S V Subramanian's research while affiliated with Centre for Development Studies and other places

Publications (731)

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•HMIS covers a large proportion of births, but a smaller fraction of child deaths compared to estimates from surveys.•Birth and death coverage in HMIS, while incomplete, has been improving nationally and for many states.•States that have improved HMIS reporting, should be studied for replicating best practices.•HMIS can provide signals for real tim...
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Background The COVID-19 pandemic and governments’ attempts to contain it are negatively affecting young children’s health and development in ways we are only beginning to understand and measure. Responses to the pandemic are driven largely by confining children and families to their homes. This study aims to assess the levels of and associated soci...
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Importance: Few studies have examined the dietary trends in Korea beyond evaluating selected food groups. To help prevent cardiometabolic disease burdens, a comprehensive investigation of the trends in overall diet quality and identification of possible contributing factors would be useful. Objective: To investigate the trends and independent as...
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Importance: Prior studies on the association between fine particulate matter with diameters 2.5 μm or smaller (PM2.5) and probability of death have not applied multilevel analysis disaggregating data for US census tract, states, and counties, nor tested its interaction by socioeconomic status (SES). Such an approach could provide a more refined id...
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Importance: Coverage of essential child health and nutrition interventions in low- and middle-income countries remains suboptimal. Adverse exposures, such as undernutrition and infections, are particularly harmful during the 1000 days from conception until 2 years of age. Objective: To investigate whether deaths in children younger than 5 years-...
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Importance: High out-of-pocket expenditure (OOPE) on health in India may limit achieving universal health coverage. A clear insight on the components of health expenditure may be necessary to make allocative decisions to reduce OOPE, and such details by sociodemographic group and state have not been studied in India. Objective: To analyze the re...
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In India, Parliamentary Constituencies (PCs) could serve as a regional unit of COVID-19 monitoring that facilitates evidence-based policy decisions. In this study, we presented the first estimates of COVID-19 cumulative cases and deaths per 100,000 population and the case fatality rate (CFR) between 7 January 2020 and 31 January 2021 across PCs and...
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Head Start is a federally funded, nation-wide program in the U.S. for enhancing school readiness of children aged 3–5 from low-income families. Understanding heterogeneity in treatment effects (HTE) is an important task when evaluating programs, but most attempts to explore HTE in Head Start have been limited to subgroup analyses that rely on avera...
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Over 600,000 newborns in India died in their first month of life in 2017 despite large increases in access to maternal health services. We assess whether maternal and newborn health system quality in India is adequate for institutional delivery to reduce neonatal mortality. We identified recent births from the cross-sectional 2015–2016 National Fam...
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Objectives To understand a 20-year trend of gender-specific smoking prevalence among adults in South Korea. Design Age-period-cohort analysis using the intrinsic estimator method was applied to examine the separate contribution of age, period and cohort effect on smoking prevalence. The Driving Force-Pressure-State-Exposure-Effect-Action (DPSEEA)...
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Heterogeneity in treatment effects of the Head Start, a federally funded early childhood development program in the United States, has previously been found in the Head Start Impact Study (HSIS), a nationally representative randomized controlled trial. While individual characteristics have been extensively examined as sources of effect heterogeneit...
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Background Wasting reflects infections and poor nutrition and affects almost 50 million children at any given time. Wasting comes with immediate risk of mortality and increased risks for long-term negative consequences for development. Children under two are particularly sensitive to undernutrition and infections. We estimated the age patterning in...
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The states and districts are the primary focal points for policy formulation and programme intervention in India. The within-districts variation of key health indicators is not well understood and consequently underemphasised. This study aims to partition geographic variation in low birthweight (LBW) and small birth size (SBS) in India and geovisua...
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Importance: The United Nations' Sustainable Development Goal Target 2.2 seeks to end all forms of malnutrition by 2030 by meeting targets, including the elimination of stunting and wasting in all children younger than 5 years. Such indicators are used to monitor childhood undernutrition but may not provide a complete picture at a population level....
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Importance: The association of surgeons' and hospitals' operative volumes with postoperative patient outcomes has been studied for decades and holds important policy implications; however, in many volume-outcome analyses, this association is described without the envisioning of a clear intervention, which often introduces unintentional bias. Actin...
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Dietary diversity is an important indicator of child malnutrition. However, little is known about the geographic variation of diet indicators across India, particularly within districts and across states. As such, the purpose of this paper was to elucidate the small area variations in diet indicators between clusters within districts of India. Over...
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This study used a wide range of information on parental sociodemographic, physical and behavioural characteristics as well as on the presence of non-communicable diseases among parents and examined the association of these attributes with anthropometric failure, anaemia and mortality of their children aged 0–59 months. Findings revealed that childr...
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Examining data on the congressional district level may better align with the interests of Members of Congress who have the power to implement federal health policies. Despite this importance, measurement of health indicators at the congressional district level remains widely understudied. In this study, we estimated overall life expectancy and vari...
