; TE, echo time; TR, repetition time; BW, bandwidth per pixel; ES, echo spacing; PA, parallel acquisition; PF, partial Fourier (half scan); PE, phase encoding direction; FS, fat suppression; SO, slice orientation; SA, slice acquisition order; Gap, gap between slices; RO, read out direction; Nacq, number of volumes collected; Ndisc, nu...
Article
Full-text available
Non-human primate neuroimaging is a rapidly growing area of research that promises to transform and scale translational and cross-species comparative neuroscience. Unfortunately, the technological and methodological advances of the past two decades have outpaced the accrual of data, which is particularly challenging given the relatively few centers...
Preprint
The fronto-parietal attention network represents attentional priorities and provides feedback about these priorities to sensory cortical areas. Sustained spiking activity in the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) carries such prioritized information, but how this activity is sustained in the absence of feedforward sensory information, and how it is tr...
Preprint
Spatial attention is discontinuous, sampling behaviorally relevant locations in theta-rhythmic cycles (3-6 Hz). Underlying this rhythmic sampling are intrinsic theta oscillations in frontal and parietal cortices that provide a clocking mechanism for two alternating attentional states that are associated with either engagement at the presently atten...
Article
Classic models of attention suggest that sustained neural firing constitutes a neural correlate of sustained attention. However, recent evidence indicates that behavioral performance fluctuates over time, exhibiting temporal dynamics that closely resemble the spectral features of ongoing, oscillatory brain activity. Therefore, it has been proposed...
Article
Classic studies of spatial attention assumed that its neural and behavioral effects were continuous over time. Recent behavioral studies have instead revealed that spatial attention leads to alternating periods of heightened or diminished perceptual sensitivity. Yet, the neural basis of these rhythmic fluctuations has remained largely unknown. We s...
Article
Patients with injury to early visual cortex or its inputs can display the Riddoch phenomenon: preserved awareness for moving but not stationary stimuli. We provide a detailed case report of a patient with the Riddoch phenomenon, MC. MC has extensive bilateral lesions to occipitotemporal cortex that include most early visual cortex and complete blin...
Article
Intracranial electroencephalography (iEEG), also known as electrocorticography when using subdural grid electrodes or stereotactic EEG when using depth electrodes, is blossoming in various fields of human neuroscience. In this article, we highlight the potentials of iEEG in exploring functions of the human brain while also considering its limitatio...
Preprint
Full-text available
Non-human primate neuroimaging is a rapidly growing area of research that promises to transform and scale translational and cross-species comparative neuroscience. Unfortunately, the technological and methodological advances of the past two decades have outpaced the accrual of data, which is particularly challenging given the relatively few centers...
Article
Cognition can be conceptualized as a set of algorithmic control functions whose real-time deployment determines how an organism stores and uses information to guide thought and action. A subset of these functions is required for goal-directed selection and amplification of sensory signals-broadly referred to as attention-and for its flexible contro...
Preprint
Full-text available
The pulvinar regulates information transmission to cortex and communication between cortical areas. The way the pulvinar interacts with cortex is governed by its intrinsic organization. Here, we show using fMRI that the human pulvinar is functionally heterogeneous, broadly separated into dorsal and ventral subdivisions based on characterization of...
Article
Recent findings in the visual system of non-human primates have demonstrated an important role of gamma band activity (40 - 100 Hz) in the feed-forward flow of sensory information, whereas feedback control appears to be dynamically established by oscillations in the alpha (8 - 13 Hz) and beta bands (13 - 18 Hz) (van Kerkoerle et al., 2014; Bastos e...
Article
Full-text available
Unraveling how brain regions communicate is crucial for understanding how the brain processes external and internal information. Neuronal oscillations within and across brain regions have been proposed to play a crucial role in this process. Two main hypotheses have been suggested for routing of information based on oscillations, namely communicati...
Article
The primate visual system contains two major cortical pathways: a ventral-temporal pathway that has been associated with object processing and recognition, and a dorsal-parietal pathway that has been associated with spatial processing and action guidance. Our understanding of the role of the dorsal pathway, in particular, has greatly evolved within...
Article
Frontiers for Young Minds puts kids in charge of scientific publications by having them control the review process. This provides kids the ability to shape the way science is taught and to better understand the scientific method.
Chapter
Selective attention refers to the ability to voluntarily prioritize information that is chosen from competing inputs and is therefore different from the reflexive orienting to salient events in the environment. While orienting responses are mediated by the midbrain and are present in many species outside the mammalian line including reptiles, amphi...
Article
Background. Behavioral and electrophysiological studies indicate that people with chronic schizophrenia poorly integrate elements to form visually completed shapes. Is this deficit specific to schizophrenia? If so, may it be found as early as the first psychotic episode? Affirmative answers would potentially validate the impairment as an illness bi...
Article
Background. The vast majority of studies that examine visual processing in special populations ensure that subjects have normal or corrected-to-normal vision, without also reporting whether subject groups are matched on visual acuity (VA) within the normal range. This is problematic because a host of factors impact VA (e.g., aging, schizophrenia) a...
Article
Visual integration dysfunction characterizes schizophrenia, but prior studies have not yet established whether the problem arises by the first psychotic episode or worsens with illness duration. To investigate the issue, we compared chronic schizophrenia patients (SZs), first episode psychosis patients (FEs), and well-matched healthy controls on a...
Article
The brain has a limited capacity and therefore needs mechanisms to selectively enhance the information most relevant to one's current behavior. We refer to these mechanisms as "attention." Attention acts by increasing the strength of selected neural representations and preferentially routing them through the brain's large-scale network. This is a c...
Article
Full-text available
Unlabelled: Developmental topographic disorientation (DTD) is a life-long condition in which affected individuals are severely impaired in navigating around their environment. Individuals with DTD have no apparent structural brain damage on conventional imaging and the neural mechanisms underlying DTD are currently unknown. Using functional and di...
Article
Spatial attention is mediated through a large-scale network that includes occipital, temporal, parietal and frontal cortical regions. While the network architecture has been well characterized using neuroimaging methods, less is known about the temporal dynamics in local regions and across the network. Here, we explored the modulatory effects of sp...
Article
Contour integration (CI) is a visual process that combines spatially aligned edge elements into unified boundaries or shapes. We have shown that CI is compromised in chronic schizophrenia, especially for higher spatial frequency displays, but it remains unclear when this dysfunction arises in the illness. To consider the issue, we behaviorally comp...
Article
The majority of studies that examine visual processing in special populations ensure that subjects have normal or corrected-to-normal vision, without also reporting whether subject groups are matched on visual acuity (VA) within the normal range. This is problematic because many factors compromise VA (e.g., aging, schizophrenia) and optimal VA amon...
Article
Full-text available
Areas V3 and V4 are commonly thought of as individual entities in the primate visual system, based on definition criteria such as their representation of visual space, connectivity, functional response properties, and relative anatomical location in cortex. Yet, large-scale functional and anatomical organization patterns not only emphasize distinct...
Article
Full-text available
Unlabelled: The pulvinar is the largest nucleus in the primate thalamus and contains extensive, reciprocal connections with visual cortex. Although the anatomical and functional organization of the pulvinar has been extensively studied in old and new world monkeys, little is known about the organization of the human pulvinar. Using high-resolution...
Article
Looking for objects in cluttered natural environments is a frequent task in everyday life. This process can be difficult, because the features, locations, and times of appearance of relevant objects often are not known in advance. Thus, a mechanism by which attention is automatically biased toward information that is potentially relevant may be hel...