S Stark's research while affiliated with Universität Mannheim and other places

Publication (1)

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Persistent foramen ovale (PFO) is found in 9.2--32% of echocardiographic examinations. The gold standard for the detection of a PFO is transoesophageal echocardiography (TEE) and the mostly used provocation test is the Valsalva manoeuvre. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Valsalva manoeuvre compared to other provocation...


... The Valsalva maneuver has been shown to generate greater pressures in the right atrium relative to other provocative maneuvers and is considered essential to optimize the diagnostic sensitivity for detection of a PFO. 18,40,41 Although effective, the Valsalva maneuver may be difficult to perform for some patients, particularly those who are critically ill, intubated, or undergoing TEE with concomitant sedation. 42 Abdominal compression maneuvers have been developed to circumvent these limitations but are variably performed. ...