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Background Ambient exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is one of the top global health concerns. We estimate the associations between in-utero and perinatal exposure to PM2.5 and infant, neonatal and postneonatal mortality in India. We evaluate the sensitivity of this association to two widely-used exposure assessments. Method We linked na...
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Child health outcomes vary between Parliamentary Constituencies (PCs) in India. There are a total of 543 PCs in India, each of which is a geographical unit represented by a Member of Parliament (MP). MP characteristics, such as age, gender, education, the number of terms they have served, and whether they belong to a Scheduled Caste or Scheduled Tr...
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Across the United States, residents of lower income neighborhoods evince poorer health, on average, than residents of more affluent areas. Studies aiming to explain this pattern have focused largely on the effects of neighborhood characteristics on residents' health, often overlooking the possibility that the reverse causal process—that a person's...
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Vitamin A supplementation for children 6–59 months old is an important intervention that boosts immune function, especially where children do not consume enough vitamin-A-rich foods. However, the low coverage of vitamin A supplementation is a persistent problem in low- and middle-income countries. We first estimated the percentage of children 6–23...
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Background Reaching zero-dose children (infants who receive no routine vaccinations) is a global strategic priority. We studied zero-dose children in India over 24 years to clarify aggregate trends and the contribution of large-scale social, economic, and geographical inequalities to these. Methods We did a multilevel, geospatial analysis of repea...
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Background Personal disclosure of opioid use disorder (OUD) recovery can lead to relationship outcomes such as social support, which is associated with greater treatment retention, or stigma, which is associated with risk of treatment dropout. Although disclosure may have important impacts on the relationships and ensuing recovery trajectories of p...
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Background/objectives Stunting, underweight, and wasting are used to monitor nutritional status in children, but they do not identify children with concurrent anthropometric failures (AF). Our study estimates the association between AF and mortality in children with single versus multiple failures, then calculates the percentage of child deaths att...
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Importance Geographic targeting of public health interventions is needed in resource-constrained developing countries. Objective To develop methods for estimating health and development indicators across micropolicy units, using assembly constituencies (ACs) in India as an example. Design, Setting, and Participants This cross-sectional study incl...
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Background Child malnutrition remains a major public health issue in India. Along with myriad upstream and social determinants of these adverse outcomes, recent studies have highlighted regional differences in mean child malnutrition rates. This research helps policy makers look between urban and rural communities and states to take a population-le...
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Early identification of high-risk pregnancies can reduce global neonatal mortality rate. Using the most recent Demographic and Health Surveys from 56 low- and middle-income countries, we examined the proportion of mothers with history of neonatal deaths. Logistic regression models were used to assess the association between maternal history of neon...
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There have been consistent efforts to assess treatment effect heterogeneity (TEH) of Head Start using the data from the Head Start Impact Study (HSIS), a randomized controlled trial of a federally funded child development program for a nationally representative sample of low-income parents and their 3- and 4-year-old children in the United States....
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Background The rate of caesarean delivery has increased markedly both globally and within India. However, there is considerable variation within countries. No previous studies have examined the relative importance of multiple geographic levels in shaping the distribution of caesarean delivery and to what extent they can be explained by individual-l...
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Importance Evidence on the suitability of anthropometric failure (ie, stunting, underweight, and wasting) as a stand-alone measure of child undernutrition can inform global and national nutrition and health agendas. Objective To provide a comprehensive estimate of the prevalence of child undernutrition by evaluating both dietary and anthropometric...
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The study of upward spill over on parents of their offspring’s education is vital for understanding the family dynamics and role of adult children in the decisions of parents. Such association has widespread implication and application on ageing policies. We use pooled data from population-based cross-sectional health consumption surveys conducted...
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Child undernutrition remains high in India with far-reaching consequences for child health and development. Anthropometry reflects undernutrition. We examined the state-level trends in underweight, stunting, and wasting prevalence and inequality by living standards using four rounds of the National Family Health Surveys in 26 states in India, condu...
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Most countries have implemented restrictions on mobility to prevent the spread of Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19), entailing considerable societal costs but, at least initially, based on limited evidence of effectiveness. We asked whether mobility restrictions were associated with changes in the occurrence of COVID-19 in 34 OECD countries plus Si...
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Background Community health workers (CHWs) are central to India's strategy for reaching the Sustainable Development Goals around maternal and child health. Despite India's significant investment in these programs, few studies have analyzed the effect of CHWs across India. Objective This study aims to analyze multiple types of CHWs and their impact...
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This study aims (1) to test the association between access to basic sanitation/hygiene services in Brazilian households with their householders’ socioeconomic and demographic characteristics; (2) to analyze the distribution of urban health-relevant elements in the census tracts according to their income, education and race/color composition. The in...
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The number of operations that surgeons have previously performed is associated with their patients' outcomes. However, this association may not be causal because previous studies have often been cross-sectional and their analyses have not considered time-varying confounding or positivity violations. Using the example of surgeons who perform coronar...
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Objectives This study explores population-level variation in different types of health insurance coverage in India. We aimed to understand the extent to which contextual factors at community, district, and state levels may contribute to place-based inequalities in coverage after accounting for household-level socioeconomic factors. Methods We used...
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The importance of data quality to correctly determine prevalence estimates of child anthropometric failures has been a contentious issue among policymakers and researchers. Our research objective was to ascertain the impact of improved DHS data quality on the prevalence estimates of stunting, wasting, and underweight. The study also looks for the d...
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Prior research has identified a number of risk factors ranging from inadequate household sanitation to maternal characteristics as important determinants of child malnutrition and health in India. What is less known is the extent to which these individual-level risk factors are geographically distributed. Assessing the geographic distribution, espe...
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There are emerging opportunities to assess health indicators at truly small areas with increasing availability of data geocoded to micro geographic units and advanced modeling techniques. The utility of such fine-grained data can be fully leveraged if linked to local governance units that are accountable for implementation of programs and intervent...
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Background: As under-5 mortality rates declined all over the world, the relative distribution of under-5 deaths during different periods of life changed. To provide information for policymakers to plan for multi-layer health strategies targeting child health, it is essential to quantify the distribution of under-5 deaths by age groups. Methods:...
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Importance An accurate understanding of the distributional implications of public health policies is critical for ensuring equitable responses to the COVID-19 pandemic and future public health threats. Objective To identify and quantify the association of race/ethnicity–based, sex-based, and income-based inequities of state-specific lockdowns with...
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Higher education increases the likelihood of a healthy and successful life. This study investigated the association between relative deprivation and aspiration for college education in adolescents in Japan. The data of the 2016 survey of the Longitudinal Survey of Newborns in the twenty-first Century, a nationwide birth cohort study following infan...
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Low socio-economic status is recognized as one of the risk factors for SIDS. In this study we have pointed out the similarities between families that have SIDS cases and families in which infant non-accidental injury has been proven, as well as the differences between them and the general population. This study was conducted in Montenegro, comparin...
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We use county level data from the United States to document the role of social capital the evolution of Covid-19 between January 2020 and January 2021. We find that social capital differentials in Covid-19 deaths and hospitalizations depend on the dimension of social capital and the timeframe considered. Communities with higher levels of relational...
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There are individual differences in health outcomes following exposure to childhood maltreatment, yet constant individual variance is often assumed in analyses. Among 286 Black, South African women, the association between childhood maltreatment and neurocognitive health, defined here as neurocognitive performance (NP), was first estimated assuming...
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School-aged children gain weight most rapidly in summer, but few studies have investigated summer weight gain among preschool-aged children. We fit continuous linear spline mixed models to test for accelerated summer weight gain among 2,044 children attending 16 Boston-area Head Start programs between fall 2016 and spring 2019. Academic year and su...
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Background Prevalence of Cesarean section (C-section) is unequally distributed. Since both extremely low and high levels of C-section can not only cause adverse birth outcomes but also impose a double burden of inefficiency within maternal health care, it is important to monitor the dynamics of key factors associated with the use of C-section. Obj...
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Objective National averages obscure geographic variation in program performance. We determined Parliamentary Constituency (PC)‐wise estimates of TB notification to guide political engagement. Methods We extracted district‐level TB notification data from the 2018 annual TB report. We derived PC level estimates by building a ‘cross‐walk’ between dis...
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To achieve Sustainable Development Goal targets related to child health and well-being, it is important to quantify inequalities in the essential child health interventions. We used data of the latest available Demographic and Health Surveys from 65 low-income and middle-income countries between 2005 and 2018. We examined economic-related inequalit...
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Objective To examine the association between social isolation and mortality and incident diseases in middle-aged adults in urban and rural communities from high-income, middle-income and low-income countries. Design Population-based prospective observational study. Setting Urban and rural communities in 20 high income, middle income and low incom...
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Abstract In India, districts serve as central policy unit for program development, administration and implementation. The one-size-fits-all approach based on average prevalence estimates at the district level fails to capture the substantial small area variation. In addition to district average, heterogeneity within districts should be considered i...
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Objective Prevalence of stunting is frequently used as a marker of population-level child undernutrition. Parental height varies widely in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) and is also a major determinant of stunting. While stunting is a useful measure of child health, with multiple causal components, removing the component attributable to pa...
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In India, studies on mobile phone ownership and digital literacy have focused on the gender dimension, perspectives of women and men towards mobile phone use, and socio-economic determinants of ownership. There are no studies with a large sample size that present the variation in mobile phone ownership and ability to read short message services (SM...
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Evidence of an association between psychosocial stress and mortality continues to accumulate. However, despite repeated calls in the literature for further examination into the physiological and behavioral pathways though which stress affects health and mortality, research on this topic remains limited. This study addresses this gap by employing a...